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1.
Urologiia ; (6): 124-126, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34967173

RESUMO

Gangrene of the penis is a rare condition manifesting with purulent necrotization of penile tissues and systemic inflammatory response. In more than 90% of cases, the cause of the development of the penile and scrotal gangrene is rapidly progressive necrotizing fasciitis of polymicrobial etiology, which predominantly affected the external genital organs. Isolated cases of penile gangrene development when using the restraining rings of the penis are described in literature (condom urine collection bag, rings for erection, etc.). Cases of penile and scrotum gangrene, when treatment with bilateral orchiectomy and penectomy is required are quite rare. We present the case of penlie and scrotum gangrene in an 86-year-old patient with mental disorders. The cause of gangrene was long-term forced position of the patient with infringement of the penis and scrotum by the thighs. Active intensive therapy, surgical removal of the penis, scrotum and testicles and urine diversion by the imposition of a trocar cystostomy saved the patients life and he was discharged from the hospital in a satisfactory condition.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos , Doenças do Pênis , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Gangrena/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças do Pênis/cirurgia , Pênis/cirurgia , Escroto/cirurgia
3.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 39(4): 745-767, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600635

RESUMO

Abdominal pain represents 5% to 7% of all emergency department presentations. Many patients require imaging for diagnosis, and choosing the appropriate imaging modality is a crucial decision point. Modern medicine offers a fantastic array of options including abdominal radiograph, computed tomography, MRI, and ultrasonography, but the plethora of alternatives can be paralyzing. This article introduces the commonly available modalities, discusses the advantages and disadvantages, and presents current recommendations for commonly diagnosed conditions.


Assuntos
Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Aneurisma Aórtico/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Sistema Digestório/diagnóstico por imagem , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Isquemia Mesentérica/diagnóstico por imagem , Gravidez , Gravidez Ectópica/diagnóstico por imagem
4.
Lakartidningen ; 1182021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498244

RESUMO

The term inconspicuous penis in children covers both micropenis with a penile length less than 2.5 SD for age and other conditions with a normal length of corpora, but when the penis looks smaller due to other diagnoses. Micropenis in a newborn is a serious condition that needs immediate attention by a paediatric endocrinologist. The boy should have a continuous support until adulthood. Other conditions that resembles micropenis are for example buried or webbed penis that only affects the skin or the adherence of the skin to the penile body, so that penis looks smaller even though the corpora are of normal length. Such conditions are treated and often operated by pediatric urologists. A proper clinical examination distinguishes between these diagnoses and gives a possibility to direct the child to the proper treatment without unnecessary concern for the parents.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos , Adulto , Criança , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pênis/anormalidades
5.
Ultrasound Q ; 37(3): 207-218, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478418

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Understanding a variety of scrotal diseases is essential to developing an accurate differential diagnosis and is critical in providing optimal patient care. Ultrasound is the imaging modality of choice when evaluating for scrotal pathology, with the major purpose of locating such pathology to either the testis, or epididymis, or other intrascrotal structures, as well as characterizing lesions as solid or cystic. It is generally assumed that most solid intratesticular masses are more likely malignant, whereas most extratesticular ones are benign, although some exceptions to that rule exist. This pictorial essay will focus on rare and less commonly encountered benign and malignant testicular and paratesticular pathologies, which may pose a diagnostic dilemma for interpreting radiologists and treating physicians. Knowledge of their imaging characteristics will help narrow the differential diagnosis and assist in proper patient management and care.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos , Doenças Testiculares , Neoplasias Testiculares , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Epididimo , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Escroto/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Testiculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Testículo/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia
6.
Int J Cancer ; 149(7): 1483-1494, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224588

RESUMO

Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with increasing rates of HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) in men. Sequential infection from one site to another has been demonstrated at the cervix and anus. Thus, risk of an oral HPV infection after a genital infection of the same type in the HPV infection in men study was investigated. Samples from 3140 men enrolled in a longitudinal cohort were assessed for sequential genital to oral infection with one of nine HPV types (HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58); and then also sequential, same-type oral to genital infection. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) compared rates of oral HPV among men with and without prior genital infection of the same type. Risk of sequential HPV infections were assessed using Cox proportional hazards model. Incidence of an oral HPV infection was significantly higher among men with a prior genital infection of the same type for any of the 9 HPV types (IRR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.7-3.0). Hazard ratio of a sequential genital to oral HPV infection was 2.3 (95% CI: 1.7-3.1) and 3.5 (95% CI: 1.9-6.4) for oral to genital infection. Both changed minimally after adjustment for age, country, circumcision, alcohol use, lifetime sexual partners and recent oral sex partners. HPV infections at one site could elevate risk of a subsequent genital or oral HPV infection of the same type in men, emphasizing the importance of vaccination to prevent all HPV infections.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/epidemiologia , Genitália/patologia , Doenças da Boca/epidemiologia , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Seguimentos , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças da Boca/virologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Prognóstico , Comportamento Sexual , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254678, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292991

RESUMO

Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is an intra-epidermal adenocarcinoma. Till now, the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of scrotal EMPD is poorly known. This present study aims to explore the knowledge of molecular mechanism of scrotal EMPD by identifying the hub genes and candidate drugs using integrated bioinformatics approaches. Firstly, the microarray datasets (GSE117285) were downloaded from the GEO database and then analyzed using GEO2R in order to obtain differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Moreover, hub genes were identified on the basis of their degree of connectivity using Cytohubba plugin of cytoscape tool. Finally, GEPIA and DGIdb were used for the survival analysis and selection of therapeutic candidates, respectively. A total of 786 DEGs were identified, of which 10 genes were considered as hub genes on the basis of the highest degree of connectivity. After the survival analysis of ten hub genes, a total of 5 genes were found to be altered in EMPD patients. Furthermore, 14 drugs of CHEK1, CCNA2, and CDK1 were found to have therapeutic potential against EMPD. This study updates the information and yields a new perspective in the context of understanding the pathogenesis of EMPD. In future, hub genes and candidate drugs might be capable of improving the personalized detection and therapies for EMPD.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos , Doença de Paget Extramamária , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Escroto/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/genética , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Doença de Paget Extramamária/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Paget Extramamária/genética , Doença de Paget Extramamária/metabolismo , Doença de Paget Extramamária/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281251

RESUMO

Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), a 34-kDa glycoprotein, as part of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL), has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic properties. The variability of ApoE expression in the course of some female fertility disorders (endometriosis, POCS), and other gynecological pathologies such as breast cancer, choriocarcinoma, endometrial adenocarcinoma/hyperplasia and ovarian cancer confirm the multidirectional biological function of ApoE, but the mechanisms of its action are not fully understood. It is also worth taking a closer look at the associations between ApoE expression, the type of its genotype and male fertility disorders. Another important issue is the variability of ApoE glycosylation. It is documented that the profile and degree of ApoE glycosylation varies depending on where it occurs, the type of body fluid and the place of its synthesis in the human body. Alterations in ApoE glycosylation have been observed in the course of diseases such as preeclampsia or breast cancer, but little is known about the characteristics of ApoE glycans analyzed in human seminal and blood serum/plasma in the context of male reproductive health. A deeper analysis of ApoE glycosylation in the context of female and male fertility will both enable us to broaden our knowledge of the biochemical and cellular mechanisms in which glycans participate, having a direct or indirect relationship with the fertilization process, and also give us a chance of contributing to the enrichment of the diagnostic panel in infertile women and men, which is particularly important in procedures involved in assisted reproductive techniques. Moreover, understanding the mechanisms of glycoprotein glycosylation related to the course of various diseases and conditions, including infertility, and the interactions between glycans and their specific ligands may provide us with an opportunity to interfere with their course and thus develop new therapeutic strategies. This brief overview details some of the recent advances, mainly from the last decade, in understanding the associations between ApoE expression and some female and male fertility problems, as well as selected female gynecological diseases and male reproductive tract disorders. We were also interested in how ApoE glycosylation changes influence biological processes in the human body, with special attention to human fertility.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Apolipoproteínas E/metabolismo , Saúde Reprodutiva , Apolipoproteínas E/química , Feminino , Fertilidade/genética , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/genética , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/genética , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/genética , Infertilidade Feminina/metabolismo , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Infertilidade Masculina/metabolismo , Masculino , Polimorfismo Genético , Gravidez
9.
Ann Afr Med ; 20(2): 105-110, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213476

RESUMO

Background: Fournier's gangrene is an infectious urological emergency with associated morbidity and varying rates of mortality in the world. Various predictors of mortality such as advancing age, Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index (FGSI), anatomical extent of the disease, or presence of risk factors have been studied in the literature, though with conflicting results. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the presentation and predictors of mortality in our environment, Nigeria. Patients and Methods: A review of medical records of all the patients managed from April 2012 to December 2018 at a tertiary referral center in Nigeria was conducted. Data on clinical presentation, FGSI, management, and outcome were retrieved and analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive studies using mean and standard deviation were used for continuous variables, Fischer's exact test was used to compare categorical variables among survivors and nonsurvivors, and logistic regression analysis was used to describe the relationships of these variables with mortality. Results: The mean age of the 31 patients was 60 ± 12 years. All were men, with 9 (29.0%) patients without clinical evidence of immunosuppression or predisposing factor (idiopathic). Fourteen (45%) had documented evidence of immunosuppression. All the patients had a polymicrobial infection; however, Escherichia coli was the most common organism cultured seen in 26 (83.9%) patients. The initial empirical antibiotic regimen of choice was a combination of intravenous ceftriaxone and metronidazole in 26 (83.8%) patients and intravenous ciprofloxacin and metronidazole in 5 (16.1%) patients. Mortality was recorded in three patients representing a rate of 9.6%. Anatomical extent of the disease, anemia requiring blood transfusion, severity of infection, and FGSI were all found to be the statistically significant variable of mortality in these patients using the Fischer exact test. Furthermore, on regression analysis only the FGSI and blood transfusion were significant with P < 0.05. Conclusion: Fournier's gangrene is a disease of the older men with a higher mortality rate when the FGSI is >9 or anemia requiring blood transfusion is present.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Gangrena de Fournier/mortalidade , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Escherichia coli , Gangrena de Fournier/etiologia , Gangrena de Fournier/microbiologia , Gangrena de Fournier/terapia , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
10.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(6)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083196

RESUMO

A 10-day-old newborn was taken to the paediatric emergency room due to scrotal swelling. Physical examination showed scrotal enlargement and palpable intrascrotal hard formations. Laboratory blood tests revealed no significant alterations. Testicular ultrasonography showed thickened and hypoechoic scrotal walls and bilateral intrascrotal isoechoic nodules with small internal calcifications. An abdominal X-ray confirmed evidence of bilateral scrotal microcalcifications and small calcifications in the left hypochondrium. Urgent laparotomy performed for scrotal exploration verified the presence of nodular formations on the vaginal tunic of both testicles; the nodules were removed. Bilateral orchidopexy was performed in the same surgical session. When dealing with an acute scrotum in a newborn both emergency radiologists and clinicians should consider the possibility of scrotal meconium pseudocyst as a rare but possible cause of periorchitis.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos , Orquite , Criança , Feminino , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/etiologia , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/cirurgia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mecônio , Orquite/diagnóstico por imagem , Orquite/etiologia , Escroto/diagnóstico por imagem , Escroto/cirurgia
11.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 28(2): 348-351, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184522

RESUMO

Introduction. Epididymal dirofilariasis is one of the unusual manifestations of this zoonosis. In Slovakia, this is the third case out of 20 Dirofilaria repens infected patients in whom the worm (the parasite) was identified in the epididymis. The patient felt a painless tumour about 2 cm in size on the left testicle. During ultrasound examination, the radiologist observed a cyst containing a live worm within the epididymis. After mechanical stimulation, the movement characteristic for filarial worms (´filarial dance sign´) appeared. An orchiectomy was performed at the Department of Urology in the University Hospital in Kosice. Histopathology confirmed a parasitic cyst with a worm, and based on characteristic morphological features, the parasite was identified as Dirofilaria repens. Objective. The aim of case report is to alert physicians to the possibility dirofilarial infection of the epididymis, where tumors and cystic structures often occur and to present clinical signs of the disease.


Assuntos
Cistos/parasitologia , Dirofilaria repens/isolamento & purificação , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Epididimo/parasitologia , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/parasitologia , Idoso , Animais , Cistos/patologia , Dirofilaria repens/classificação , Dirofilaria repens/genética , Dirofilariose/patologia , Epididimo/patologia , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Eslováquia
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(6)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140330

RESUMO

Zinner syndrome (ZS) is a rare congenital malformation due to abnormal development of the urogenital tract. It is caused by a growth failure of the distal part of the Müllerian duct in early embryogenesis. It is characterised by the triad of unilateral renal agenesis, ipsilateral seminal vesicle cyst and ipsilateral ejaculatory duct obstruction. Over the years, several cases have been reported in the literature since the initial report by Zinner in 1914. This syndrome is frequently misdiagnosed because it may present different patterns and the symptoms may be not specific. In this paper, we present two patients with two different patterns of presentation of Zinner syndrome.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos , Rim Único , Ductos Ejaculatórios , Humanos , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Glândulas Seminais/diagnóstico por imagem , Glândulas Seminais/cirurgia
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12731, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135426

RESUMO

Reptilian ferlavirus, a pathogen of serious concern in snakes, has been reported in Western countries, but little is known about its prevalence in Thailand, where many snake breeding farms are located. In this study, we investigated the reptilian ferlavirus via swab samples derived from 49 diseased snakes and 77 healthy snakes as well as tissue samples taken from nine dead snakes from five independent snake farms. Using molecular detection, we found the ferlavirus in 8.16% of diseased snakes, but not in healthy snakes. Out of nine farmed snakes, eight snakes derived from four farms were found to be positive. Four complete genome sequences of the ferlavirus were successfully obtained and phylogenetically clustered to the highly pathogenic ferlavirus. Tissue tropism of the ferlavirus was identified in various epithelial cell types using the in situ hybridization technique. Interestingly, the hybridization signals were strongly labeled in the male genital tract. Transmission electron microscopy was used to support the ferlaviral localization in the male genital tract. This study provides the first evidence of ferlavirus localization in the male genital tract and contributes to the knowledge about ferlavirus epidemiology, indicating that there needs to be further awareness and elucidation regarding vertical transmission of reptilian ferlavirus.


Assuntos
Genitália Masculina/virologia , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/veterinária , Paramyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Serpentes/virologia , Animais , Epididimo/virologia , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/veterinária , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/virologia , Genoma Viral , Masculino , Paramyxoviridae/classificação , Paramyxoviridae/genética , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/virologia , Filogenia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
16.
Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 44, 2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tarlov cysts are a commonly misdiagnosed condition, which can present with many rare symptoms. We report a case of a Tarlov cyst with spermatorrhea and review the pertinent literature. CASE PRESENTATION: A 42-year-old male patient had a history of spermatorrhea for > 10 years, but was incorrectly diagnosed as the patient and the doctors consistently mistook the symptoms for a genitourinary disease. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that two cysts in the sacral canal. The diagnosis was Tarlov cyst. We performed surgery to remove the cyst and the symptoms of spermatorrhea disappeared after the operation. CONCLUSIONS: This case demonstrates that orthopedics and urologists should improve their understanding of Tarlov cysts to avoid misdiagnosis and mistreatment.


Assuntos
Erros de Diagnóstico/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/diagnóstico , Cistos de Tarlov/diagnóstico , Adulto , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Cistos de Tarlov/cirurgia
17.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(4)2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910804

RESUMO

We report a term newborn who presented on day 3 of life with unilateral, tender scrotal swelling with skin discolouration, which was subsequently diagnosed as haemophilia A at about 6 months of age. He received intramuscular vitamin K and hepatitis B vaccine at birth uneventfully. The scrotal swelling was treated as an infected hydrocoele, considering the absence of a family history of bleeding disorder and other risks of bleeding tendency, as well as the ultrasonographic features. He also had congenital pneumonia requiring venepuncture, non-invasive oxygen supplementation and intravenous antibiotics, without any complication. The swelling slowly improved over 2 months. He later developed post-trial vaccine injection haematoma at 4 months of age, and multiple non-traumatic bruises when he was 6 months old, leading to the diagnosis. This case demonstrates an uncommon, but a possible, early manifestation of haemophilia A at birth with a unilateral scrotal haematoma.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos , Hemofilia A , Hematoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Hematoma/etiologia , Hemofilia A/complicações , Hemofilia A/diagnóstico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
20.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 476(7): 2857-2867, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33738675

RESUMO

Global influence of male infertility is increasing in recent decades. Proper understanding of genetics, anatomy, physiology and the intricate interrelation of male reproductive system are much needed for explaining the etiology of male infertility; and a detailed study on the epigenetics, indeed, will reveal the molecular mechanism behind its etiology. Sirtuins, the molecular sensors, are NAD+ dependent histone deacetylases and ADP- ribosyl transferases, participate in the chief events of epigenetics. In mammals, sirtuin family comprises seven members (SIRT1-SIRT7), and they all possess a conserved NAD+ binding catalytic domain, termed the sirtuin core domain which is imperative for their activity. Sirtuins exert a pivotal role in cellular homeostasis, energy metabolism, apoptosis, age-related disorders and male reproductive system. However, their exact role in male reproduction is still obscure. This article specifically reviews the role of mammalian sirtuins in male reproductive function, thereby, prompting further research to discover the restorative methods and its implementation in reproductive medicine.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Apoptose , Metabolismo Energético , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/enzimologia , Genitália Masculina/enzimologia , Reprodução , Sirtuínas/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Masculino
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