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1.
Zootaxa ; 5020(2): 367-383, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810996

RESUMO

The genus Merarius (Anthribidae: Anthribinae: Tropiderini) from the Oriental and Palaearctic regions is reviewed. Two new species, M. alexandrae Trzna Baa sp. nov. and M. korinae Trzna Baa sp. nov., from China are described. Male and female genitalia of M. korinae are studied and illustrated. A key to the now five known species of the genus, colour photographs and new data on distributions are provided.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , China , Feminino , Genitália Feminina , Masculino
2.
Zootaxa ; 5040(4): 507-527, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811027

RESUMO

The Oriental species belonging to genus Brachycerocoris Costa, 1863 (Hemiptera: Pentatomoidea: Pentatomidae: Podopinae s.l.) are revised with description of two new species, B. petrii sp. nov. and B. davidii sp. nov. from India and Philippines respectively. Brachycerocoris camelus Costa, 1863 is diagnosed and illustrated for female genitalia and B. dromedarius (Vollenhoven, 1863) is diagnosed and illustrated for both male and female genitalia. Additionally, host record, bionomics of B. petrii sp. nov. and a key to the Oriental species are provided.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Heterópteros , Animais , Feminino , Genitália Feminina , Masculino , Costelas
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(10)2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706907

RESUMO

Isolated cervical aplasia (ESHRE/ESGE U0C4V0) is a rare condition with an incidence of approximately 1:100,000 births.This congenital malformation of the female genital tract represents an impairment of the outflow tract and is an inevitable cause of infertility. Patients usually present with pelvic pain or haematometra and surgical treatment is needed. Conservative management is the first line of approach, allowing for future fertility. However, complications are not negligible. Choosing the best surgical technique remains controversial as few follow-up studies have been published.We describe a case report of isolated cervical aplasia diagnosed in a 16-year-old patient, managed by a canalisation procedure using a Foley catheter. Following failure of this approach, a levonorgestrel intrauterine system was inserted, which remained efficient after 4 years.This case adds to the few reports of success in the management of this challenging clinical entity and might guide clinicians to avoid non-conservative approaches in young patients.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Urogenitais , Doenças do Colo do Útero , Adolescente , Tratamento Conservador , Feminino , Genitália Feminina , Humanos
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1313: 23-58, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661890

RESUMO

The innate immune system is comprised of both cellular and humoral players that recognise and eradicate invading pathogens. Therefore, the interplay between retroviruses and innate immunity has emerged as an important component of viral pathogenesis. HIV-1 infection in humans that results in hematologic abnormalities and immune suppression is well represented by changes in the CD4/CD8 T cell ratio and consequent cell death causing CD4 lymphopenia. The innate immune responses by mucosal barriers such as complement, DCs, macrophages, and NK cells as well as cytokine/chemokine profiles attain great importance in acute HIV-1 infection, and thus, prevent mucosal capture and transmission of HIV-1. Conversely, HIV-1 has evolved to overcome innate immune responses through RNA-mediated rapid mutations, pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) modification, down-regulation of NK cell activity and complement receptors, resulting in increased secretion of inflammatory factors. Consequently, epithelial tissues lining up female reproductive tract express innate immune sensors including anti-microbial peptides responsible for forming primary barriers and have displayed an effective potent anti-HIV activity during phase I/II clinical trials.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Soropositividade para HIV , HIV-1 , Feminino , Genitália Feminina , Humanos , Imunidade Inata
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(35): e27174, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477176

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Mesonephric adenocarcinoma (MNAC) is a very rare tumor that originates from mesonephric duct remnants of the female genital tract. Only a few cases were reported in the literature, and most of them occurred in the cervix, extremely rare in the uterine body and ovary. MNAC was rarely reported to arise in the uterine corpus, but never was reported in the ovary. Mesonephric-like adenocarcinomas are recently suggested to describe these neoplasms arising from the uterine corpus and ovary. Due to the rareness of the disease, little is known regarding clinical characteristics, pathological diagnosis, prognosis, and optimal management strategy of MNAC in the female reproductive system. We report a series of MNACs arising from the vagina, cervix, uterine corpus, ovary, and fallopian tube, to summarize the clinical characteristics, pathological diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.We retrospectively analyzed all MNACs in the female genital tract derived from our institute from January 2010 till January 2020. Patients' clinical details and follow-up were obtained from hospital records and scans were obtained from picture archiving and communication system.A total of 11 patients were included. The median age of onset of symptoms was 52 years. All patients underwent total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and lymph node dissections were performed in 7/11 (63.6%) patients. Two/eleven (18.2%) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy before surgery and 7/11 (63.6%) received adjuvant chemotherapy after primary surgery. Of the 11 patients, only 1 patient received adjuvant radiation therapy. One patient died at the end point of this study, 9 patients (81.8%) survived and 1 patient was lost to follow-up. The mean follow-up duration was 33.5 months.Although there is no consensus for the optimal treatment of this rare disease, radical surgery is considered to be the initial choice for localized lesion. Given the high malignancy, the majority of MNAC or mesonephric-like adenocarcinoma patients who underwent adjuvant chemotherapy received 4 to 8 cycles of carboplatin/paclitaxel as a first-line treatment after primary surgery with a median progression-free survival of 12 months. Treatment for recurrent disease in these patients included gemcitabine, carboplatin, and paclitaxel. Radiation was very limited in the treatment of the disease.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/patologia , Genitália Feminina/patologia , Mesonefroma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/mortalidade , Humanos , Mesonefroma/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572122

RESUMO

There is considerable evidence that female reproductive fluid (FRF) interacts intimately with sperm, affecting several sperm traits, including sperm motility and longevity, and ultimately fertilization success. One of the first documented interactions between FRF and sperm is the ability of FRF to attract and guide sperm towards the eggs. However, most of the evidence of FRF's chemoattraction proprieties comes from a limited number of taxa, specifically mammals and invertebrate broadcasting spawners. In other species, small FRF volumes and/or short sperm longevity often impose methodological difficulties resulting in this gap in chemoattraction studies in non-model species. One of the outcomes of sperm chemotaxis is sperm accumulation towards high chemoattractant concentrations, which can be easily quantified by measuring sperm concentration. Here, we tested sperm accumulation towards FRF in the zebrafish, Danio rerio, using an ad hoc developed, 3D printed, device ('sperm selection chamber'). This easy-to-use tool allows to select and collect the sperm that swim towards a chemical gradient, and accumulate in a chemoattractant-filled well thus providing putative evidence for chemoattraction. We found that sperm accumulate in FRF in zebrafish. We also found that none of the sperm quality traits we measured (sperm swimming velocity and trajectory, sperm motility, and longevity) were correlated with this response. Together with the 3D printable project, we provide a detailed protocol for using the selection chamber. The chamber is optimized for the zebrafish, but it can be easily adapted for other species. Our device lays the foundation for a standardized way to measure sperm accumulation and in general chemoattraction, stimulating future research aimed at understanding the role and the mechanisms of sperm chemoattraction by FRF.


Assuntos
Secreções Corporais/metabolismo , Fatores Quimiotáticos/metabolismo , Quimiotaxia , Genitália Feminina/fisiologia , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixe-Zebra
7.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0254974, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407082

RESUMO

Studies of female genital structures have generally lagged behind comparable studies of male genitalia, in part because of an assumption of a lower level of variability, but also because internal genitalia are much more difficult to study. Using multiple microscopy techniques, including video stereomicroscopy, fluorescence microscopy, low-temperature scanning electron microscopy (LT-SEM), and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) we examined whether the complex sperm transfer structures in males of Megalolaelaps colossus (Acari: Mesostigmata) are matched by similarly complex internal structures in the female. While both LT-SEM and CLSM are well suited for obtaining high-quality surface images, CLSM also proved to be a valuable technique for observing internal anatomical structures. The long and coiled sperm transfer organ on the chelicera of the males (spermatodactyl) largely matches an equally complex, but internal, spiral structure in the females in shape, size, and direction. This result strongly suggests some form of genital coevolution. A hypothesis of sexual conflict appears to provide the best fit for all available data (morphology and life history).


Assuntos
Genitália Feminina/anatomia & histologia , Genitália Masculina/anatomia & histologia , Imageamento Tridimensional , Microscopia Confocal , Ácaros/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Feminino , Genitália Feminina/ultraestrutura , Genitália Masculina/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Reprodução/fisiologia
8.
Infect Immun ; 89(11): e0080020, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424753

RESUMO

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) comprise five distinct subsets. ILCs are found at mucosal barriers and may fight invading pathogens. Chlamydia is an intracellular bacterium that infects the mucosa of the genital tract and can cause severe tissue damage. Here, we used a mouse infection model with Chlamydia muridarum to measure the reaction of genital tract ILCs to the infection. Tissue-resident natural killer (NK) cells were the largest group in the uninfected female genital tract, and their number did not substantially change. Conventional NK cells were present in the greatest numbers during acute infection, while ILC1s continuously increased to high numbers. ILC2 and ILC3s were found at lower numbers that oscillated by a factor of 2 to 4. The majority of ILC3s transdifferentiated into ILC1s. NK cells and ILC1s produced gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and, rarely, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), but only early in the infection. Lack of B and T cells increased ILC numbers, while the loss of myeloid cells decreased them. ILCs accumulated to a high density in the oviduct, a main site of tissue destruction. ILC subsets are part of the inflammatory and immune reaction during infection with C. muridarum and may contribute to tissue damage during chlamydial infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/imunologia , Genitália Feminina/imunologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Animais , Feminino , Imunidade Inata , Interferon gama/biossíntese , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
9.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 37(2): 339-366, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243877

RESUMO

Selected emergency conditions of male and female reproductive tracts in horses are described, including injuries affecting the external genitalia of male horses and emergent conditions arising during gestation in mares. Conditions affecting male horses are discussed in the context of breeding stallions, but kicks or other mechanisms of trauma in the groin can also affect geldings. Priapism, paraphimosis, trauma to the scrotum and testicles, and penile injury are discussed. In mares, traumatic vestibular injury, placentitis, hydropsic conditions, prepubic tendon and abdominal wall compromise, and uterine torsion are included. Clinical recognition of the problem, diagnostic procedures, and treatments are summarized.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Parafimose/veterinária , Priapismo/veterinária , Reprodução , Animais , Cruzamento , Emergências/veterinária , Feminino , Genitália Feminina/lesões , Genitália Masculina/lesões , Doenças dos Cavalos/terapia , Cavalos , Masculino , Parafimose/diagnóstico , Parafimose/terapia , Gravidez , Priapismo/diagnóstico , Priapismo/terapia , Ferimentos e Lesões/veterinária
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 691, 2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) is a neglected tropical gynaecological disease that affects millions of women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). FGS is caused by Schistosoma haematobium, a parasitic carcinogen involved in the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder. Cervical cancer incidence and mortality are highest in SSA, where pre-cancerous cervical dysplasia is often detected on screening with visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA). There are no studies evaluating the association between VIA positivity and FGS diagnosed by genital PCR. METHODS: Women were recruited from the Bilharzia and HIV (BILHIV) study in Zambia a community-based study comparing genital self-sampling to provider obtained cervicovaginal-lavage for the diagnosis of FGS in women aged 18-31. FGS was defined as positive Schistosoma DNA from any genital PCR. Urogenital schistosomiasis diagnostics included urine circulating anodic antigen, urine microscopy and portable colposcopy. Participants were offered cervical cancer screening using VIA at Livingstone Central Hospital. Associations of PCR confirmed FGS and other diagnostics with VIA positivity were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: VIA results were available from 237 BILHIV participants. A positive Schistosoma PCR in any genital specimen was detected in 14 women (5.9%), 28.6% (4/14) of these women had positive VIA compared to 9.0% without PCR evidence of schistosome infection (20/223). Schistosoma PCR positivity in any genital specimen was strongly associated with VIA positivity (OR: 6.08, 95% CI: 1.58-23.37, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to find an association between FGS and positive VIA, a relationship that may be causal. Further longitudinal studies are needed.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose Urinária/epidemiologia , Displasia do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/epidemiologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/parasitologia , Colposcopia/métodos , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Genitália Feminina/parasitologia , Genitália Feminina/patologia , Humanos , Incidência , Microscopia/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Schistosoma haematobium/genética , Schistosoma haematobium/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose Urinária/diagnóstico , Esquistossomose Urinária/parasitologia , Manejo de Espécimes , Urinálise/métodos , Displasia do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Displasia do Colo do Útero/parasitologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
11.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1954): 20210746, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229488

RESUMO

Sexually antagonistic coevolution can drive the evolution of male traits that harm females, and female resistance to those traits. While males have been found to vary their harmfulness to females in response to social cues, plasticity in female resistance traits remains to be examined. Here, we ask whether female seed beetles Callosobruchus maculatus are capable of adjusting their resistance to male harm in response to the social environment. Among seed beetles, male genital spines harm females during copulation and females might resist male harm via thickening of the reproductive tract walls. We develop a novel micro computed tomography imaging technique to quantify female reproductive tract thickness in three-dimensional space, and compared the reproductive tracts of females from populations that had evolved under high and low levels of sexual conflict, and for females reared under a social environment that predicted either high or low levels of sexual conflict. We find little evidence to suggest that females can adjust the thickness of their reproductive tracts in response to the social environment. Neither did evolutionary history affect reproductive tract thickness. Nevertheless, our novel methodology was capable of quantifying fine-scale differences in the internal reproductive tracts of individual females, and will allow future investigations into the internal organs of insects and other animals.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Feminino , Genitália Feminina , Genitália Masculina , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Microtomografia por Raio-X
12.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1954): 20211125, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229492

RESUMO

Coevolution of male and female genitalia is widespread in animals. Nevertheless, few studies have examined the mechanics of genital interactions during mating. We characterized the mechanical properties of the elongated female genitalia, the spermathecal duct, of the small cassidine beetle, Cassida rubiginosa. The data were compared with the mechanical properties of the elongated male genitalia, the flagellum. We analysed the material distributions of the spermathecal duct using a microscopy technique, established a tensile test setup under a light microscope and conducted tensile tests. Diameter and tensile stiffness gradients were present along the spermathecal duct, but its Young's modulus and material distribution were more or less homogeneous. The results confirmed the hypothesis based on numerical simulations that the spermathecal duct is more rigid than the flagellum. In the study species, the penile penetration force is simply applied to the base of the hyper-elongated flagellum and conveyed along the flagellum to its tip. Considering this simple penetration mechanism, the relatively low flexibility of the spermathecal duct, compared to the flagellum, is likely to be essential for effective penetration of the flagellum.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Feminino , Genitália Feminina , Genitália Masculina , Masculino , Pênis , Reprodução
13.
Infect Immun ; 89(10): e0020521, 2021 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227838

RESUMO

Chlamydia is known to both ascend to the upper genital tract and spread to the gastrointestinal tract following intravaginal inoculation. Gastrointestinal Chlamydia was recently reported to promote chlamydial pathogenicity in the genital tract since mice intravaginally inoculated with an attenuated Chlamydia strain, which alone failed to develop pathology in the genital tract, were restored to develop hydrosalpinx by intragastric coinoculation with wild-type Chlamydia. Gastrointestinal Chlamydia promoted hydrosalpinx via an indirect mechanism since Chlamydia in the gut did not directly spread to the genital tract lumen. In the current study, we further investigated the role of CD8+ T cells in the promotion of hydrosalpinx by gastrointestinal Chlamydia. First, we confirmed that intragastric coinoculation with wild-type Chlamydia promoted hydrosalpinx in mice that were inoculated with an attenuated Chlamydia strain in the genital tract 1 week earlier. Second, the promotion of hydrosalpinx by intragastrically coinoculated Chlamydia was blocked by depleting CD8+ T cells. Third, adoptive transfer of gastrointestinal Chlamydia-induced CD8+ T cells was sufficient for promoting hydrosalpinx in mice that were intravaginally inoculated with an attenuated Chlamydia strain. These observations have demonstrated that CD8+ T cells induced by gastrointestinal Chlamydia are both necessary and sufficient for promoting hydrosalpinx in the genital tract. The study has laid a foundation for further revealing the mechanisms by which Chlamydia-induced T lymphocyte responses (as a 2nd hit) promote hydrosalpinx in mice with genital Chlamydia-triggered tubal injury (as a 1st hit), a continuing effort in testing the two-hit hypothesis as a chlamydial pathogenic mechanism.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/imunologia , Chlamydia/patogenicidade , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Genitália Feminina/imunologia , Infecções do Sistema Genital/imunologia , Transferência Adotiva/métodos , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/microbiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Chlamydia/imunologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Genitália Feminina/microbiologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos CBA , Infecções do Sistema Genital/microbiologia
14.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 244, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The source of multipotent stromal cells (MSC) can have a significant influence on the health and expansion capacity of the cells. As the applications for allogeneic MSCs in the treatment of feline diseases increase, the location of the initial donor tissue must be analyzed. To date, comparisons have only been made between feline MSCs collected from bone marrow or abdominal fat. This is the first report to compare cells obtained from different adipose depots in the cat with a focus on clinically relevant donor tissues. The tissue was collected from 34 healthy cats undergoing spaying (fat around the ovaries and uterine horn) or subcutaneous fat collected during surgical procedures. RESULTS: The amount of starting material is essential to isolate sufficient MSCs. The total tissue yield from the subcutaneous fat was significantly greater than could be obtained from around the reproductive organs, leading to 3 times more MSCs per donor. However, the concentration of MSCs obtained from reproductive fat was higher than from subcutaneous fat. In addition, the viability of the MSCs from the reproductive fat was significantly higher than the subcutaneous fat. Since most spaying occurs in young cats (under 18 months) reproductive fat was collected from adult cats during spaying, illustrating that age did not alter the yield or viability of the MSCs. When sufficient tissue was collected, it was digested either mechanically or enzymatically. Mechanical digestion further decreased the viability and yield of MSCs from subcutaneous fat compared to enzymatic digestion. Biomarkers of stem cell characterization, expansion capacity and function were detected using qPCR. CD70, CD90 and CD105 were all expressed in high levels in the 3 groups. However, the reproductive fat had higher levels of CD73 with the mechanically digested subcutaneous fat having the least. Gata6 was detected in all samples while Sox2 and Sox17 were also detected with higher quantities found in the enzymatically digested subcutaneous fat. Negative control genes of Gata4 and Pdx1 showed no detection prior to 50 cycles. During the first three passages, age of the donor, location of the donor tissue, or digestion protocol had no effect on cell culture doubling times or cell viability. CONCLUSIONS: While MSCs from reproductive fat had superior cells/tissue weight and initial viability, there were still dramatically fewer cells obtained compared to subcutaneous fat due to the limited amount of tissue surrounding the reproductive organs. Further, in P1-P3 cultures there were no differences noted in doubling time or cell viability between tissue obtained from reproductive or subcutaneous fat depots.


Assuntos
Gatos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Gordura Subcutânea/citologia , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/veterinária , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Feminino , Genitália Feminina/cirurgia , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253628, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237077

RESUMO

Successful reproduction is critical to the persistence of at-risk species; however, reproductive characteristics are understudied in many wild species. New Zealand's endemic tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus), the sole surviving member of the reptile order Rhynchocephalia, is restricted to 10% of its historic range. To complement ongoing conservation efforts, we collected and characterized mature sperm from male tuatara for the first time. Semen collected both during mating and from urine after courting contained motile sperm and had the potential for a very high percentage of viable sperm cells (98%). Scanning electron microscopy revealed a filiform sperm cell with distinct divisions: head, midpiece, tail, and reduced end piece. Finally, our initial curvilinear velocity estimates for tuatara sperm are 2-4 times faster than any previously studied reptile. Further work is needed to examine these trends at a larger scale; however, this research provides valuable information regarding reproduction in this basal reptile.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Genitália Masculina/anatomia & histologia , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Répteis/anatomia & histologia , Espermatozoides/ultraestrutura , Animais , Feminino , Genitália Feminina/anatomia & histologia , Genitália Masculina/fisiologia , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Répteis/fisiologia , Análise do Sêmen/métodos , Espermatozoides/fisiologia
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3446, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103509

RESUMO

The fallopian tube is lined with a highly complex folded epithelium surrounding a lumen that progressively narrows. To study the influence of this labyrinthine complexity on sperm behavior, we use droplet microfluidics to create soft curved interfaces over a range of curvatures corresponding to the in vivo environment. We reveal a dynamic response mechanism in sperm, switching from a progressive surface-aligned motility mode at low curvatures (larger droplets), to an aggressive surface-attacking mode at high curvatures (smaller droplets of <50 µm-radius). We show that sperm in the attacking mode swim ~33% slower, spend 1.66-fold longer at the interface and have a 66% lower beating amplitude than in the progressive mode. These findings demonstrate that surface curvature within the fallopian tube alters sperm motion from a faster surface aligned locomotion in distal regions to a prolonged physical contact with the epithelium near the site of fertilization, the latter being known to promote capacitation and fertilization competence.


Assuntos
Genitália Feminina/anatomia & histologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Bovinos , Epitélio/anatomia & histologia , Tubas Uterinas/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Motilidade Espermática/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
18.
J Forensic Nurs ; 17(3): 140-145, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Examination of the adult female genitalia after an acute sexual assault may reveal findings interpreted by the examiner as injuries, which may be linked to later legal outcomes. There is no consistent definition in the literature regarding what findings constitute genital trauma after sexual assault. We studied how the prevalence of genital trauma is impacted by the inclusion/exclusion of various genital findings reported in the literature. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive chart review of the sexual assault forensic records from a provincial regional sexual assault treatment center was conducted over a 4-year period and included 67 female patients, 12 years old and over, who reported being sexually assaulted in the previous 72 hours and received a complete forensic examination. We studied the prevalence of genital trauma, using eight definitions of trauma, as well as the percentage of each type of genital finding within this population. RESULTS: The prevalence of genital trauma in this population ranged from 52%, the majority, to 31% of women, depending on the definition of trauma utilized. Forty-one percent of the findings, the greatest number overall, were redness. Bruises, abrasions, and tears (lacerations), the components of blunt force trauma, accounted for 4%, 15%, and 14% of the findings, respectively. INTERPRETATION: A universal definition of what findings constitute genital trauma after acute sexual assault is required if the examiner, as expert witness, is to compare findings in a given case with the broader literature and assist the court in ensuring an informed process of decision making.


Assuntos
Genitália Feminina/lesões , Estupro , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Enfermagem Forense , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Cells ; 10(6)2021 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073739

RESUMO

The functions of the female reproductive tract not only encompass sperm migration, storage, and fertilization, but also support the transport and development of the fertilized egg through to the birth of offspring. Further, because the tract is open to the external environment, it must also provide protection against invasive pathogens. In biophysics, sperm are considered "pusher microswimmers", because they are propelled by pushing fluid behind them. This type of swimming by motile microorganisms promotes the tendency to swim along walls and upstream in gentle fluid flows. Thus, the architecture of the walls of the female tract, and the gentle flows created by cilia, can guide sperm migration. The viscoelasticity of the fluids in the tract, such as mucus secretions, also promotes the cooperative swimming of sperm that can improve fertilization success; at the same time, the mucus can also impede the invasion of pathogens. This review is focused on how the mammalian female reproductive tract and sperm interact physically to facilitate the movement of sperm to the site of fertilization. Knowledge of female/sperm interactions can not only explain how the female tract can physically guide sperm to the fertilization site, but can also be applied for the improvement of in vitro fertilization devices.


Assuntos
Tubas Uterinas/metabolismo , Fertilização/fisiologia , Motilidade Espermática/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/citologia , Animais , Feminino , Genitália Feminina/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Infect Immun ; 89(10): e0007221, 2021 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125599

RESUMO

Genital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis can lead to uterine and oviduct tissue damage in the female reproductive tract. Neutrophils are strongly associated with tissue damage during chlamydial infection, while an adaptive CD4 T cell response is necessary to combat infection. Activation of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) on neutrophils has previously been shown to induce and/or enhance degranulation synergistically with Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. Additionally, TREM-1 can promote neutrophil transepithelial migration. In this study, we sought to determine the contribution of TREM-1,3 to immunopathology in the female mouse genital tract during Chlamydia muridarum infection. Relative to control mice, trem1,3-/- mice had no difference in chlamydial burden or duration of lower-genital-tract infection. We also observed a similar incidence of hydrosalpinx 45 days postinfection in trem1,3-/- compared to wild-type (WT) mice. However, compared to WT mice, trem1,3-/- mice developed significantly fewer hydrometra in uterine horns. Early in infection, trem1,3-/- mice displayed a notable decrease in the number of uterine glands containing polymorphonuclear cells and uterine horn lumens had fewer neutrophils, with increased granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). trem1,3-/- mice also had reduced erosion of the luminal epithelium. These data indicate that TREM-1,3 contributes to transepithelial neutrophil migration in the uterus and uterine glands, promoting the occurrence of hydrometra in infected mice.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/imunologia , Chlamydia muridarum/imunologia , Receptores Imunológicos/imunologia , Receptor Gatilho 1 Expresso em Células Mieloides/imunologia , Útero/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/microbiologia , Movimento Celular/imunologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/metabolismo , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epitélio/imunologia , Epitélio/metabolismo , Epitélio/microbiologia , Feminino , Genitália Feminina/imunologia , Genitália Feminina/metabolismo , Genitália Feminina/microbiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/microbiologia , Oviductos/imunologia , Oviductos/metabolismo , Oviductos/microbiologia , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Infecções do Sistema Genital/imunologia , Infecções do Sistema Genital/metabolismo , Infecções do Sistema Genital/microbiologia , Receptor Gatilho 1 Expresso em Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Útero/metabolismo , Útero/microbiologia
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