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1.
BMC Genomics ; 24(1): 17, 2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36639739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcriptional enhancers are essential for gene regulation, but how these regulatory elements are best defined remains a significant unresolved question. Traditional definitions rely on activity-based criteria such as reporter gene assays, while more recently, biochemical assays based on chromatin-level phenomena such as chromatin accessibility, histone modifications, and localized RNA transcription have gained prominence. RESULTS: We examine here whether these two types of definitions, activity-based and chromatin-based, effectively identify the same sets of sequences. We find that, concerningly, the overlap between the two groups is strikingly limited. Few of the data sets we compared displayed statistically significant overlap, and even for those, the degree of overlap was typically small (below 40% of sequences). Moreover, a substantial batch effect was observed in which experiment set rather than experimental method was a primary driver of whether or not chromatin-defined enhancers showed a strong overlap with reporter gene-defined enhancers. CONCLUSIONS: Our results raise important questions as to the appropriateness of both old and new enhancer definitions, and suggest that new approaches are required to reconcile the poor agreement among existing methods for defining enhancers.


Assuntos
Cromatina , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Cromatina/genética , Genes Reporter , Cromossomos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674653

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine if methanolic extracts of Pulsatilla vulgaris Mill. can inhibit HeLa cell proliferation through the modulation of cancer-related signaling pathways. The cytotoxicity and chemical composition of P. vulgaris leaves and root extracts were also determined. Research showed that root extract of P. vulgaris inhibited 12 signaling pathways in a cervical cancer cell line and the most potent activation inhibition was observed for MYC, Notch, Wnt, E2F, Ets, Stat3, Smad, Hdghog, AP-1, and NF-κB, at a concentration of 40 µg/mL. The methanolic extracts of P. vulgaris enhanced apoptotic death and deregulated cellular proliferation, differentiation, and progression toward the neoplastic phenotype by altering key signaling molecules required for cell cycle progression. This is the first study to report the influence of P. vulgaris on cancer signaling pathways. Additionally, our detailed phytochemical analysis of the methanolic extracts of P. vulgaris gives a conclusion that compounds, which strongly suppressed the growth and proliferation of HeLa cancer cells were mainly triterpenoid saponins accompanied by phenolic acids.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Pulsatilla , Humanos , Células HeLa , Genes Reporter , Transdução de Sinais , Proliferação de Células , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Apoptose
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 250: 114478, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36586167

RESUMO

The widespread high concentrations of benzotriazole ultraviolet stabilizers (BUVSs) in many biotic and abiotic samples have raised urgent concerns of their adverse effects on environmental and human health. In this study, we investigated the toxicity of three typical BUVSs (UV-328, UV-329, UV-P) with HepG2 cells in vitro. Results indicated that the three BUVSs showed weak cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells at concentrations lower than 50 µM. Transcriptional analysis indicated that the toxic effects of the three chemicals followed the order of UV-P > UV-329 > UV-328. UV-P and UV-329 may act as potential environmental diabetogens by significantly enriching several diabetic related items in both GO and KEGG analysis. Moreover, UV-P and UV-329 significantly upregulated the expression of AHR target genes (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, UGT1A1, etc.), and increased the ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and exhibited agonistic activity toward AHR in the XRE-mediated luciferase reporter gene assay. Molecular docking assay also indicated that UV-329 and UV-P had higher binding affinities to AHR-LBD than UV-328. In brief, our findings indicated that UV-P and UV-329 were potential agonist of AHR ligand, and may exert more toxicity than UV-328 in inducing liver toxicity.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1 , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico , Triazóis , Humanos , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Genes Reporter , Células Hep G2 , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/agonistas , Triazóis/toxicidade
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2595: 185-201, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36441463

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRs) are small non-coding RNAs of 21-24 nucleotides in length that modulate gene expression by targeting the untranslated region (UTR) of mRNA. Single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in primary miRs (pri-miRs), precursor miRs (pre-miRs), promoters of pri-miRs, and seed regions can affect miR stability or processing, may influence mature miR expression, and can affect target gene identification, respectively. The present protocol tests the binding and activity of miRs on 3'-UTR target sequences based on the expression of luciferase as a reporter gene fused to the UTR sequence in the presence of plasmids containing pre-miR of interest to test in vitro cell culture assay.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , MicroRNAs/genética , Genes Reporter , Bioensaio , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Nucleotídeos
5.
RNA Biol ; 20(1): 20-30, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36573793

RESUMO

A growing body of evidence suggests that RNA interference (RNAi) plays a pivotal role in the communication between plants and pathogenic fungi, where a bi-directional trans-kingdom RNAi is established to the advantage of either the host or the pathogen. Similar mechanisms acting during plant association with non-pathogenic symbiotic microorganisms have been elusive to this date. To determine whether root endophytes can induce systemic RNAi responses to their host plants, we designed an experimental reporter-based system consisting of the root-restricted, beneficial fungal endophyte, Fusarium solani strain K (FsK) and its host Nicotiana benthamiana. Since not all fungi encode the RNAi machinery, we first needed to validate that FsK does so, by identifying its core RNAi enzymes (2 Dicer-like genes, 2 Argonautes and 4 RNA-dependent RNA polymerases) and by showing its susceptibility to in vitro RNAi upon exogenous application of double stranded RNAs (dsRNAs). Upon establishing this, we transformed FsK with a hairpin RNA (hpRNA) construct designed to target a reporter gene in its host N. benthamiana. The hpRNA was processed by FsK RNAi machinery predominantly into 21-24-nt small RNAs that triggered RNA silencing but not DNA methylation in the fungal hyphae. Importantly, when the hpRNA-expressing FsK was used to inoculate N. benthamiana, systemic RNA silencing and DNA methylation of the host reporter gene was recorded. Our data suggest that RNAi signals can be translocated by root endophytes to their hosts and can modulate gene expression during mutualism, which may be translated to beneficial phenotypes.


Assuntos
Endófitos , RNA de Cadeia Dupla , Interferência de RNA , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/metabolismo , Genes Reporter , Metilação de DNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(23)2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36499386

RESUMO

The regulation of translation by RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) composed of Argonaute proteins and micro-RNAs is well established; however, the mechanisms underlying specific cellular responses to miRNAs and how specific complexes arise are not completely clear. To explore these questions, we performed experiments with Renilla and firefly luciferase reporter genes transfected in a psiCHECK-2 plasmid into human HCT116 or Me45 cells, where only the Renilla gene contained sequences targeted by microRNAs (miRNAs) in the 3'UTR. The effects of targeting were miRNA-specific; miRNA-21-5p caused strong inhibition of translation, whereas miRNA-24-3p or Let-7 family caused no change or an increase in reporter Renilla luciferase synthesis. The mRNA-protein complexes formed by transcripts regulated by different miRNAs differed from each other and were different in different cell types, as shown by sucrose gradient centrifugation. Unexpectedly, the presence of miRNA targets on Renilla transcripts also affected the expression of the co-transfected but non-targeted firefly luciferase gene in both cell types. Renilla and firefly transcripts were found in the same sucrose gradient fractions and specific anti-miRNA oligoribonucleotides, which influenced the expression of the Renilla gene, and also influenced that of firefly gene. These results suggest that, in addition to targeted transcripts, miRNAs may also modulate the expression of non-targeted transcripts, and using the latter to normalize the results may cause bias. We discuss some hypothetical mechanisms which could explain the observed miRNA-induced effects.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Genes Reporter , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Complexo de Inativação Induzido por RNA/genética , Luciferases de Vaga-Lume/genética , Luciferases de Vaga-Lume/metabolismo , Sacarose
8.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 193(Pt 2): 610-619, 2022 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368569

RESUMO

Cells are often exposed to exogenous and endogenous redox disturbances and exert their protective mechanisms in response to stimuli. The KEAP1-NRF2 system plays pivotal roles in counteracting oxidative damage. Due to the transient nature of NRF2 activation, the identification of cells in which NRF2 is activated in response to systemic stimuli is sometimes not easy. To examine the electrophilic stress response at a single-cell resolution, we aimed to develop a new reporter mouse in this study. A cell-tracing strategy exploiting Cre recombinase-mediated activation of a reporter gene was chosen for stable detection of reporter expression instead of real-time monitoring of the cellular response. We established a transgenic mouse line expressing the Neh2-Cre recombinase fusion protein. As Neh2 is an amino-terminal domain of NRF2 that serves as a degron and mediates KEAP1-dependent degradation and electrophile-inducible stabilization, Neh2-Cre was expected to be activated in response to electrophiles. The Neh2-Cre transgenic mouse was crossed with the ROSA26-loxP-stop-loxP-tdTomato reporter mouse (ROSA-LSL-tdTomato mouse). The compound mutant reporter mice exhibited accumulation of tdTomato-positive cells in various organs after repeated administration of CDDO-Im, one of the NRF2-inducing electrophiles. The mice were also successfully used for the detection of cells that experienced a cisplatin-induced electrophilic stress response.


Assuntos
Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Camundongos , Animais , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/genética , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Genes Reporter , Camundongos Transgênicos
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430341

RESUMO

Tumor suppressor protein P53 induces cycle arrest and apoptosis by mediating the transcriptional expression of its target genes. Mutations causing conformational abnormalities and post-translational modifications that promote degradation are the main reasons for the loss of P53 function in tumor cells. Reporter gene assays that can scientifically reflect the biological function can help discover the mechanism and therapeutic strategies that restore P53 function. In the reporter gene system of this work, tetracycline-inducible expression of wild-type P53 was used to provide a fully activated state as a 100% activity reference for the objective measurement of biological function. It was confirmed by RT-qPCR, cell viability assay, immunofluorescence, and Western blot analysis that the above-mentioned reporter gene system could correctly reflect the differences in biological activity between the wild-type and mutants. After that, the system was tentatively used for related mechanism research and compound activity evaluation. Through the tetracycline-induced co-expression of wild-type P53 and mutant P53 in exact proportion, it was observed that the response modes of typical transcriptional response elements (TREs) to dominant negative P53 mutation effect were not exactly the same. Compared to the relative multiple-to-solvent control, the activity percentage relative to the 100% activity reference of wild-type P53 can better reflect the actual influence of the so-called P53 mutant reactivator. Similarly, relative to the 100% activity reference, it can objectively reflect the biological effects caused by the inhibitor of P53 negative factors, such as MDM2. In conclusion, this study provides a 100% activity reference and a reliable calculation model for relevant basic research and drug development.


Assuntos
Elementos de Resposta , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53 , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Genes Reporter , Mutação , Tetraciclinas
10.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7028, 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36396643

RESUMO

The progressive decline of physiological function and the increased risk of age-related diseases challenge healthy aging. Multiple anti-aging manipulations, such as senolytics, have proven beneficial for health; however, the biomarkers that label in vivo senescence at systemic levels are lacking, thus hindering anti-aging applications. In this study, we generate a Glb1+/m‒Glb1-2A-mCherry (GAC) reporter allele at the Glb1 gene locus, which encodes lysosomal ß-galactosidase-an enzyme elevated in tissues of old mice. A linear correlation between GAC signal and chronological age is established in a cohort of middle-aged (9 to 13 months) Glb1+/m mice. The high GAC signal is closely associated with cardiac hypertrophy and a shortened lifespan. Moreover, the GAC signal is exponentially increased in pathological senescence induced by bleomycin in the lung. Senolytic dasatinib and quercetin (D + Q) reduce GAC signal in bleomycin treated mice. Thus, the Glb1-2A-mCherry reporter mice monitors systemic aging and function decline, predicts lifespan, and may facilitate the understanding of aging mechanisms and help in the development of anti-aging interventions.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular , Longevidade , Animais , Camundongos , Envelhecimento/genética , Bleomicina , Dasatinibe/farmacologia , Longevidade/genética , Genes Reporter , Glicosídeo Hidrolases
11.
Mol Cancer ; 21(1): 191, 2022 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36192757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In vivo gene editing of somatic cells with CRISPR nucleases has facilitated the generation of autochthonous mouse tumors, which are initiated by genetic alterations relevant to the human disease and progress along a natural timeline as in patients. However, the long and variable, orthotopic tumor growth in inner organs requires sophisticated, time-consuming and resource-intensive imaging for longitudinal disease monitoring and impedes the use of autochthonous tumor models for preclinical studies. METHODS: To facilitate a more widespread use, we have generated a reporter mouse that expresses a Cre-inducible luciferase from Gaussia princeps (GLuc), which is secreted by cells in an energy-consuming process and can be measured quantitatively in the blood as a marker for the viable tumor load. In addition, we have developed a flexible, complementary toolkit to rapidly assemble recombinant adenoviruses (AVs) for delivering Cre recombinase together with CRISPR nucleases targeting cancer driver genes. RESULTS: We demonstrate that intratracheal infection of GLuc reporter mice with CRISPR-AVs efficiently induces lung tumors driven by mutations in the targeted cancer genes and simultaneously activates the GLuc transgene, resulting in GLuc secretion into the blood by the growing tumor. GLuc blood levels are easily and robustly quantified in small-volume blood samples with inexpensive equipment, enable tumor detection already several months before the humane study endpoint and precisely mirror the kinetics of tumor development specified by the inducing gene combination. CONCLUSIONS: Our study establishes blood-based GLuc monitoring as an inexpensive, rapid, high-throughput and animal-friendly method to longitudinally monitor autochthonous tumor growth in preclinical studies.


Assuntos
Copépodes , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Animais , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Copépodes/genética , Copépodes/metabolismo , Edição de Genes , Genes Reporter , Humanos , Luciferases/genética , Luciferases/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Camundongos
12.
Anal Chem ; 94(44): 15525-15533, 2022 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36310422

RESUMO

As a strategy that induces gene silencing by the delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting a specific gene locus into cells or tissues, RNA interference (RNAi) technology holds the potential to be a powerful tool in a range of intractable disorder therapeutics. However, reliable noninvasive probes for visualizing the siRNA delivery and silencing efficiency have become a major obstacle in siRNA-based treatment. Here, we describe the development of an RNA-binding protein Pumilio/FBF (PUF)-based reporter probe for the monitoring of siRNA delivery efficiency and functional screening of effective siRNA target sites in vivo. This reporter consisted of a Firefly luciferase (Fluc) gene whose expression is regulated by the unique interaction architecture of the PUF protein with its Nanos response element (NRE) target RNA. We showed that a robust and rapid increase in the luminescence signal was detected by the successful delivery of siRNA against the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) or p53 genes into mammalian cells or the livers of mice. The delivery efficiencies of various commercial transfection vehicles were quantitatively evaluated with this reporter. In addition, we also employed in vivo bioluminescence imaging to screen and identify the most potent siRNA targeting p53. Our study indicates that the positive-readout reporter represents a promising indicator for siRNA optimization and visualization, advancing the development of siRNA therapeutic products.


Assuntos
Inativação Gênica , Mamíferos , Camundongos , Animais , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Genes Reporter/genética , Transfecção
13.
Science ; 378(6616): 192-201, 2022 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36227993

RESUMO

We engineered an ultrasensitive reporter of p16INK4a, a biomarker of cellular senescence. Our reporter detected p16INK4a-expressing fibroblasts with certain senescent characteristics that appeared shortly after birth in the basement membrane adjacent to epithelial stem cells in the lung. Furthermore, these p16INK4a+ fibroblasts had enhanced capacity to sense tissue inflammation and respond through their increased secretory capacity to promote epithelial regeneration. In addition, p16INK4a expression was required in fibroblasts to enhance epithelial regeneration. This study highlights a role for p16INK4a+ fibroblasts as tissue-resident sentinels in the stem cell niche that monitor barrier integrity and rapidly respond to inflammation to promote tissue regeneration.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina , Células Epiteliais , Fibroblastos , Genes Reporter , Pulmão , Regeneração , Nicho de Células-Tronco , Humanos , Membrana Basal/citologia , Membrana Basal/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Senescência Celular/genética , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/fisiologia , Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Nicho de Células-Tronco/fisiologia
14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2544: 15-49, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36125708

RESUMO

In this chapter, we describe a protocol for differentiation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) and their transduction with a lentivirus for gene transfer. Here, we engineer them to express the human sodium iodide symporter, which can be exploited as a radionuclide reporter gene, thereby enabling these cells to be tracked in vivo by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Differentiation of HLCs from iPSCs involves three steps: induction of iPSCs to definitive endoderm, differentiation to a hepatic progenitor cell population, and maturation of immature HLCs. Once proliferation of hepatic progenitors has ceased and an immature HLC population is generated, lentiviral transduction can be performed. The immature hepatic gene expression profile/morphology at the stage of transduction will be compatible with further maturation following transgene expression either in vitro or in vivo, with expression of the transgene retained. We detail how transgenic cells can be imaged in vivo. While we provide a protocol for the NIS reporter gene, the cell engineering aspects of this protocol are transferable for use with other (reporter) genes if desired.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Diferenciação Celular , Genes Reporter , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Fígado
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(40): e2201460119, 2022 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36161895

RESUMO

Fusobacterium nucleatum, long known as a common oral microbe, has recently garnered attention for its ability to colonize tissues and tumors elsewhere in the human body. Clinical and epidemiological research has now firmly established F. nucleatum as an oncomicrobe associated with several major cancer types. However, with the current research focus on host associations, little is known about gene regulation in F. nucleatum itself, including global stress-response pathways that typically ensure the survival of bacteria outside their primary niche. This is due to the phylogenetic distance of Fusobacteriota to most model bacteria, their limited genetic tractability, and paucity of known gene functions. Here, we characterize a global transcriptional stress-response network governed by the extracytoplasmic function sigma factor, σE. To this aim, we developed several genetic tools for this anaerobic bacterium, including four different fluorescent marker proteins, inducible gene expression, scarless gene deletion, and transcriptional and translational reporter systems. Using these tools, we identified a σE response partly reminiscent of phylogenetically distant Proteobacteria but induced by exposure to oxygen. Although F. nucleatum lacks canonical RNA chaperones, such as Hfq, we uncovered conservation of the noncoding arm of the σE response in form of the noncoding RNA FoxI. This regulatory small RNA acts as an mRNA repressor of several membrane proteins, thereby supporting the function of σE. In addition to the characterization of a global stress response in F. nucleatum, the genetic tools developed here will enable further discoveries and dissection of regulatory networks in this early-branching bacterium.


Assuntos
Fusobacterium nucleatum , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Fator sigma , Estresse Fisiológico , Fusobacterium nucleatum/classificação , Fusobacterium nucleatum/genética , Fusobacterium nucleatum/fisiologia , Genes Reporter , Fator Proteico 1 do Hospedeiro/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Oxigênio , Filogenia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fator sigma/genética , Fator sigma/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
16.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36146676

RESUMO

Highly pathogenic Arenaviruses, like the Lassa Virus (LASV), pose a serious public health threat in affected countries. Research and development of vaccines and therapeutics are urgently needed but hampered by the necessity to handle these pathogens under biosafety level 4 conditions. These containment restrictions make large-scale screens of antiviral compounds difficult. Therefore, the Mopeia virus (MOPV), closely related to LASV, is often used as an apathogenic surrogate virus. We established for the first time trisegmented MOPVs (r3MOPV) with duplicated S segments, in which one of the viral genes was replaced by the reporter genes ZsGreen (ZsG) or Renilla Luciferase (Rluc), respectively. In vitro characterization of the two trisegmented viruses (r3MOPV ZsG/Rluc and r3MOPV Rluc/ZsG), showed comparable growth behavior to the wild type virus and the expression of the reporter genes correlated well with viral titer. We used the reporter viruses in a proof-of-principle in vitro study to evaluate the antiviral activity of two well characterized drugs. IC50 values obtained by Rluc measurement were similar to those obtained by virus titers. ZsG expression was also suitable to evaluate antiviral effects. The trisegmented MOPVs described here provide a versatile and valuable basis for rapid high throughput screening of broadly reactive antiviral compounds against arenaviruses under BSL-2 conditions.


Assuntos
Arenaviridae , Orthopoxvirus , Antivirais/farmacologia , Arenaviridae/genética , Genes Reporter , Vírus Lassa , Luciferases de Renilla/genética , Orthopoxvirus/genética , Pesquisa
17.
Stem Cell Reports ; 17(10): 2365-2379, 2022 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36150384

RESUMO

Generation of serotonin neurons (SNs) from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) provides a promising platform to explore the mechanisms of serotonin-associated neuropsychiatric disorders. However, neural differentiation always yields heterogeneous cell populations, making it difficult to identify and purify SNs in vitro or track them in vivo following transplantation. Herein, we generated a TPH2-EGFP reporter hPSC line with insertion of EGFP into the endogenous tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) locus using CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene editing technology. This TPH2-reporter, which faithfully indicated TPH2 expression during differentiation, enabled us to obtain purified SNs for subsequent transcriptional analysis and study of pharmacological responses to antidepressants. In addition, the reporter system showed strong EGFP expression to indicate SNs, which enabled us to explore in vitro and ex vivo electrophysiological properties of SNs. In conclusion, this TPH2-EGFP reporter cell line might be of great significance for studies on human SN-related development and differentiation, drug screening, disease modeling, and cell replacement therapies.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes , Serotonina , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular , Genes Reporter , Humanos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Triptofano Hidroxilase/genética , Triptofano Hidroxilase/metabolismo
18.
Antiviral Res ; 207: 105421, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36150523

RESUMO

Orthobunyaviruses have been reported to cause severe diseases in humans or animals, posing a potential threat to human health and socio-economy. Ebinur lake virus (EBIV) is a newly classified orthobunyavirus, which can induce the histopathogenic change and even the high mortality of infected BALB/c mice. Therefore, it is needed to further study the viral replication and pathogenesis, and develop the therapies to cope with its potential infection to human or animals. Here, through the reverse genetics system, the recombinant EBIV of wild type (rEBIV/WT) and NP-conjugated-eGFP (rEBIV/eGFP/S) were rescued for the application of the high-content screening (HCS) of antiviral drug. The eGFP fluorescence signal of the rEBIV/eGFP/S was stable in the process of successive passage in BHK-21 cells (over 10 passages) and this recombinant virus could replicate in various cell lines. Compared to the wild type EBIV, the rEBIV/eGFP/S caused the smaller plaques (diameter around 1 mm on 3 dpi) and lower peak titers (105 PFU/mL), suggesting attenuation due to the eGFP insertion. Through the high-content screening (HCS) system, two antiviral compounds, ribavirin and favipiravir, which previously reported to have effect to some bunyavirus were tested firstly. Ribavirin showed an inhibitory effect on the rEBIV/eGFP/S (EC50 = 14.38 µM) as our expect, while favipiravir with no inhibitory effect even using high doses. Furthermore, Tyrphostin A9 (EC50 = 0.72 µM for rEBIV/eGFP/S, EC50 = 0.05 µM for EBIV-WT) and UNC0638 (EC50 = 1.26 µM for rEBIV/eGFP/S, EC50 = 1.10 µM for rEBIV/eGFP/S) were identified with strong antiviral effect against EBIV in vitro from 150 antiviral compounds. In addition, the time-of-addition assay indicated that Tyrphostin A9 worked in the stage of viral post-infection, and the UNC0638 in all pre-, co-, and post-infection stages. This robust reverse genetics system will facilitate the investigation into the studying of viral replication and assembly mechanisms, and the development of drug and vaccine for EBIV in the future.


Assuntos
Orthobunyavirus , Amidas , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Genes Reporter , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Pirazinas , Ribavirina/farmacologia , Tirfostinas , Replicação Viral
19.
Sci Adv ; 8(39): eabo2954, 2022 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36170360

RESUMO

We report on the successful delivery of the Cre recombinase enzyme in the neural cells of mice in vivo by simple coinjection with peptides derived from HIV-TAT. Cre delivery activates the expression of a reporter gene in both neurons and astrocytes of the cortex without tissue damage and with a transduction efficiency that parallels or exceeds that of a commonly used adeno-associated virus. Our data indicate that the delivery peptides mediate efficient endosomal leakage and cytosolic escape in cells that have endocytosed Cre. The peptides, therefore, act in trans and do not require conjugation to the payload, greatly simplifying sample preparation. Moreover, the delivery peptides are exclusively composed of natural amino acids and are consequently readily degradable and processed by cells. We envision that this approach will be beneficial to applications that require the transient introduction of proteins into cells in vivo.


Assuntos
Dependovirus , Peptídeos , Aminoácidos , Animais , Sistema Nervoso Central , Dependovirus/genética , Genes Reporter , Camundongos , Peptídeos/química
20.
J Toxicol Sci ; 47(9): 359-373, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36047110

RESUMO

Hepatotoxicity is one of the most common toxicities observed in non-clinical safety studies of drug candidates, and it is important to understand the hepatotoxicity mechanism to assess the risk of drug-induced liver injury in humans. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of hepatotoxicity caused by 2-[2-Methyl-1-(oxan-4-yl)-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl]-1,3-benzoxazole (DSP-0640), a drug candidate that showed hepatotoxicity characterized by centrilobular hypertrophy and vacuolation of hepatocytes in a 4-week oral repeated-dose toxicity study in male rats. In the liver of rats treated with DSP-0640, the expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) target genes, including Cyp1a1, was upregulated. In in vitro reporter assays, however, DSP-0640 showed only minimal AHR-activating potency. Therefore, we investigated the possibility that DSP-0640 indirectly activated AHR by inhibiting the CYP1 enzyme-dependent clearance of endogenous AHR agonists. In in vitro assays, DSP-0640 showed inhibitory effects on both rat and human CYP1A1 and enhanced rat and human AHR-mediated reporter gene expression induced by 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole, a well-known endogenous AHR agonist. The possible involvement of CYP1A1 inhibition in AHR activation was also demonstrated with other hepatotoxic compounds tacrine and albendazole. These results suggest that CYP1A1 inhibition-mediated AHR activation is involved in the hepatotoxicity caused by DSP-0640 and that DSP-0640 might induce hepatotoxicity in humans as well. We propose that CYP1A1 inhibition-mediated AHR activation is a novel mechanism for drug-induced hepatotoxicity.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1 , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Genes Reporter , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Ratos , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo
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