Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 932
Filtrar
1.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 38(8): e5928, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38924173

RESUMO

The literature reveals gaps in the availability of green analytical methods for assessing products containing gatifloxacin (GFX), a fluoroquinolone. Presently, method development is supported by tools such as the National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI) and Eco-Scale Assessment (ESA), which offer objective insights into the environmental friendliness of analytical procedures. The objective of this work was to develop and validate a green method by the NEMI and ESA to quantify GFX in eye drops using HPLC. The method utilized a C8 column (4.6 × 150 mm, 5 µm), with a mobile phase of purified water containing 2% acetic acid and ethanol (70:30, v/v). The injection volume was 10 µL and the flow rate was 0.7 mL/min in isocratic mode at 25°C, with detection performed at 292 nm. The method demonstrated linearity in the range of 2-20 µg/mL, and precision at intra-day (relative standard deviation [RSD] 1.44%), inter-day (RSD 3.45%), and inter-analyst (RSD 2.04%) levels. It was selective regarding the adjuvants of the final product (eye drops) and under forced degradation conditions. The method was accurate (recovery 101.07%) and robust. The retention time for GFX was approximately 3.5 min. The greenness of the method, as evaluated by the NEMI, showed four green quadrants, and by ESA, it achieved a score of 88.


Assuntos
Gatifloxacina , Química Verde , Limite de Detecção , Soluções Oftálmicas , Gatifloxacina/análise , Gatifloxacina/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Química Verde/métodos , Modelos Lineares , Soluções Oftálmicas/química , Soluções Oftálmicas/análise , Fluoroquinolonas/análise , Fluoroquinolonas/química
2.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 71(12): 3718-3720, 2023 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37991311

RESUMO

A 55-year-old woman presented with a stromal wooden foreign body (FB) in the left cornea. The deep corneal stroma wooden FB was removed using vitreoretinal FB forceps as a scoop. In this innovative technique, a 26-gauge needle was used to open the track of the wooden FB. The FB was trapped in the concavity of one limb of the vitreoretinal FB forceps. The vitreoretinal forceps were gradually withdrawn and the FB was removed. The patient was treated with gatifloxacin and voriconazole six times, and atropine 1% three times daily. The patient did not develop infiltrate or hypopyon in 2 weeks. After 2 weeks, gatifloxacin and voriconazole were reduced to four times a day; and atropine to two times a day. After 6 weeks topical medication was stopped. The patient achieved a best-corrected visual acuity (OS) of 6/9 at 8 weeks and maintained it through 7 months of follow-up.


Assuntos
Corpos Estranhos no Olho , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gatifloxacina , Voriconazol , Corpos Estranhos no Olho/diagnóstico , Corpos Estranhos no Olho/cirurgia , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos , Derivados da Atropina
3.
Mikrochim Acta ; 190(7): 261, 2023 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37322368

RESUMO

A molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor was designed for the selective determination of gatifloxacin (GTX) based on dual functional monomers. Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) enhanced the current intensity and zeolitic imidazolate framework 8 (ZIF8) provided a large surface area to produce more imprinted cavities. In the electropolymerization of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), p-aminobenzoic acid (p-ABA) and nicotinamide (NA) were used as dual functional monomers, and GTX was the template molecule. Taking [Fe(CN)6]3-/4- as an electrochemical probe, an oxidation peak on the glassy carbon electrode was located at about 0.16 V (vs. saturated calomel electrode). Due to the diverse interactions among p-ABA, NA, and GTX, the MIP-dual sensor exhibited higher specificity towards GTX than MIP-p-ABA and MIP-NA sensors. The sensor had a wide linear range from 1.00 × 10-14 to 1.00 × 10-7 M with a low detection limit of 2.61 × 10-15 M. Satisfactory recovery between 96.5 and 105% with relative standard deviation from 2.4 to 3.7% in real water samples evidenced the potential of the method in antibiotic contaminant determination.


Assuntos
Impressão Molecular , Polímeros , Polímeros/química , Gatifloxacina , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Impressão Molecular/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Polímeros Molecularmente Impressos , Ácido 4-Aminobenzoico
4.
Arch Pharm (Weinheim) ; 356(8): e2300110, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37328442

RESUMO

Four series of novel pyrazole derivatives (compounds 17a-m, 18a-m, 19a-g, and 20a-g) were synthesized, and their antibacterial and antifungal activities were evaluated. Most of the target compounds (17a-m, 18k-m, and 19b-g) showed strong antifungal activity and high selectivity relative to both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Among them, compounds 17l (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] = 0.25 µg/mL) and 17m (MIC = 0.25 µg/mL) showed the strongest antifungal activity, being 2- and 4-fold more active than the positive controls gatifloxacin and fluconazole, respectively. In particular, compound 17l showed little cytotoxicity against human LO2 cells and did not exhibit hemolysis at ultrahigh concentrations, as did the positive control compounds gatifloxacin and fluconazole. These results indicate that these compounds are valuable for further development as antifungal agents.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Tiadiazóis , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Gatifloxacina , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pirazóis/farmacologia
5.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 23(1): 248, 2023 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37268920

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the distribution characteristics of conjunctival sac flora and assess the susceptibility of commonly used topical antimicrobial agents in normal children under the age of 18 in East China. METHODS: In 2019, a study was conducted at Qingdao Eye Hospital of Shandong First Medical University to analyze the microorganism cultures of conjunctival sac in 1258 normal children (2516 eyes; average age, 6.21 ± 3.78 years) in East China. Exclusion criteria included children with ocular surface diseases and those who had used any topical antimicrobial agents recently. The microorganism species in the conjunctival sac were analyzed using the M-38A protocol (microdilution method; investigators read the minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] values) by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute to determine drug susceptibility. RESULTS: The incidence of conjunctival sac microorganism in children was 32.87% (827/2516), a total of 541 cases (male 293, female 248). Children with conjunctival sac flora in a single eye were 255 and in both eyes were 286 (no statistical difference, P > 0.05). The concordance rate of children with binocular conjunctival sac flora was 32.16% (174/541; male 84, female 90). A total of 42 species of bacteria were detected. Children with Gram-positive cocci accounted for the highest proportion, 91.54% (757/827). The top three bacteria with the highest detection rates were Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis; 52.12%), Streptococcus (12.09%), and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus; 10.76%). Streptococcus mitis (5.20%) accounted for the highest proportion of Streptococcus.S. epidermidis had the highest proportion in all age groups and was positively correlated with age (r = 0.89, P = 0.03). Before six years of age, the streptococcal proportion(mainly S. mitis) was greater than that of Staphylococcus aureus. The drug susceptibility analysis showed that S. epidermidis was most sensitive to gatifloxacin (98.61%), while it had the highest resistance rate to erythrocin (87.94%). S. aureus had the highest susceptibility to moxifloxacin (100%). Streptococcus was most sensitive to moxifloxacin (96.97%) and had the highest resistance rate to tobramycin (92.93%). CONCLUSIONS: Conjunctival sac flora in children was dominated by Gram-positive cocci, mainly S. epidermidis, S. aureus, and Streptococcus. S. epidermidis increased with age; the proportion of Streptococcus was higher than S. aureus among children aged 0-6 years. The typical conjunctiva sac flora was generally sensitive to quinolones, such as moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin; Streptococcus displayed high resistance to tobramycin antibiotics; and the female children had higher resistance to tobramycin than the male children.


Assuntos
Aparelho Lacrimal , Staphylococcus aureus , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Gatifloxacina , Moxifloxacina , Túnica Conjuntiva/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Tobramicina , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Streptococcus
6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 245: 125494, 2023 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37348586

RESUMO

The demand for advanced wound care products is rapidly increasing nowadays. In this study, gellan gum/collagen (GG/C) hydrogel films containing gatifloxacin (GAT) were developed to investigate their properties as wound dressing materials. ATR-FTIR, swelling, water content, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), and thermal properties were investigated. The mechanical properties of the materials were tested in dry and wet conditions to understand the performance of the materials after exposure to wound exudate. Drug release by Franz diffusion was measured with all samples showing 100 % cumulative drug release after 40 min. Strong antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis were observed for Gram-positive bacteria, while Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were observed for Gram-negative bacteria. The in-vivo cytotoxicity of GG/C-GAT was assessed by wound contraction in rats, which was 95 % for GG/C-GAT01. Hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining revealed the appearance of fresh full epidermis and granulation tissue, indicating that all wounds had passed through the proliferation phase. The results demonstrate the promising properties of the materials to be used as dressing materials.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Colágeno , Ratos , Animais , Gatifloxacina , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bandagens/microbiologia , Hidrogéis/farmacologia
7.
Chemosphere ; 332: 138838, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37150453

RESUMO

The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) multi-component system containing plasma, α-Fe2O3/FeVO4, and peroxymonosulfate (PMS) with high catalytic activity was successfully constructed. Thereinto, α-Fe2O3/FeVO4 was loaded on the honeycomb ceramic plate (HCP) surface (α-Fe2O3/FeVO4/HCP) and placed under the water surface below the discharge area. The catalytic activity was evaluated by the removal rate of gatifloxacin (GAT), and the DBD+α-Fe2O3/FeVO4+PMS system exhibited the optimal catalytic activity. The enhanced catalytic activity can be attributed to the fact that the occurrence of synergistic catalysis that simultaneously includes plasma oxidation, photocatalysis, PMS oxidation, O3 catalysis, and Fenton reaction. The effect of various initial degradation parameters including input power, PMS dosage, pH, etc. On GAT removal was investigated. DBD+α-Fe2O3/FeVO4+PMS system has a significant increase in the concentration of H2O2 and O3, and the role played in the multi-component system was analyzed. The identification and analysis of organic matters during GAT degradation were visualized with the help of 3D EEMs. HPLC-MS and theoretical calculations identified the major intermediates and further deduced the possible GAT degradation pathways. Additionally, the acute toxicity of the major intermediates was predicted by the QSAR model. Finally, the possible mechanisms of synergistic catalysis to enhance catalytic activity were discussed based on the characteristics of several advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) and the results of experimental and characterization. This work provides a feasible technical route and theoretical basis for wastewater treatment by plasma combined with other AOPs.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Peróxidos , Gatifloxacina , Peróxidos/química , Catálise
8.
Talanta ; 255: 124216, 2023 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587425

RESUMO

The current effort introduces a facile construction of peony-like CuO:Tb3+ nanostructure (P-L CuO:Tb3+ NS), whose characterization was determined via techniques of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. We investigated ofloxacin, pefloxacin and gatifloxacin oxidation electrochemically on P-L CuO:Tb3+ NS-modified glassy carbon electrode (P-L CuO:Tb3+ NS/GCE), the results of which revealed the irreversible oxidation of drugs through a two-electron oxidation process. An admirable resolution was found for this modified electrode between voltammetric peaks of ofloxacin, pefloxacin and gatifloxacin, suggesting its appropriateness for simultaneous detection of these drugs in pharmaceutical media. In addition, our nanostructure synergistically influenced the electro-catalytic oxidations of these three compounds. Differential pulse voltammetric measurements of ofloxacin, pefloxacin and gatifloxacin through our sensor showed a limit of detection of 1.9, 2.3 and 1.2 nM a as well as a linear dynamic range between 0.01 and 800.0 µM in phosphate buffered solution (0.1 M, pH = 6.0), respectively. Moreover, as-fabricated sensor could successfully co-detect these drugs in real serum and tablets specimens. In addition, since we use animal foods such as milk it is very important to detect their fluoroquinolone residues. For this purpose, the proposed sensor was tested to determine the residues of ofloxacin, pefloxacin and gatifloxacin in milk.


Assuntos
Ofloxacino , Pefloxacina , Ofloxacino/química , Gatifloxacina , Cobre/química , Térbio , Óxidos/química , Eletrodos , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos
9.
Eye Contact Lens ; 49(1): 35-41, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36544283

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the safety and efficacy of black tea extract in the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis in a rabbit model and compare it with that of gatifloxacin drops. METHODS: Black tea extract was tested in vitro on bacterial cultures of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Forty-two rabbit eyes were cultured with either MRSA (n=21) or P. aeruginosa (n=21) and further divided into a control group (n=5), a tea group (n=8) treated with black tea extract, and a gatifloxacin group (n=8) treated with 0.3% gatifloxacin eye drops. Conjunctival swabs were collected on the third and fifth days. RESULTS: The tea extract successfully inhibited the growth of both organisms at a concentration of 400 mg/mL. Rabbits in the treatment groups showed a reduction in the clinical index on day 2 (P<0.01), unlike the control group (P=0.1), for both organisms. Resolution of conjunctivitis was achieved on days 4 and 5 in the tea and gatifloxacin groups, respectively. On days 3 and 5, while the control group still showed considerable bacterial growth, the tea and gatifloxacin groups showed its inhibition. CONCLUSION: Tea extract has antimicrobial effects similar to those of gatifloxacin in a rabbit model of conjunctivitis.


Assuntos
Conjuntivite Bacteriana , Conjuntivite , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Animais , Coelhos , Gatifloxacina/farmacologia , Gatifloxacina/uso terapêutico , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapêutico , Conjuntivite Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Conjuntivite/tratamento farmacológico , Chá , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(9): 23553-23567, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327083

RESUMO

In the present study, chitosan (C), walnut (W), and almond shell (A) powder adsorbent (in different combinations as almond shells:walnut:chitosan 2:1:1 (AWC), chitosan:almond shell:walnut 2:1:1 (CAW), and walnut:almond shells:chitosan 2:1:1 (WAC)) powder were combined in different ratios to produce low-cost composite adsorbent beads for the removal of antibiotics gatifloxacin (GAT) from synthetic wastewater. The beads were characterized by a scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectrum spectrophotometer, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The batch adsorption approach was employed to remove the antibiotic from the water. Moreover, isotherm and kinetics were conducted to illustrate the adsorption mechanism. Parameters like the effect of the adsorbent's dosage, pH, initial concentration, and contact time on antibiotic adsorption were evaluated. Adsorption percentage increased slightly with the increase in adsorbent dosage. The optimum pH for GAT adsorption on beads was 5-7. In addition, adsorption increased with initial antibiotic concentration and time rise. The adsorption isotherm data were successfully fitted to Langmuir isotherm for AWC and CAW beads, while WAC beads followed the Freundlich isotherm. The highest adsorption was attained at pH 5 on CAW beads and pH 7 on AWC and WAC beads. The optimal contact time for equilibrium studies was 120 min for all types of beads. The adsorption isotherm data in AWC beads fit well with the Langmuir model and Freundlich adsorption for CAW and WAC beads. The rate of adsorption on beads follows Lagergren pseudo-second-order kinetics. The results indicate that prepared combination beads can be used to remove antibiotics from wastewater.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Juglans , Prunus dulcis , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Antibacterianos , Gatifloxacina , Quitosana/química , Adsorção , Pós , Águas Residuárias , Água/química , Cinética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
11.
Environ Pollut ; 316(Pt 1): 120519, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347415

RESUMO

Agricultural application contributes major consumption of antibiotics worldwide. As veterinary antibiotics are poorly metabolized by animals, most of them end up in agricultural waste, which is increasingly subject to thermal treatment, such as torrefaction, pyrolysis, etc. However, there is a lack of research on their thermal decomposition mechanisms and products elucidation. Therefore, this study investigated the thermal decomposition of four major veterinary antibiotics groups (ß-lactams, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides) with emphasis on their thermal stability, structural transformation and antibacterial activity. Results show that thermal treatment can remove the parent antibiotics with their antibacterial activity except for gatifloxacin (GAT). Although the parent form of GAT was fully removed at 200 °C, its products showed significant antibacterial activity against E. coli. We present novel evidence that the PhO-CH3 chemical bond on GAT preferentially brake to generate methyl radical, which underwent a substitution reaction at the para position of phenol. This reaction also occurred during the thermal decomposition of antibiotic analogues, balofloxacin and moxifloxacin, whose thermolysis products also showed significant antibacterial activity. Furthermore, these thermolysis products may present potentially cardiotoxic and pose higher risks to human health than their parent forms, based on the comparison with a group of drugs withdrawn from the market.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Anti-Infecciosos , Animais , Humanos , Antibacterianos/química , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Tetraciclinas , Gatifloxacina
12.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(12): 4391-4398, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36453351

RESUMO

Purpose: To assess the fluoroquinolone resistance pattern and trends among bacterial isolates from ocular infections over a 16-year period and explore alternative antibiotics in fluoroquinolone-resistant strains. Methods: In this retrospective, longitudinal study, the microbiology laboratory records of patients with different ocular infections diagnosed at an eye institute in central India from 2005-2020 were reviewed to determine the pattern of fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin) resistance. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: In 725 Gram-positive bacteria, the resistance of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin was 55.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 52.2 - 59.6), 42.7% (95% CI: 39.0 - 46.4), 47.6% (95% CI: 43.9 - 51.3), and 45.6% (95% CI: 41.7-49.5), respectively. In 266 Gram-negative bacteria, the resistance of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin was 57.9% (95% CI: 51.9 - 63.9), 56.0% (95% CI: 49.7 - 62.1), 59.9% (95% CI: 53.8 - 66.0), and 74.3% (95% CI: 68.3 - 80.2), respectively. A declining trend in resistance to ciprofloxacin (P < 0.001), ofloxacin (P < 0.001), and moxifloxacin (P < 0.001) was seen in Gram-positive bacteria, whereas a reduction in resistance to only moxifloxacin (P = 0.04) was seen in Gram-negative bacteria. In fluoroquinolone-resistant Gram-positive bacteria, cefuroxime exhibited the highest susceptibility, whereas in fluoroquinolone-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, colistin exhibited the highest susceptibility. Conclusion: Fluoroquinolone resistance was high among bacteria from ocular infections in central India, but a declining trend in resistance to some of the fluoroquinolones was observed in recent times. Cefuroxime and colistin emerged as alternatives in fluoroquinolone-resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial infections, respectively.


Assuntos
Infecções Oculares , Fluoroquinolonas , Humanos , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacologia , Moxifloxacina , Gatifloxacina , Cefuroxima , Colistina , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ciprofloxacina , Ofloxacino , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(38): e30412, 2022 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36197231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the serious epidemics that highly threaten the global public health. To explore the treatment effect of Levofloxacin, Moxifloxacin, and Gatifloxacin contained in the conventional therapy regimen for pulmonary tuberculosis. METHODS: Medline, PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched with the keyword such as "Levofloxacin," "Moxifloxacin," "Gatifloxacin," and "tuberculosis", through June 1992 to 2017. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 2 researchers independently screened the literature, extracted the data, and evaluated the quality of the included studies. The Cochrane system was evaluated by RevMan5.2 and the network meta-analysis was performed by Stata 15. RESULTS: A total of 891 studies were included, with a total of 6565 patients. The results of network meta-analysis showed that Moxifloxacin + conventional therapy (CT) regimen was superior to CT regimen only on the spectrum culture negative. Both Levofloxacin + CT and Moxifloxacin + CT were superior to the CT regimen in treatment success rate. For the adverse events, the Levofloxacin + CT showed much safer results than CT group, while Moxifloxacin + CT had more adverse events than CT group. CONCLUSION: Levofloxacin, Moxifloxacin, and Gatifloxacin have different superiority, comparing to CT regimen in spectrum culture negative, treatment success rate, and adverse events. Hence, combined utilization of these quinolone is important on the clinical treatment for tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Pulmonar , Tuberculose , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Fluoroquinolonas , Gatifloxacina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Levofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Moxifloxacina/uso terapêutico , Metanálise em Rede , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico
14.
BMJ ; 379: e069931, 2022 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36195324

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between initiation of fluoroquinolones and hospital admission or emergency department visit for suicidality. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: IBM MarketScan database, USA. PARTICIPANTS: 2 756 268 adults (≥18 years) who initiated an oral fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gemifloxacin, ofloxacin, gatifloxacin, norfloxacin, lomefloxacin, besifloxacin) or comparator antibiotic (January 2003 to September 2015) and had at least six months of continuous health plan enrollment and a diagnosis of pneumonia or urinary tract infection (UTI) three days or less before the drug initiation date. Comparator antibiotics were azithromycin in the pneumonia cohort and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in the UTI cohort. Participants were matched 1:1 within each cohort on a propensity score, calculated from a multivariable logistic regression model that included 57 baseline covariates. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURE: Primary outcome was hospital admission or emergency department visit for suicidal ideation or self-harm within 60 days after treatment initiation. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: The pneumonia cohort included 551 042 individuals, and the UTI cohort included 2 205 526 individuals. During the 60 day follow-up, 181 events were observed in the pneumonia cohort and 966 in the UTI cohort. The adjusted hazard ratios for fluoroquinolones were 1.01 (95% confidence interval 0.76 to 1.36) versus azithromycin in the pneumonia cohort and 1.03 (0.91 to 1.17) versus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in the UTI cohort. Results were consistent across sensitivity analyses and subgroups of sex, age, or history of mental illnesses. CONCLUSION: Initiation of fluoroquinolones was not associated with a substantially increased risk of admission to hospital or emergency department visits for suicidality compared with azithromycin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.


Assuntos
Suicídio , Infecções Urinárias , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Ciprofloxacina/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapêutico , Gatifloxacina/uso terapêutico , Gemifloxacina , Hospitais , Humanos , Levofloxacino/efeitos adversos , Moxifloxacina/uso terapêutico , Norfloxacino/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ideação Suicida , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Exp Eye Res ; 224: 109213, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36063964

RESUMO

Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) endophthalmitis is a vision-threatening bacterial infection. Uncontrolled inflammatory responses are the hallmark of this disease which cause irreversible damage to the retina. We recently reported C-X-C chemokines as a vital modulators which impacted the pathogenesis of this disease. Here, we investigated the impact of two highly upregulated C-C chemokines, CCL2 and CCL3, on intraocular inflammation this disease. B. cereus was injected into the eyes of C57BL/6J (WT), CCL2-/-, and CCL3-/- mice to induce endophthalmitis. Infected eyes were examined for bacterial growth, retinal function, and inflammation. Bacterial growth in CCL2-/- and CCL3-/- mice were similar, but retained retinal function was greater in CCL2-/- and CCL3-/- eyes compared to that of C57BL/6J eyes. The retinal architecture of infected eyes of CCL2-/- mice were conserved for a longer period of time than in infected CCL3-/- eyes. Infected CCL2-/- and CCL3-/- eyes had less inflammation than did infected C57BL/6J eyes. Based on these results, we assessed the efficacies of intravitreal anti-CCL2 or anti-CCL3 with or without the antibiotic gatifloxacin. Compared to infected untreated eyes, there was significantly less inflammation and greater retention of retinal function in eyes treated with anti-CCL2 or anti-CCL3 with gatifloxacin. This study showed that B. cereus endophthalmitis in CCL2-/- mice had a better clinical outcome than in CCL3-/- mice. Intravitreal administration of anti-CCL2 and anti-CCL3 with gatifloxacin significantly reduced inflammation and provided protection of retinal function. These results suggest that CCL2 and CCL3 are prospective anti-inflammatory targets that should be tested along with other antibiotics for treating Bacillus and perhaps other forms of endophthalmitis.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Quimiocina CCL2 , Endoftalmite , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas , Uveíte , Animais , Camundongos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacillus cereus , Quimiocina CCL3/genética , Eletrorretinografia , Endoftalmite/tratamento farmacológico , Endoftalmite/microbiologia , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/microbiologia , Gatifloxacina/uso terapêutico , Inflamação , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Quimiocina CCL2/genética
16.
Helicobacter ; 27(5): e12920, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resistance of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) to antibiotics is an evolving and dynamic process. Presence of antibiotic resistance impacts the success rate of initial eradication strategies in the clinic. AIM: To improve the success rate of initial eradication therapy and explore new antibiotic regimens, a large sample-based study utilizing antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed. A total of 2508 H. pylori strains from patients subjected to initial eradication therapy were isolated, cultured, and tested for drug susceptibility from 2017 to 2021. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was recorded. H. pylori susceptibility profiles and its change trends from initial eradication patients were analyzed. The relationships between drug resistance, year of sample collection, age, and sex of patients were analyzed. RESULTS: The overall resistance rates were as follows: amoxicillin (9.25%), clarithromycin (38.48%), levofloxacin (42.86%), furazolidone (11.28%), doxycycline (8.56%), rifampicin (10.81%), tinidazole (74.32%), gatifloxacin (61.71%), tetracycline (0%), metronidazole (78.71%), ornidazole (97.87%), and fosfomycin (31.67%). Only 38.04% of the strains were pansusceptible to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, and furazolidone, followed by those of mono resistance (29.90%), double resistance (24.96%), triple resistance (6.34%), and quadruple resistance (0.76%). Significant differences in the resistance rate and MIC were also observed in different age and sex groups. Time of collection and patient age and sex were associated with the distribution of antibiotic resistance. CONCLUSION: With the increasing resistance rate and multiple resistance of H. pylori to commonly used antibiotics, drug susceptibility testing is imperative to permit individualized therapy, and a regimen containing the combination of amoxicillin, furazolidone, tetracycline, doxycycline, or rifampicin is reasonable for initial empirical eradication therapy.


Assuntos
Fosfomicina , Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Ornidazol , Amoxicilina/farmacologia , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Claritromicina/uso terapêutico , Doxiciclina/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Fosfomicina/uso terapêutico , Furazolidona/uso terapêutico , Gatifloxacina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Humanos , Levofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Ornidazol/uso terapêutico , Rifampina , Tinidazol/uso terapêutico
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 850: 157929, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35952894

RESUMO

The impact of antibiotics on denitrification in the ecological environment has attracted widespread attention. However, the concentration threshold and inhibitory effect of the same antibiotic on denitrification mediated by mixed denitrifying microbes were conflicting in some studies. In this study, Paracoccus denitrificans, Acidovorax sp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were selected as representative denitrifying bacterial strains to explore the response of a single strain to gatifloxacin (GAT) exposure in groundwater denitrification. The results showed that the nitrate and nitrite removal efficiencies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa decreased by 34.87-36.25 % and 18.27-23.31 %, respectively, with exposure to 10 µg/L GAT, accompanied by a significant decline in denitrifying enzyme activity and gene expression. In contrast, the elevated denitrifying enzyme activity and gene expression of Paracoccus denitrificans promoted its nitrate and nitrite reduction by 2.09-10.00 % and 0-8.44 %, respectively. Additionally, there were no obvious effects on the removal of nitrate and nitrite by Acidovorax sp. in the presence of 10 µg/L GAT, which was consistent with the variation in denitrifying enzyme activity and total gene expression levels. The fit results of the Monod equation and its modification further elucidated the nitrate degradation characteristics from the perspective of denitrification kinetics. Furthermore, antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) analysis showed that the addition of 10 µg/L GAT (approximately 30 days) did not observably increase the relative abundance of ARGs. This study provides some preliminary understanding of the response differences of representative denitrifying bacterial strains to antibiotic exposure in groundwater denitrification.


Assuntos
Comamonadaceae , Água Subterrânea , Paracoccus denitrificans , Antibacterianos/análise , Desnitrificação , Gatifloxacina/farmacologia , Água Subterrânea/microbiologia , Nitratos/análise , Nitritos/análise
18.
J AOAC Int ; 105(6): 1548-1554, 2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35861368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gatifloxacin (GAT), an antimicrobial of the fourth generation of fluoroquinolones, has a broad spectrum of action with activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative, aerobic and anaerobic organisms, including mycobacteria. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to discuss about (i) characteristics, (ii) properties, and (iii) analytical methods of gatifloxacin. RESULTS: Among the methods described in the literature for the evaluation of GAT, the most frequent was HPLC (50%) for both the analysis of pharmaceutical and biological matrixes. GAT has no monograph described in official compendia. Methods for evaluating GAT in pharmaceutical matrixes were the most found in the literature, 79%. Acetonitrile (42%), methanol (20%), and buffer solution (16%) were the most used diluents. GAT, being an antimicrobial, must be analyzed by physical-chemical and microbiological methods, since the evaluation of potency is essential. In this context, the literature is scarce (4%). CONCLUSIONS: There is a gap in the literature for environmentally friendly methods for evaluating GAT. Faster, more optimized and dynamic microbiological methods, as well as physicochemical methods, use less aggressive solvents with fewer steps and less waste. Currently, pharmaceutical analyses require reliable analytical methods, but also safe for both the analyst and the environment. HIGHLIGHTS: This review shows the status of analytical methods, both physicochemical and microbiological, for the analysis of GAT in pharmaceutical and biological matrixes, also addressing its context in green and sustainable analytical chemistry.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Metanol , Gatifloxacina , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fluoroquinolonas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Acetonitrilas , Solventes , Preparações Farmacêuticas
19.
Chemosphere ; 307(Pt 1): 135619, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35835247

RESUMO

A series of Ca-doped bismuth ferrite was prepared at various %w/w of Ca via a facile hydrothermal method to obtain Bi2XCa2(1-X)Fe4O9 (denoted as BFOCa-X, where X = 1, 0.95, 0.90, 0.80, 0.50). The BFOCa-X catalysts were characterized, and the results showed that they consist of pure phase BFO with nanosheet-like morphology. The as-prepared BFOCa-X catalysts were used as peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activator for gatifloxacin (GAT) removal. It was found that the catalytic activity decreased in the following order: BFOCa-0.8 (90.2% GAT removal efficiency in 45 min, kapp = 0.084 min-1)>BFOCa-0.95 > BFOCa-0.9 > BFOCa-0.5 > BFO indicating that BFOCa-0.8 has the optimized active sites for catalysis. The Ca dopant contributed to the increased oxygen vacancies and surface hydroxyl groups, promoting the catalytic PMS activation process. The kapp value increased gradually with increasing catalyst loading and PMS dosage while pH 9 presented the highest GAT removal rate. The GAT degradation rate was inhibited by PO43-, humic acid and NH4+ but promoted in the presence of Cl-, NO3- and HCO3-. It was also found that the GAT can undergo several degradation pathways in the catalytic PMS system, which eventually mineralized into innocuous compounds. The dominant reactive oxygen species (ROS) were identified using chemical scavengers, revealing that SO4•-, 1O2 and •OH contributed significantly to GAT degradation. Based on the XPS study, PMS was activated by the Fe2+/Fe3+ redox cycling and oxygen vacancies to produce SO4•-/•OH and 1O2, respectively. Overall, the BFOCa-0.8 also showed excellent reusability up to at least 4 cycles with low Bi and Fe leaching (<7 and 62 µg L-1, respectively), indicating that it has promising potential for application as PMS activator for antibiotics removal.


Assuntos
Bismuto , Substâncias Húmicas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Gatifloxacina , Oxigênio , Peróxidos/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 240: 113711, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35653971

RESUMO

The novel fourth-generation fluoroquinolones (FQs) were developed to improve the antimicrobial activity and their utilization has rapidly increased in recent years. However, knowledge of the ecotoxicity and microalgae-mediated biodegradation of these novel FQs is limited. In this research, the toxic effects of moxifloxacin (MOX) and gatifloxacin (GAT) on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as well as their biodegradation and metabolic fate were investigated. The results showed that the toxicity of MOX to C. reinhardtii was higher than that of GAT, and increased with culture time. Chlorophyll fluorescence and pigment content analyses suggested that the decrease in photosynthetic efficiency was primarily caused by the inhibition of electron transport after QA in PSII complex. These FQs induced oxidative damage in cells, and the antioxidation mechanisms of C. reinhardtii were analyzed. The maximum MOX removal of 77.67% by C. reinhardtii was achieved at 1 mg/L MOX, whereas the maximum GAT removal of 34.04% was attained at 20 mg/L GAT. The different hydrophilicity and lipophilicity of these FQs resulted in distinct findings in biodegradation experiments. Identification of the transformation products suggested that the likely biodegradation pathways of FQs by C. reinhardtii were hydroxylation, demethylation, and ring cleavage.


Assuntos
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , Biodegradação Ambiental , Fluoroquinolonas/metabolismo , Fluoroquinolonas/toxicidade , Gatifloxacina/farmacologia , Moxifloxacina/metabolismo , Moxifloxacina/farmacologia , Fotossíntese
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...