Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 208
Filtrar
1.
Evolution ; 75(6): 1316-1333, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33885152

RESUMO

Every species experiences limits to its geographic distribution. Some evolutionary models predict that populations at range edges are less well adapted to their local environments due to drift, expansion load, or swamping gene flow from the range interior. Alternatively, populations near range edges might be uniquely adapted to marginal environments. In this study, we use a database of transplant studies that quantify performance at broad geographic scales to test how local adaptation, site quality, and population quality change from spatial and climatic range centers toward edges. We find that populations from poleward edges perform relatively poorly, both on average across all sites (15% lower population quality) and when compared to other populations at home (31% relative fitness disadvantage), consistent with these populations harboring high genetic load. Populations from equatorial edges also perform poorly on average (18% lower population quality) but, in contrast, outperform foreign populations (16% relative fitness advantage), suggesting that populations from equatorial edges have strongly adapted to unique environments. Finally, we find that populations from sites that are thermally extreme relative to the species' niche demonstrate strong local adaptation, regardless of their geographic position. Our findings indicate that both nonadaptive processes and adaptive evolution contribute to variation in adaptation across species' ranges.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Modelos Genéticos , Seleção Genética , Clima , Ecossistema , Carga Genética , Genética Populacional , Geografia , Análise Espacial
2.
Mol Biol Evol ; 38(5): 1820-1836, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480994

RESUMO

During range expansion, edge populations are expected to face increased genetic drift, which in turn can alter and potentially compromise adaptive dynamics, preventing the removal of deleterious mutations and slowing down adaptation. Here, we contrast populations of the European subspecies Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea, which expanded its Northern range after the last glaciation. We document a sharp decline in effective population size in the range-edge population and observe that nonsynonymous variants segregate at higher frequencies. We detect a 4.9% excess of derived nonsynonymous variants per individual in the range-edge population, suggesting an increase of the genomic burden of deleterious mutations. Inference of the fitness effects of mutations and modeling of allele frequencies under the explicit demographic history of each population predicts a depletion of rare deleterious variants in the range-edge population, but an enrichment for fixed ones, consistent with the bottleneck effect. However, the demographic history of the range-edge population predicts a small net decrease in per-individual fitness. Consistent with this prediction, the range-edge population is not impaired in its growth and survival measured in a common garden experiment. We further observe that the allelic diversity at the self-incompatibility locus, which ensures strict outcrossing and evolves under negative frequency-dependent selection, has remained unchanged. Genomic footprints indicative of selective sweeps are broader in the Northern population but not less frequent. We conclude that the outcrossing species A. lyrata ssp. petraea shows a strong resilience to the effect of range expansion.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Carga Genética , Dispersão Vegetal , Fluxo Gênico , Genes Recessivos , Aptidão Genética , Genoma de Planta , Dinâmica Populacional , Seleção Genética
3.
Nat Plants ; 7(1): 17-24, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452486

RESUMO

Sorghum and maize share a close evolutionary history that can be explored through comparative genomics1,2. To perform a large-scale comparison of the genomic variation between these two species, we analysed ~13 million variants identified from whole-genome resequencing of 499 sorghum lines together with 25 million variants previously identified in 1,218 maize lines. Deleterious mutations in both species were prevalent in pericentromeric regions, enriched in non-syntenic genes and present at low allele frequencies. A comparison of deleterious burden between sorghum and maize revealed that sorghum, in contrast to maize, departed from the domestication-cost hypothesis that predicts a higher deleterious burden among domesticates compared with wild lines. Additionally, sorghum and maize population genetic summary statistics were used to predict a gene deleterious index with an accuracy greater than 0.5. This research represents a key step towards understanding the evolutionary dynamics of deleterious variants in sorghum and provides a comparative genomics framework to start prioritizing these variants for removal through genome editing and breeding.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Mutação/genética , Sorghum/genética , Zea mays/genética , Alelos , Carga Genética , Genômica , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
4.
Evolution ; 75(1): 149-165, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210282

RESUMO

The evolution of mate choice is a major topic in evolutionary biology because it is thought to be a key factor in trait and species diversification. Here, we aim at uncovering the ecological conditions and genetic architecture enabling the puzzling evolution of disassortative mating based on adaptive traits. This rare form of mate choice is observed for some polymorphic traits but theoretical predictions on the emergence and persistence of this behavior are largely lacking. Thus, we developed a mathematical model to specifically understand the evolution of disassortative mating based on mimetic color pattern in the polymorphic butterfly Heliconius numata. We confirm that heterozygote advantage favors the evolution of disassortative mating and show that disassortative mating is more likely to emerge if at least one allele at the trait locus is free from any recessive deleterious mutations. We modeled different possible genetic architectures underlying mate choice behavior, such as self-referencing alleles, or specific preference or rejection alleles. Our results showed that self-referencing or rejection alleles linked to the color pattern locus enable the emergence of disassortative mating. However, rejection alleles allow the emergence of disassortative mating only when the color pattern and preference loci are tightly linked.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Borboletas/genética , Preferência de Acasalamento Animal , Modelos Genéticos , Pigmentação/genética , Animais , Mimetismo Biológico , Feminino , Ligação Genética , Carga Genética , Heterozigoto , Masculino
5.
J Biosoc Sci ; 53(4): 639-642, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778193

RESUMO

Extant humans are currently increasing their genetic load, which is informing present and future human microevolution. This has been a gradual process that has been rising over the last centuries as a consequence of improved sanitation, nutritional improvements, advancements in microbiology and medical interventions, which have relaxed natural selection. Moreover, a reduction in infant and child mortality and changing societal attitudes towards fertility have led to a decrease in total fertility rates (TFRs) since the 19th century. Generally speaking, decreases in differential fertility and mortality have meant that there is less opportunity for natural selection to eliminate deleterious mutations from the human gene pool. It has been argued that the average human may carry ~250-300 mutations that are mostly deleterious, as well as several hundred less-deleterious variants. These deleterious alleles in extant humans mean that our fitness is being constrained. While such alleles are viewed as reducing human fitness, they may also have had an adaptive function in the past, such as assisting in genetic complexity, sexual recombination and diploidy. Saying this, our current knowledge on these fitness compromising alleles is still lacking.


Assuntos
Carga Genética , Seleção Genética , Alelos , Criança , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Mutação , Reprodução
6.
Mol Biol Evol ; 38(1): 263-273, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853368

RESUMO

Population genetic theory and empirical evidence indicate that deleterious alleles can be purged in small populations. However, this viewpoint remains controversial. It is unclear whether natural selection is powerful enough to purge deleterious mutations when wild populations continue to decline. Pheasants are terrestrial birds facing a long-term risk of extinction as a result of anthropogenic perturbations and exploitation. Nevertheless, there are scant genomics resources available for conservation management and planning. Here, we analyzed comparative population genomic data for the three extant isolated populations of Brown eared pheasant (Crossoptilon mantchuricum) in China. We showed that C. mantchuricum has low genome-wide diversity and a contracting effective population size because of persistent declines over the past 100,000 years. We compared genome-wide variation in C. mantchuricum with that of its closely related sister species, the Blue eared pheasant (C. auritum) for which the conservation concern is low. There were detrimental genetic consequences across all C. mantchuricum genomes including extended runs of homozygous sequences, slow rates of linkage disequilibrium decay, excessive loss-of-function mutations, and loss of adaptive genetic diversity at the major histocompatibility complex region. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to perform a comprehensive conservation genomic analysis on this threatened pheasant species. Moreover, we demonstrated that natural selection may not suffice to purge deleterious mutations in wild populations undergoing long-term decline. The findings of this study could facilitate conservation planning for threatened species and help recover their population size.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Galliformes/genética , Carga Genética , Genoma , Animais , Feminino , Deriva Genética , Variação Genética , Endogamia , Densidade Demográfica
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21820, 2020 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311524

RESUMO

Segregation distortion is a common phenomenon found in most genetic mapping studies and is an important resource to dissect the mechanism of action in gene loci that cause deviation. Marine animals possess high genetic diversity and genomic heterozygosity, they therefore are ideal model organisms to study segregation distortion induced by selection. In the present study, we constructed a full-sib family of Fenneropenaeus chinensis and exerted high-intensity selection on 10,000 incipient progenies. 2b-RAD method was employed in remaining 273 individuals to develop genome-wide SNPs for segregating analysis and 41,612 SNPs were developed. 50.77% of 32,229 high-quality representative markers deviated from the expected Mendelian ratio. Results showed that most of these distorted markers (91.57%) were influenced at zygotic level. Heterozygote excess (53.07%) and homozygous deletions (41.96%) may both play an important role, sum of which explained 95.03% of distortion after fertilization. However, further results identified highly probable linkage among deleterious alleles, which may account for a considerable portion of heterozygote excess rather than single locus with heterozygote advantage. Results of this study support a major role of deleterious alleles in genetic load, thus in favor of partial dominance hypothesis. It would also offer necessary recommendations for the formulation of breeding strategy in shrimps.


Assuntos
Carga Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Penaeidae/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Seleção Genética , Animais
8.
Mol Ecol ; 29(24): 4797-4811, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063352

RESUMO

Severe bottlenecks significantly diminish the amount of genetic diversity and the speed at which it accumulates (i.e., evolutionary rate). They further compromise the efficiency of natural selection to eliminate deleterious variants, which may reach fixation in the surviving populations. Consequently, expanding and adapting to new environments may pose a significant challenge when strong bottlenecks result in genetic pauperization. Herein, we surveyed the patterns of nucleotide diversity, molecular adaptation and genetic load across 177 gene-loci in a circum-Mediterranean conifer (Pinus pinea L.) that represents one of the most extreme cases of genetic pauperization in widespread outbreeding taxa. We found very little genetic variation in both hypervariable nuclear microsatellites (SSRs) and gene-loci, which translated into genetic diversity estimates one order of magnitude lower than those previously reported for pines. Such values were consistent with a strong population decline that began some ~1 Ma. Comparisons with the related and parapatric maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) revealed reduced rates of adaptive evolution (α and ωa ) and a significant accumulation of genetic load. It is unlikely that these are the result from differences in mutation rate or linkage disequilibrium between the two species; instead they are the presumable outcome of contrasting demographic histories affecting both the speed at which these taxa accumulate genetic diversity, and the global efficacy of selection. Future studies, and programs for conservation and management, should thus start testing for the effects of genetic load on fitness, and integrating such effects into predictive models.


Assuntos
Pinus , Árvores , Animais , Carga Genética , Variação Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Pinus/genética
9.
Genet Sel Evol ; 52(1): 64, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inbreeding depression refers to the decrease in mean performance due to inbreeding. Inbreeding depression is caused by an increase in homozygosity and reduced expression of (on average) favourable dominance effects. Dominance effects and allele frequencies differ across loci, and consequently inbreeding depression is expected to differ along the genome. In this study, we investigated differences in inbreeding depression across the genome of Dutch Holstein Friesian cattle, by estimating dominance effects and effects of regions of homozygosity (ROH). METHODS: Genotype (75 k) and phenotype data of 38,792 cows were used. For nine yield, fertility and udder health traits, GREML models were run to estimate genome-wide inbreeding depression and estimate additive, dominance and ROH variance components. For this purpose, we introduced a ROH-based relationship matrix. Additive, dominance and ROH effects per SNP were obtained through back-solving. In addition, a single SNP GWAS was performed to identify significant additive, dominance or ROH associations. RESULTS: Genome-wide inbreeding depression was observed for all yield, fertility and udder health traits. For example, a 1% increase in genome-wide homozygosity was associated with a decrease in 305-d milk yield of approximately 99 kg. For yield traits only, including dominance and ROH effects in the GREML model resulted in a better fit (P < 0.05) than a model with only additive effects. After correcting for the effect of genome-wide homozygosity, dominance and ROH variance explained less than 1% of the phenotypic variance for all traits. Furthermore, dominance and ROH effects were distributed evenly along the genome. The most notable region with a favourable dominance effect for yield traits was on chromosome 5, but overall few regions with large favourable dominance effects and significant dominance associations were detected. No significant ROH-associations were found. CONCLUSIONS: Inbreeding depression was distributed quite equally along the genome and was well captured by genome-wide homozygosity. These findings suggest that, based on 75 k SNP data, there is little benefit of accounting for region-specific inbreeding depression in selection schemes.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Depressão por Endogamia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Bovinos/fisiologia , Genes Dominantes , Carga Genética , Homozigoto , Leite/normas , Linhagem , Fenótipo
10.
Genet Sel Evol ; 52(1): 62, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inbreeding is caused by mating between related individuals and is associated with reduced fitness and performance (inbreeding depression). Several studies have detected heterogeneity in inbreeding depression among founder individuals. Recently, a procedure was developed to predict hidden inbreeding depression load that is associated with founders using the Mendelian sampling of non-founders. The objectives of this study were to: (1) analyse the population structure and general inbreeding, and (2) test this recent approach for predicting hidden inbreeding depression load for four morphological traits and two morphology defects in the Pura Raza Española (PRE) horse breed. RESULTS: The regression coefficients that were calculated between trait performances and inbreeding coefficients demonstrated the existence of inbreeding depression. In total, 58,772,533 partial inbreeding coefficients (Fij) were estimated for the whole PRE population (328,706 horses). We selected the descendants of horses with a Fij ≥ 6.25% that contributed to at least four offspring and for which morphological traits were measured for the subsequent analysis of inbreeding depression load (639 horses). A pedigree was generated with the last five generations (5026 animals) used as the reference population (average inbreeding coefficient of 8.39% and average relatedness coefficient of 10.76%). Heritability estimates ranged from 0.08 (cresty neck) to 0.80 (height at withers), whereas inbreeding depression load ratios ranged from 0.01 (knock knee) to 0.40 (length of shoulder), for an inbreeding coefficient of 10%. Most of the correlations between additive and inbreeding depression load genetic values and correlations between inbreeding depression load genetic values for the different traits were positive or near 0. CONCLUSIONS: Although the average inbreeding depression loads presented negative values, a certain percentage of the animals showed neutral or even positive values. Thus, high levels of inbreeding do not always lead to a decrease in mean phenotypic value or an increase in morphological defects. Hence, individual inbreeding depression loads could be used as a tool to select the most appropriate breeding animals. The possibility of selecting horses that have a high genetic value and are more resistant to the deleterious effects of inbreeding should help improve selection outcomes.


Assuntos
Cavalos/genética , Depressão por Endogamia , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Animais , Aptidão Genética , Carga Genética , Cavalos/anatomia & histologia , Linhagem
11.
Evolution ; 74(8): 1851-1855, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519389

RESUMO

Elaborate sexually selected ornaments and armaments are costly but increase the reproductive success of their bearers (usually males). It has been postulated that high-quality males can invest disproportionately more in such traits, making those traits honest signals of genetic quality. However, genes associated with such traits may have sexually antagonistic effects on fitness. Here, using a bulb mite Rhizoglyphus robini, a species in which a distinct dimorphism exists between males in the expression of a sexually selected weapon, we compare inbreeding and gender load between lines derived from armed fighters and unarmed scramblers. After four generations of sib-mating, inbreeding depression for female fitness was significantly lower in fighter-derived lines compared to scrambler-derived lines, suggesting that fighter males had significantly higher genetic quality. However, outbred females from fighter-derived lines had significantly lower fitness compared to outbred females from scrambler-derived lines, demonstrating significant gender load associated with the presence of a sexually selected male weapon. Our results imply that under outbreeding, genetic benefits of mating with bearers of elaborate sexually selected traits might be swamped by the costs of decreased fitness of female progeny due to sexually antagonistic effects.


Assuntos
Acaridae/genética , Aptidão Genética , Depressão por Endogamia , Caracteres Sexuais , Seleção Sexual , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade/genética , Carga Genética , Masculino
12.
Evolution ; 74(8): 1711-1723, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538471

RESUMO

There is no general explanation for why species have restricted geographic distributions. One hypothesis posits that range expansion or increasing scarcity of suitable habitat results in accumulation of mutational load due to enhanced genetic drift, which constrains population performance toward range limits and further expansion. We tested this hypothesis in the North American plant, Arabidopsis lyrata. We experimentally assessed mutational load by crossing plants of 20 populations from across the entire species range and by raising the offspring of within- and between-population crosses at five common garden sites within and beyond the range. Offspring performance was tracked over three growing seasons. The heterosis effect, depicting expressed mutational load, was increased in populations with heightened genomic estimates of load, longer expansion distance or long-term isolation, and a selfing mating system. The decline in performance of within-population crosses amounted to 80%. Mutation accumulation due to past range expansion and long-term isolation of populations in the area of range margins is therefore a strong determinant of population-mean performance, and the magnitude of effect may be sufficient to cause range limits.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Carga Genética , Acúmulo de Mutações , Genoma de Planta , América do Norte , Filogeografia
13.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1927): 20200463, 2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429810

RESUMO

The outcome of species range expansion depends on the interplay of demographic, environmental and genetic factors. Self-fertilizing species usually show a higher invasive ability than outcrossers but selfing and bottlenecks during colonization also lead to an increased genetic load. The relationship between genomic and phenotypic characteristics of expanding populations has, hitherto, rarely been tested experimentally. We analysed how accessions of the shepherd's purse, Capsella bursa-pastoris, from the colonization front or from the core of the natural range performed under increasing density of competitors. First, accessions from the front showed a lower fitness than those from the core. Second, for all accessions, competitor density impacted negatively both vegetative growth and fruit production. However, despite their higher genetic load and lower absolute performances, accessions from the front were less affected by competition than accessions from the core. This seems to be due to phenotypic trade-offs and a shift in phenology that allow accessions from the front to avoid competition.


Assuntos
Capsella/genética , Carga Genética , Capsella/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
Ann Neurol ; 87(6): 897-906, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215971

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms by which antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) cause birth defects (BDs) are unknown. Data suggest that AED-induced BDs may result from a genome-wide increase of de novo variants in the embryo, a mechanism that we investigated. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing data from child-parent trios were interrogated for de novo single-nucleotide variants/indels (dnSNVs/indels) and de novo copy number variants (dnCNVs). Generalized linear models were applied to assess de novo variant burdens in children exposed prenatally to AEDs (AED-exposed children) versus children without BDs not exposed prenatally to AEDs (AED-unexposed unaffected children), and AED-exposed children with BDs versus those without BDs, adjusting for confounders. Fisher exact test was used to compare categorical data. RESULTS: Sixty-seven child-parent trios were included: 10 with AED-exposed children with BDs, 46 with AED-exposed unaffected children, and 11 with AED-unexposed unaffected children. The dnSNV/indel burden did not differ between AED-exposed children and AED-unexposed unaffected children (median dnSNV/indel number/child [range] = 3 [0-7] vs 3 [1-5], p = 0.50). Among AED-exposed children, there were no significant differences between those with BDs and those unaffected. Likely deleterious dnSNVs/indels were detected in 9 of 67 (13%) children, none of whom had BDs. The proportion of cases harboring likely deleterious dnSNVs/indels did not differ significantly between AED-unexposed and AED-exposed children. The dnCNV burden was not associated with AED exposure or birth outcome. INTERPRETATION: Our study indicates that prenatal AED exposure does not increase the burden of de novo variants, and that this mechanism is not a major contributor to AED-induced BDs. These results can be incorporated in routine patient counseling. ANN NEUROL 2020;87:897-906.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/genética , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Carga Genética , Variação Genética/genética , Teratógenos , Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adulto , DNA/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Idade Paterna , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Gravidez
15.
Evolution ; 74(3): 688-689, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985043

RESUMO

Outcrossing is maintained in many hermaphroditic species despite theoretical work suggesting that alleles increasing selfing should invade outcrossing populations. Brown and Kelly (2019) identify reasons why this may not have occurred in an outcrossing population of monkeyflower, namely that inbreeding depression causes strong reductions in fitness, resulting in selection for the maintenance of outcrossing. They find that genetic load imposed by rare alleles is inversely correlated with fitness-associated traits, providing evidence that recessive, deleterious alleles contribute to inbreeding depression.


Assuntos
Depressão por Endogamia , Mimulus , Alelos , Carga Genética , Endogamia
16.
Evolution ; 74(3): 587-596, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710100

RESUMO

Most flowering plants are hermaphroditic and experience strong pressures to evolve self-pollination (automatic selection and reproductive assurance). Inbreeding depression (ID) can oppose selection for selfing, but it remains unclear if ID is typically strong enough to maintain outcrossing. To measure the full cost of sustained inbreeding on fitness, and its genomic basis, we planted highly homozygous, fully genome-sequenced inbred lines of yellow monkeyflower (Mimulus guttatus) in the field next to outbred plants from crosses between the same lines. The cost of full homozygosity is severe: 65% for survival and 86% for lifetime seed production. Accounting for the unmeasured effect of lethal and sterile mutations, we estimate that the average fitness of fully inbred genotypes is only 3-4% that of outbred competitors. The genome sequence data provide no indication of simple overdominance, but the number of rare alleles carried by a line, especially within rare allele clusters nonrandomly distributed across the genome, is a significant negative predictor of fitness measurements. These findings are consistent with a deleterious allele model for ID. High variance in rare allele load among lines and the genomic distribution of rare alleles both suggest that migration might be an important source of deleterious alleles to local populations.


Assuntos
Aptidão Genética , Carga Genética , Depressão por Endogamia , Mimulus/genética , Alelos , Genoma de Planta , Endogamia
17.
Mol Psychiatry ; 25(12): 3422-3431, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30185937

RESUMO

Neuroticism has been shown to act as an important risk factor for major depressive disorder (MDD). Genetic and neuroimaging research has independently revealed biological correlates of neurotic personality including cortical alterations in brain regions of high relevance for affective disorders. Here we investigated the influence of a polygenic score for neuroticism (PGS) on cortical brain structure in a joint discovery sample of n = 746 healthy controls (HC) and n = 268 MDD patients. Findings were validated in an independent replication sample (n = 341 HC and n = 263 MDD). Subgroup analyses stratified for case-control status and analyses of associations between neurotic phenotype and cortical measures were carried out. PGS for neuroticism was significantly associated with a decreased cortical surface area of the inferior parietal cortex, the precuneus, the rostral cingulate cortex and the inferior frontal gyrus in the discovery sample. Similar associations between PGS and surface area of the inferior parietal cortex and the precuneus were demonstrated in the replication sample. Subgroup analyses revealed negative associations in the latter regions between PGS and surface area in both HC and MDD subjects. Neurotic phenotype was negatively correlated with surface area in similar cortical regions including the inferior parietal cortex and the precuneus. No significant associations between PGS and cortical thickness were detected. The morphometric overlap of associations between both PGS and neurotic phenotype in similar cortical regions closely related to internally focused cognition points to the potential relevance of genetically shaped cortical alterations in the development of neuroticism.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Carga Genética , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Herança Multifatorial , Neuroticismo
19.
Mol Biol Evol ; 36(12): 2823-2829, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424543

RESUMO

The extent to which selection has shaped present-day human populations has attracted intense scrutiny, and examples of local adaptations abound. However, the evolutionary trajectory of alleles that, today, are deleterious has received much less attention. To address this question, the genomes of 2,062 individuals, including 1,179 ancient humans, were reanalyzed to assess how frequencies of risk alleles and their homozygosity changed through space and time in Europe over the past 45,000 years. Although the overall deleterious homozygosity has consistently decreased, risk alleles have steadily increased in frequency over that period of time. Those that increased most are associated with diseases such as asthma, Crohn disease, diabetes, and obesity, which are highly prevalent in present-day populations. These findings may not run against the existence of local adaptations but highlight the limitations imposed by drift and population dynamics on the strength of selection in purging deleterious mutations from human populations.


Assuntos
Doença/genética , Carga Genética , Genoma Humano , Alelos , Frequência do Gene , Homozigoto , Humanos , Mutação
20.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(9)2019 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466279

RESUMO

Domestication has changed the natural evolutionary trajectory of horses by favoring the reproduction of a limited number of animals showing traits of interest. Reduced breeding stocks hampered the elimination of deleterious variants by means of negative selection, ultimately inflating mutational loads. However, ancient genomics revealed that mutational loads remained steady during most of the domestication history until a sudden burst took place some 250 years ago. To identify the factors underlying this trajectory, we gather an extensive dataset consisting of 175 modern and 153 ancient genomes previously published, and carry out the most comprehensive characterization of deleterious mutations in horses. We confirm that deleterious variants segregated at low frequencies during the last 3500 years, and only spread and incremented their occurrence in the homozygous state during modern times, owing to inbreeding. This independently happened in multiple breeds, following both the development of closed studs and purebred lines, and the deprecation of horsepower in the 20th century, which brought many draft breeds close to extinction. Our work illustrates the paradoxical effect of some conservation and improvement programs, which reduced the overall genomic fitness and viability.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Carga Genética , Cavalos/genética , Mutação , Animais , Aptidão Genética , Seleção Genética , Seleção Artificial
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...