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1.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684574

RESUMO

An herbal mixture composed of lemon, apple cider, garlic, ginger and honey as a polyphenol-rich mixture (PRM) has been reported to contain hypolipidemic activity on human subjects and hyperlipidemic rats. However, the therapeutic effects of PRM on metabolites are not clearly understood. Therefore, this study aimed to provide new information on the causal impact of PRM on the endogenous metabolites, pathways and serum biochemistry. Serum samples of hyperlipidemic rats treated with PRM were subjected to biochemistry (lipid and liver profile) and hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA enzyme reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) analyses. In contrast, the urine samples were subjected to urine metabolomics using 1H NMR. The serum biochemistry revealed that PRM at 500 mg/kg (PRM-H) managed to lower the total cholesterol level and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) (p < 0.05) and reduce the HMG-CoA reductase activity. The pathway analysis from urine metabolomics reveals that PRM-H altered 17 pathways, with the TCA cycle having the highest impact (0.26). Results also showed the relationship between the serum biochemistry of LDL-C and HMG-CoA reductase and urine metabolites (trimethylamine-N-oxide, dimethylglycine, allantoin and succinate). The study's findings demonstrated the potential of PRM at 500 mg/kg as an anti-hyperlipidemic by altering the TCA cycle, inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase and lowering the LDL-C in high cholesterol rats.


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Alho/química , Gengibre/química , Mel , Hiperlipidemias/metabolismo , Hiperlipidemias/terapia , Malus/química , Metaboloma , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/urina , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Ratos Wistar
2.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 45: 111-119, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to investigate the effects of ginger on biomarkers of oxidative stress such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) this meta-analysis was performed. METHODS: Five databases were searched from inception to May 2020 using relevant keywords. Results were reported as bias-corrected standardized mean difference (Hedges' g) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) using random-effects models. RESULTS: Eleven RCTs were included. Ginger resulted in significantly increased on GPx (Hedges' g: 1.93, 95 % CI: 0.20 to 3.66, P = 0.029) and significant reduction in MDA (Hedges' g: -1.45, 95 % CI: -2.31 to -0.59, P = 0.001), but no significant change in TAC (Hedges' g: 0.42, 95 % CI: -0.03 to 0.88, P = 0.069). Greater reduction in MDA was detected in trials using ≤1 g ginger, lasted <12 weeks, participants aged ≥30 years old, among both gender and were conducted sample size ≤40. TAC was increased by administered high doses of ginger, lasted ≥12 weeks, mean age ≥30, sample size >40, and both gender and female. CONCLUSION: Overall, this meta-analysis demonstrated ginger supplementation decreased MDA and increased GPx but the results showed no significant alterations in TAC activities.


Assuntos
Gengibre , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Gengibre/metabolismo , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
3.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e250296, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669804

RESUMO

The current study aimed to determine the effects of different levels of Zingiber officinale as a herbal feed additive on growth performance, carcass characteristic, serum biochemistry, total bacterial count (TBC), gut morphology, and immunological parameters of broilers. A total of 1500, day-old broiler chicks (Hubbard) were equally accredited to five treatment groups, each with six replicates (50 birds/replicate). Five experimental diets were prepared using basal diet i.e. with antibiotics positive control (PC), 3 g/kg ginger (group A), 6 g/kg ginger (group B), 9 g/kg ginger (group C) and without antibiotics negative control (NC). Group A and C showed significantly (p<0.05) higher feed intake (FI) as compared to other groups. Group C showed significantly (p<0.05) lower Total bacterial count (TBC) followed by group B as compared to NC. Carcass characteristics showed non-significant effects among different treatments. Mean villi length and width were significantly (p <0.05) higher in all ginger supplemented groups as compared to the control groups. Blood serum parameters including cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) were significantly (p<0.05) lower in groups B and C in comparison with the control groups. Whereas high-density lipoproteins (HDL) was significantly higher in group B as compared to the others. In conclusion, ginger supplementation @0.6% in the basal diet significantly improved growth performance and gut morphometry of broilers. It also showed a positive impact on cholesterol, triglycerides and gut microbes. Therefore, ginger could be a better substitute for antibiotic growth promoters.


Assuntos
Gengibre , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais
4.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577171

RESUMO

As the human life expectancy increases, age-linked diseases have become more and more frequent. The worldwide increment of dementia cases demands medical solutions, but the current available drugs do not meet all the expectations. Recently the attention of the scientific community was attracted by natural compounds, used in ancient medicine, known for their beneficial effects and high tolerability. This review is focused on Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and explore its properties against Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia, two of the most common and devastating forms of dementia. This work resumes the beneficial effects of Ginger compounds, tested in computational in vitro and in vivo models of Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia, along with some human tests. All these evidences suggest a potential role of the compounds of ginger not only in the treatment of the disease, but also in its prevention.


Assuntos
Demência/tratamento farmacológico , Gengibre/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Catecóis/química , Catecóis/farmacologia , Descoberta de Drogas , Álcoois Graxos/química , Álcoois Graxos/farmacologia , Guaiacol/análogos & derivados , Guaiacol/química , Guaiacol/farmacologia , Humanos , Cetonas/química , Cetonas/farmacologia , Modelos Moleculares , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/química , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
5.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 321(5): L912-L924, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549600

RESUMO

Asthma affects millions of people worldwide and its prevalence is increasing. It is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, airway remodeling, and pathologic bronchoconstriction, and it poses a continuous treatment challenge with very few new therapeutics available. Thus, many asthmatics turn to plant-based complementary products, including ginger, for better symptom control, indicating an unmet need for novel therapies. Previously, we demonstrated that 6-shogaol (6S), the primary bioactive component of ginger, relaxes human airway smooth muscle (hASM) likely by inhibition of phosphodiesterases (PDEs) in the ß-adrenergic (cyclic nucleotide PDEs), and muscarinic (phospholipase C, PLC) receptor pathways. However, oral 6S is extensively metabolized and it is unknown if the resulting metabolites remain bioactive. Here, we screened all the known human metabolites of 6S and several metabolite-based synthetic derivatives to better understand their mechanism of action and structure-function relationships. We demonstrate that several metabolites and metabolite-based synthetic derivatives are able to prevent Gq-coupled stimulation of intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i and inositol trisphosphate (IP3) synthesis by inhibiting PLC, similar to the parent compound 6S. We also show that these compounds prevent recontraction of ASM after ß-agonist relaxation likely by inhibiting PDEs. Furthermore, they potentiate isoproterenol-induced relaxation. Importantly, moving beyond cell-based assays, metabolites also retain the functional ability to relax Gq-coupled-contractions in upper (human) and lower (murine) airways. The current study indicates that, although oral ginger may be metabolized rapidly, it retains physiological activity through its metabolites. Moreover, we are able to use naturally occurring metabolites as inspiration to develop novel therapeutics for brochoconstrictive diseases.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Gengibre , Relaxamento Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/metabolismo , Broncoconstrição/efeitos dos fármacos , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 4/metabolismo , Gengibre/metabolismo , Humanos , Isoproterenol/farmacologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Relaxamento Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo
6.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(9): 1283-1288, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531338

RESUMO

Background: In recent literatures, much attention has been given to natural products for their health benefits. Aims: In this study, the objective was to measure the efficacy of the ginger-honey-chocolate mixture as the remineralization effect has been shown in the literature previously and to evaluate the individual contributions of this mixture; ginger, natural honey, bitter chocolate separately on remineralization of initial enamel caries lesion. Materials and Methods: All specimens were divided into eight groups as: Ginger (Arifoglu®, Turkey) in powder form, (n = 8); Ginger-Honey-Chocolate (n = 8); Natural honey (Balparmak Plateau Blossom Honey®, Turkey) (n = 9); Bitter chocolate (Nestlé®, Switzerland) (n = 8); MI Paste (GC, Japan) (n = 8); Paradontax (Sensodyne, Glaxosmithklein, USA) (n = 9); Pronamel (Sensodyne, Glaxosmithklein, USA) (n = 9); Control (n = 9) groups. Samples were carried out five pH cycles along 7 days at 37°C for each group. During pH cycling, blocks were put in a demineralization (6 h) and a remineralization solution (18 h). The treatment consisted of 1 min. interaction of enamel surfaces with agent/deionized slurries (1:3 w/w) on a daily basis. The surface microhardness (SMH) was determined before and after pH cycling with a Digital Micro-Vickers Hardness Tester (Wilson Wolpert; Europe BV, 401 MVD, Netherlands). Mineral changes were determined by using FluoreCam® and recovery values were calculated as SMHR% and FΔ%, respectively. Results: All groups showed an enhanced remineralization. There was no significant difference in terms of FΔ% (F = 1.223, P = 0.304) and SMHR% (F = 0.709, P = 0.664) between all groups. Conclusion: The herbals (ginger, honey, and bitter chocolate) examined in this study gave promising results with a high remineralization potential.


Assuntos
Chocolate , Cárie Dentária , Gengibre , Mel , Cariostáticos , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Remineralização Dentária , Cremes Dentais
7.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500664

RESUMO

This study aims to identify and isolate the secondary metabolites of Zingiber officinale using GC-MS, preparative TLC, and LC-MS/MS methods, to evaluate the inhibitory potency on SARS-CoV-2 3 chymotrypsin-like protease enzyme, as well as to study the molecular interaction and stability by using docking and molecular dynamics simulations. GC-MS analysis suggested for the isolation of terpenoids compounds as major compounds on methanol extract of pseudostems and rhizomes. Isolation and LC-MS/MS analysis identified 5-hydro-7, 8, 2'-trimethoxyflavanone (9), (E)-hexadecyl-ferulate (1), isocyperol (2), N-isobutyl-(2E,4E)-octadecadienamide (3), and nootkatone (4) from the rhizome extract, as well as from the leaves extract with the absence of 9. Three known steroid compounds, i.e., spinasterone (7), spinasterol (8), and 24-methylcholesta-7-en-3ß-on (6), were further identified from the pseudostem extract. Molecular docking showed that steroids compounds 7, 8, and 6 have lower predictive binding energies (MMGBSA) than other metabolites with binding energy of -87.91, -78.11, and -68.80 kcal/mole, respectively. Further characterization on the single isolated compound by NMR showed that 6 was identified and possessed 75% inhibitory activity on SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease enzyme that was slightly different with the positive control GC376 (77%). MD simulations showed the complex stability with compound 6 during 100 ns simulation time.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Protease de Coronavírus/farmacologia , Gengibre/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/ultraestrutura , Inibidores de Protease de Coronavírus/química , Inibidores de Protease de Coronavírus/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Protease de Coronavírus/uso terapêutico , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Ácidos Sulfônicos/farmacologia
8.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255571, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407085

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is a major public health problem that causes by parasite of the genus Leishmania. The pentavalent antimonial compounds that used for treatment are not safe or effective enough. The aim of the present study was preparation and evaluation of the efficacy of green synthesized silver nanoparticles against Leishmania major (L. major) in vitro. METHODS: To synthesis silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs), ginger extract was added to the 0.2mM AgNO3 aqueous solution (1:20). Effects of different concentrations of Ag-NPs on the number of L. major promastigotes were investigated using counting assay. The MTT test was applied to determine the toxicity of Ag-NPs on promastigotes of L. major, as well as, macrophage cells. Then, to evaluate the anti-amastigotes effects of Ag-NPs, parasites within the macrophages were counted by light microscope. Furthermore, to determine the induced apoptosis and necrotic effects of Ag-NPs on promastigotes, flow cytometry method was employed using annexin staining. RESULTS: The effect of Ag-NPs on promastigotes and amastigotes of L. major was effective and has a reverse relationship with its concentration. According to the results of anti-amastigote assay, the IC50 value of this nanoparticle was estimated 2.35 ppm after 72h. Also, Ag-NPs caused Programmed Cell Death (PCD) in promastigotes of L. major and showed 60.18% of apoptosis. DISCUSSION: Based on the mentioned results, it can be concluded that Ag NPs has a beneficial effect on promastigote and amastigote forms of L. major in vitro. Hence, these nanoparticles could be applied as promising antileishmanial agents for treatment of Leishmania infections.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Gengibre/química , Leishmania major/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Prata/química , Animais , Antiprotozoários/química , Apoptose , Técnicas In Vitro , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/parasitologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Camundongos
9.
Comput Biol Med ; 136: 104764, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426164

RESUMO

Ginger is a well-known product in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Ginger is one of the spices which are adulterated for economic gain. The lack of marketability of grade 3 chickpeas (small and broken chickpeas) and their very low price have made them a good choice to be mixed with ginger in powder form and sold in the market. Demand for non-destructive methods of measuring food quality, such as machine vision and the growing need for food and spices, were the main motives to conduct this study. This study classified ginger powder images to detect fraud by improving convolutional neural networks (CNN) through a gated pooling function. The main approach to improving CNN is to use a pooling function that combines average pooling and max pooling. The Batch normalization (BN) technique is used in CNN to improve classification results. We show empirically that the combining operation used increases the accuracy of ginger powder classification compared to the baseline pooling method. For this purpose, 3360 image samples of ginger powder were prepared in 7 categories (pure ginger powder, chickpea powder, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% fraud in ginger powder). Moreover, MLP, Fuzzy, SVM, GBT, and EDT algorithms were used to compare the proposed CNN results with other classifiers. The results showed that using batch normalization based on gated pooling, the proposed CNN was able to grade the images of ginger powder with 99.70% accuracy compared to other classifiers. Therefore, it can be said that the CNN method and image processing technique effectively increase marketability, prevent ginger powder fraud, and promote traditional methods of ginger powder fraud detection.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Gengibre , Algoritmos , Fraude , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Pós
10.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(12): 5537-5546, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacteria are the most diverse and abundant group of soil organisms that influence plant growth and health. Bacillus and Trichoderma are commonly used as biological control agents (BCA) that directly or indirectly act on soil bacteria. Therefore, it is essential to understand how the applied microbes impact the indigenous microbial community before exploring their activity in the control of soilborne diseases. RESULTS: MiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to decipher the shift of rhizosphere bacterial community in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) treated with Bacillus subtilus and Trichoderma harzianum at different concentrations. The dominant phyla in treated and nontreated samples were Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and comprised up to 54.7% of the total sequences. There were significant differences between BCA treated and nontreated samples in the bacteria community. BCA treated plants presented higher bacterial diversity than nontreated and higher dosage of BCA had a larger impact on rhizosphere microbiota, but the 'dose-response relationship' varied in different bacterial groups. Potential biomarkers at genus level were found, such as RB41, Pseudomonas, Nitrospira, Candidatus_Udaeobacter. CONCLUSION: The combined use of Bacillus subtilus and Trichoderma harzianum could alter bacterial community structure and diversity in rhizosphere soil. BCA-microbes interactions as well as soil microbial ecology should be noticed in plant disease management. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Gengibre , Solo , Hypocreales , Raízes de Plantas , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445514

RESUMO

Oxaliplatin, a well-known chemotherapeutic agent, can induce severe neuropathic pain, which can seriously decrease the quality of life of patients. JI017 is an herb mixture composed of Aconitum carmichaelii, Angelica gigas, and Zingiber officinale. Its anti-tumor effect has been reported; however, the efficacy of JI017 against oxaliplatin-induced allodynia has never been explored. Single oxaliplatin injection [6 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, (i.p.)] induced both cold and mechanical allodynia, and oral administration of JI017 (500 mg/kg) alleviated cold but not mechanical allodynia in mice. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis demonstrated that the upregulation of mRNA of spinal transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and astrocytes following oxaliplatin injection was downregulated after JI017 treatment. Moreover, TRPV1 expression and the activation of astrocytes were intensely increased in the superficial area of the spinal dorsal horn after oxaliplatin treatment, whereas JI017 suppressed both. The administration of TRPV1 antagonist [capsazepine, intrathecal (i.t.), 10 µg] attenuated the activation of astrocytes in the dorsal horn, demonstrating that the functions of spinal TRPV1 and astrocytes are closely related in oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain. Altogether, these results suggest that JI017 may be a potent candidate for the management of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy as it decreases pain, spinal TRPV1, and astrocyte activation.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Oxaliplatina/efeitos adversos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Aconitum/química , Administração Oral , Angelica/química , Animais , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Baixa , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Gengibre/química , Hiperalgesia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperalgesia/genética , Hiperalgesia/metabolismo , Camundongos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Coluna Vertebral/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética
14.
Parasitol Int ; 85: 102431, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352378

RESUMO

The effect of Zingiber officinale rhizome methanolic extract (ZOR) on the in vitro growth of bovine Babesia (B. bovis, B. bigemina, and B. divergens) and equine piroplasm (B. caballi, and Theileria equi) parasites and on the growth of B. microti in mice was evaluated in this study. The possible in vitro synergistic interaction between ZOR and either diminazene aceturate (DA) or potent Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) hits from the malaria box was also investigated. In vitro, ZOR reduced the growth of B. bovis, B. bigemina, T. equi, and B. caballi in a dose-dependent manner. B. divergens was the most susceptible parasite to the in vitro inhibitory effect of ZOR. DA and MMV compounds enhanced the in vitro inhibitory antibabesial activity of ZOR. 12.5 mg/kg DA when administrated in combination with ZOR in mice exhibited a significant inhibition (P < 0.05) in B. microti growth better than those observed after treatment with 25 mg/kg DA monotherapy. These findings suggest that ZOR could be a viable medicinal plant for babesiosis treatment, particularly when combined with a modest dose of either DA or powerful anti-B. bigemina MMV hits.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Babesia/efeitos dos fármacos , Gengibre/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Theileria/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Cavalos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Extratos Vegetais/química , Rizoma/química
15.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 73(9): 1151-1160, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383955

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of Zingiber officinale and Hibiscus sabdariffa on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of amlodipine. METHODS: Hypertension was induced in rats (SBP 173.2 ± 1.7 mmHg, mean, 1-24 h). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean blood pressure (MBP) and heart rate (HR) of group-I (amlodipine treated), group-II (Z. officinale, and Z. officinale + amlodipine) and group-III (H. sabdariffa, and H. sabdariffa + amlodipine) animals were measured by "tail-cuff system". Pharmacokinetics of amlodipine with and without herbs (Z. officinale or H. sabdariffa) was also investigated. RESULTS: Z. officinale as well as H. sabdariffa decreased the SBP, DBP and MBP. Concurrent treatment with Z. officinale + amlodipine (SBP 129.4 ± 4.5) or H. sabdariffa + amlodipine (SBP 130.4 ± 3.9) showed higher decrease in BP (mean, 1-24h), than individually administered amlodipine (SBP 149.5 ± 2.4) or Z. officinale (SBP 150.2 ± 3.1) or H. sabdariffa (SBP 139.1 ± 1.2). These herbs also influenced the Cmax, AUC0-t, and Tmax of amlodipine. H. sabdariffa increased AUC0-t of amlodipine from 81.8 ± 14.7 to 125.0 ± 10.6 (ng h/mL). CONCLUSION: Simultaneous administration of Z. officinale or H. sabdariffa with amlodipine, improves its pharmacodynamic response.


Assuntos
Anlodipino/farmacocinética , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacocinética , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Gengibre , Interações Ervas-Drogas , Hibiscus , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Área Sob a Curva , Quimioterapia Combinada , Frequência Cardíaca , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar
16.
Curr Alzheimer Res ; 18(4): 347-357, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279199

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent dementia in the elderly, causing disability, physical, psychological, social, and economic damage to the individual, their families, and caregivers. Studies have shown some spices, such as saffron, rosemary, cinnamon, turmeric, and ginger, have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that act in inhibiting the aggregation of acetylcholinesterase and amyloid in AD. For this reason, spices have been studied as beneficial sources against neurodegenerative diseases, including AD. In this sense, this study aims to present a review of some spices (Saffron, Rosemary, Cinnamon, Turmeric and Ginger) and their bioactive compounds, most consumed and investigated in the world regarding AD. In this article, scientific evidence is compiled in clinical trials in adults, the elderly, animals, and in vitro, on properties considered neuroprotective, having no or negative effects on neuroprotection of these spices and their bioactive compounds. The importance of this issue is based on the pharmacological treatment for AD that is still not very effective. In addition, the recommendations and prescriptions of these spices are still permeated by questioning and lack of robust evidence of their effects on neurodegeneration. The literature search suggests all spices included in this article have bioactive compounds with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions associated with neuroprotection. To date, the amounts of spice ingestion in humans are not uniform, and there is no consensus on its indication and chronic consumption guarantees safety and efficacy in neuroprotection. Therefore, clinical evidence on this topic is necessary to become a formal adjuvant treatment for AD.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Especiarias , Animais , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Crocus/efeitos dos fármacos , Curcuma/efeitos dos fármacos , Gengibre/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neuroproteção , Rosmarinus/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Environ Res ; 202: 111718, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297936

RESUMO

The essential oil isolated from plants is widely utilized as eco-friendly biocides and antibacterial agents. Curcuma amada, commonly known as mango ginger, is well-known for its applications in the food and aromatics industry for its significant mango-like aroma. The present study compared the different C. amada essential oils prepared by hydrodistillation (CHD), steam distillation (CSD), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), for their chemical composition, antibacterial, larvicidal and insecticidal properties. GC/MS analysis indicated the presence of compounds including α-pinene, ß-myrcene, p-cymene, (Z)-ß-ocimene, Camphor, linalyl acetate, safrole, ar-curcumene, and ß-curcumene in the different C. amada essential oils. The antibacterial activity was observed against different strains of microbes, with a higher efficacy in the essential oils prepared by UAE and MAE methods. Apart from these, the MAE, UAE, CSD, and CHD were also shown to have significantly higher larvicidal activity against Aedes, Culex, and Armigeres species; however, no toxic effect was observed in non-targeted species like fishes and Allium cepa model of genotoxicity. Further, these essential oils were also found to have significant contact and fumigant toxicity as well as repellency against pests of stored grains (Sitophilus and Tribolium). Considering these results, the present study assumes that Curcuma amada essential oils may be a source of ecofriendly insecticides and antibacterial agents.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Gengibre , Inseticidas , Mangifera , Óleos Voláteis , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Curcuma , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Rizoma
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14870, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290338

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of dried ginger and to develop a rice-based edible film incorporating ginger extract. The optimal MAE conditions of 400 W microwave power and an extraction time of 1 min were determined using a 32 full factorial design. The optimized extract showed total phenolic compounds (TPC, 198.2 ± 0.7 mg gallic acid equivalent/g), antioxidant activity measured by DPPH (91.4 ± 0.6% inhibition), ABTS (106.4 ± 3.1 mg Trolox/g), and FRAP (304.6 ± 5.5 mg Trolox/g), and bioactive compounds including 6-gingerol (71.5 ± 3.6 mg/g), 6-shogaol (12.5 ± 1.0 mg/g), paradol (23.1 ± 1.1 mg/g), and zingerone (5.0 ± 0.3 mg/g). Crude extract of dried ginger showed antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans DMST 18777, with a minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of 0.5 and 31.2 mg/mL, respectively. The rice-based edible film incorporating 3.2% (w/v) ginger extract tested against S. mutans DMST 18777 had a mean zone of inhibition of 12.7 ± 0.1 mm. Four main phenolic compounds, 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, paradol, and zingerone, and six volatile compounds, α-curcumene, α-zingiberene, γ-muurolene, α-farnesene, ß-bisabolene, and ß-sesquiphellandrene, were found in rice film fortified with crude ginger extract.


Assuntos
Catecóis/farmacologia , Filmes Comestíveis , Álcoois Graxos/farmacologia , Gengibre/química , Guaiacol/análogos & derivados , Micro-Ondas , Oryza/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Catecóis/isolamento & purificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Álcoois Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Guaiacol/isolamento & purificação , Guaiacol/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Tailândia
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299361

RESUMO

Zingiber officinale is one of the most frequently used medicinal herbs in Asia. Using rodent seizure models, it was previously shown that Zingiber officinale hydroethanolic extract exerts antiseizure activity, but the active constituents responsible for this effect have not been determined. In this paper, we demonstrated that Zingiber officinale methanolic extract exerts anticonvulsant activity in the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced hyperlocomotion assay in larval zebrafish. Next, we isolated 6-gingerol (6-GIN)-a major constituent of Zingiber officinale rhizoma. We observed that 6-GIN exerted potent dose-dependent anticonvulsant activity in the PTZ-induced hyperlocomotion seizure assay in zebrafish, which was confirmed electroencephalographically. To obtain further insight into the molecular mechanisms of 6-GIN antiseizure activity, we assessed the concentration of two neurotransmitters in zebrafish, i.e., inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and excitatory glutamic acid (GLU), and their ratio after exposure to acute PTZ dose. Here, 6-GIN decreased GLU level and reduced the GLU/GABA ratio in PTZ-treated fish compared with only PTZ-bathed fish. This activity was associated with the decrease in grin2b, but not gabra1a, grin1a, gria1a, gria2a, and gria3b expression in PTZ-treated fish. Molecular docking to the human NR2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor suggests that 6-GIN might act as an inhibitor and interact with the amino terminal domain, the glutamate-binding site, as well as within the ion channel of the NR2B-containing NMDA receptor. In summary, our study reveals, for the first time, the anticonvulsant activity of 6-GIN. We suggest that this effect might at least be partially mediated by restoring the balance between GABA and GLU in the epileptic brain; however, more studies are needed to prove our hypothesis.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Catecóis/farmacologia , Álcoois Graxos/farmacologia , Gengibre/química , Pentilenotetrazol/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/metabolismo , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Convulsões/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
20.
Phytochemistry ; 190: 112843, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311278

RESUMO

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is consumed for health-promoting effects and as a food condiment. Comprehensive phytochemical analysis, other than gingerols and shogaols, has not yet been deeply investigated. Hence, the current research aimed to establish a non-targeted metabolomics approach for the discrimination between fresh ginger rhizome samples collected from four different producing countries, i.e., China, India, Pakistan, and Peru. In addition, lab-dried samples were analyzed to trace drying-induced metabolites. A comprehensive extraction procedure was carried out resulting in production of polar and non-polar fractions. The polar fraction was analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with Fourier transform tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-C18-FT-MS/MS) and gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) post derivatization. UPLC-C8-FT-MS/MS was used for analysis of non-polar fraction. Results revealed for identification of a total of 253 metabolites. In addition, multivariate data analysis (MVDA), including principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrated clustering of Asian specimens. Several metabolites with a characteristic pattern for the origin revealing the highest contents of bioactive metabolites in the Peruvian product. Moreover, chemical markers identified, including [6]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol discriminating between fresh and dried samples. Furthermore, abundances of some primary metabolites, including amino acids and cinnamic acid, have confirmed the biosynthetic pathway of gingerols and their transformation upon drying to shogaols. The proposed approach can be applied as a potential candidate for quality assessment of ginger and other medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Gengibre , Catecóis , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise de Dados , Álcoois Graxos , Metabolômica , Extratos Vegetais , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
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