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1.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(2): 237-246, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130071

RESUMO

Examining how spatial access to health care varies across geography is key to documenting structural inequalities in the United States. In this article and the accompanying StoryMap, our team identified ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) with the largest share of minoritized racial and ethnic populations and measured distances to the nearest hospital offering emergency services, trauma care, obstetrics, outpatient surgery, intensive care, and cardiac care. In rural areas, ZCTAs with high Black or American Indian/Alaska Native representation were significantly farther from services than ZCTAs with high White representation. The opposite was true for urban ZCTAs, with high White ZCTAs being farther from most services. These patterns likely result from a combination of housing policies that restrict housing opportunities and federal health policies that are based on service provision rather than community need. The findings also illustrate the difficulty of using a single metric-distance-to investigate access to care on a national scale.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Feminino , Geografia , Hospitais , Humanos , Gravidez , Estados Unidos
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11733, 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918367

RESUMO

Research into geographical invasions of red imported fire ants (RIFAs) by anthropogenic disturbances has received much attention. However, little is known about how land-use change and the characteristics of roads with different land-use types are associated with the risk of RIFA successful invasion or remaining at the highest level of invasion (RIFA SIRH). Furthermore, it was often assumed in prior studies that the risk of RIFA SIRH had a linear association with the independent variables. However, a linear relationship may not reflect the actual circumstances. In this study, we applied linear and nonlinear approaches to assess how land-use types, distance from the nearest road, different land-use types, and spatial factors affect the risk of RIFA SIRH. The results showed that agricultural land, land for transportation usage, and areas that had undergone land-use change from 2014 to 2017 had greater odds of RIFA invasion than natural land cover. We also identified land for transportation usage and the area of land-use change from 2014 to 2017, had more than 60% of RIFA SIRH within 350 m and 150 m from the nearest road. This study provided important insights into RIFA invasions in an isolated island and the areas of control strategies implemented.


Assuntos
Formigas , Animais , Geografia
3.
Elife ; 112022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920817

RESUMO

Biogeographical studies have traditionally focused on readily visible organisms, but recent technological advances are enabling analyses of the large-scale distribution of microscopic organisms, whose biogeographical patterns have long been debated. Here we assessed the global structure of plankton geography and its relation to the biological, chemical, and physical context of the ocean (the 'seascape') by analyzing metagenomes of plankton communities sampled across oceans during the Tara Oceans expedition, in light of environmental data and ocean current transport. Using a consistent approach across organismal sizes that provides unprecedented resolution to measure changes in genomic composition between communities, we report a pan-ocean, size-dependent plankton biogeography overlying regional heterogeneity. We found robust evidence for a basin-scale impact of transport by ocean currents on plankton biogeography, and on a characteristic timescale of community dynamics going beyond simple seasonality or life history transitions of plankton.


Oceans are brimming with life invisible to our eyes, a myriad of species of bacteria, viruses and other microscopic organisms essential for the health of the planet. These 'marine plankton' are unable to swim against currents and should therefore be constantly on the move, yet previous studies have suggested that distinct species of plankton may in fact inhabit different oceanic regions. However, proving this theory has been challenging; collecting plankton is logistically difficult, and it is often impossible to distinguish between species simply by examining them under a microscope. However, within the last decade, a research schooner called Tara has travelled the globe to gather thousands of plankton samples. At the same time, advances in genomics have made it possible to identify species based only on fragments of their DNA sequence. To understand the hidden geography of plankton communities in Earth's oceans, Richter et al. pored over DNA from the Tara Oceans expedition. This revealed that, despite being unable to resist the flow of water, various planktonic species which live close to the surface manage to occupy distinct, stable provinces shaped by currents. Different sizes of plankton are distributed in different sized provinces, with the smallest organisms tending to inhabit the smallest areas. Comparing DNA similarities and speeds of currents at the ocean surface revealed how these might stretch and mix plankton communities. Plankton play a critical role in the health of the ocean and the chemical cycles of planet Earth. These results could allow deeper investigation by marine modellers, ecologists, and evolutionary biologists. Meanwhile, work is already underway to investigate how climate change might impact this hidden geography.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Plâncton , Genômica , Geografia , Oceanos e Mares , Plâncton/genética
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(32): e2120025119, 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914150

RESUMO

Hundreds of millions of poor families receive some form of targeted social assistance. Many of these antipoverty programs involve some degree of geographic targeting, where aid is prioritized to the poorest regions of the country. However, policy makers in many low-resource settings lack the disaggregated poverty data required to make effective geographic targeting decisions. Using several independent datasets from Nigeria, this paper shows that high-resolution poverty maps, constructed by applying machine learning algorithms to satellite imagery and other nontraditional geospatial data, can improve the targeting of government cash transfers to poor families. Specifically, we find that geographic targeting relying on machine learning-based poverty maps can reduce errors of exclusion and inclusion relative to geographic targeting based on recent nationally representative survey data. This result holds for antipoverty programs that target both the poor and the extreme poor and for initiatives of varying sizes. We also find no evidence that machine learning-based maps increase targeting disparities by demographic groups, such as gender or religion. Based in part on these findings, the Government of Nigeria used this approach to geographically target emergency cash transfers in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Pobreza , Seguridade Social , Geografia , Humanos , Nigéria
5.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 3085446, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35815246

RESUMO

In order to explore the new urban-rural relationship (URR), develop urban-rural integration (URI), and realize rural revitalization (RRT), we should break down the barriers between developed cities and backward villages, and gradually realize the flow of production and optimize the combination, promote the coordinated development of rural and urban; this study analyzes the logic and three wheel drive from new urbanization to URI and RRT under the background of ecological environment sustainability, constructs a three wheel transmission model of rural economic development under the mode of URI, collects data through social survey, and analyzes the correlation of data by using the Spearman formula, using the curve estimation formula to analyze the data consistency, and explores the relationship between ecological environment investment and URI and RRT. Through continuous development, the gap between urban and rural areas has been significantly reduced, and major progress has been made in urban planning, construction, and management, and the rate of urban-rural integration has steadily increased, accelerating the pace of urban-rural integration.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Urbanização , China , Demografia , Geografia , Humanos , Lógica , Dinâmica Populacional , População Urbana
6.
J Hist Ideas ; 83(3): 407-430, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35815513

RESUMO

Gustav III's royal coup in 1772 reestablished strong monarchy and ended the Age of Liberty (Frihetstiden) in Sweden. The event attracted much interest and commentary across Europe. The most detailed account of the episode and sophisticated analysis of its causes was Charles Francis Sheridan's now forgotten History of the Late Revolution in Sweden (1778). Sheridan used Enlightenment history and political science to argue that the reasons for the Swedish revolution went beyond its flawed constitution and could be traced to the Swedish national character and the circumstances of its orders, determined by its longue durée history, laws, geography, and climate.


Assuntos
Sistemas Políticos , Política , Europa (Continente) , Geografia , Suécia
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11064, 2022 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35794166

RESUMO

Expanding and intensifying anthropogenic land use is one of the greatest drivers of changes of biodiversity loss and political inequality worldwide. In the Greater Mara, Kenya, a trend of private land enclosure is currently happening, led by smallholders wishing to protect and uphold their land titles. Here we expand on previous work by Løvschal et al. quantifying the rapid, large-scale development of fencing infrastructure that began in 1985 but has increased by 170% from 2010 onwards. We provide fine-scale analysis of the spatial and temporal trends in fencing using high-resolution Sentinel-2 imagery. The formally unprotected regions have distinctly more fences than the rest of the Mara, one experiencing a 740% increase in fenced land in four years. Conservancies have an effect in stemming fencing but fences crop up within and along conservancy boundaries. We estimate the actual geographical coverage of the fences in the Mara to be 130,277 ha (19% of the total region) using an error margin of 8%, derived by calibrating our satellite mapping with ground-truth data. The study suggests the need for revising community-based eco-conservation efforts and pursuing a richer understanding of the socio-political and historical dynamics underlying this phenomenon.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Geografia , Quênia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270815, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35877615

RESUMO

Local communities' perspectives on mining businesses are a matter of endless debate, particularly in developing countries. If misunderstood or mismanaged by authorities (local and national), these perspectives may lead to violent and deadly reactions, which are unaffordable given the tremendous contribution of mining businesses to socio-economic development. The recurrence of these violent events means that authorities and mining businesses may have been failing to understand the dynamic of local people's expectations. Here, to explain the complexity of the interactions of local people with mine businesses, we collected socio-economic data along with data on people's satisfaction levels towards the services delivered by a local mining business in the Mose Kotane Local Municipality in South Africa. Data collected were analyzed by fitting a Structural Equation Model (SEM). We found that only 4-8% of communities' expectations were met by the local mine business, and that closest communities to the mine do not benefit significantly more services than away-communities (Chi-square = 2.71, df = 4, P = 0.60). However, the proportion of moderately satisfied people (in relation to the services delivered by the mine) tends to increase when moving away from the mine while the proportion of dissatisfied people decreases. Our SEM, linking socio-economic data to communities' perspectives, shows a good fit (Fisher C value = 0; P = 1.00, n = 158). In communities away from the mine, residents who were initially happy about the establishment of the mining business tend to be satisfied with the services delivered by the mine (ß = 2.69±0.41, P<0.001) but these residents are likely to be employed people (P<0.05). In communities close to the mine, large-sized households tend to be satisfied with the mine-delivered services (P = 0.04). This is potentially due to the fact that a large household is more likely to have at least one person working for the mine. Collectively, these findings reveal how socio-economic variables determine people's perspectives on the mining business.


Assuntos
Emprego , Mineração , Comércio , Geografia , Humanos , África do Sul
9.
Ecol Lett ; 25(8): 1760-1782, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35791088

RESUMO

Pathogen transmission depends on host density, mobility and contact. These components emerge from host and pathogen movements that themselves arise through interactions with the surrounding environment. The environment, the emergent host and pathogen movements, and the subsequent patterns of density, mobility and contact form an 'epidemiological landscape' connecting the environment to specific locations where transmissions occur. Conventionally, the epidemiological landscape has been described in terms of the geographical coordinates where hosts or pathogens are located. We advocate for an alternative approach that relates those locations to attributes of the local environment. Environmental descriptions can strengthen epidemiological forecasts by allowing for predictions even when local geographical data are not available. Environmental predictions are more accessible than ever thanks to new tools from movement ecology, and we introduce a 'movement-pathogen pace of life' heuristic to help identify aspects of movement that have the most influence on spatial epidemiology. By linking pathogen transmission directly to the environment, the epidemiological landscape offers an efficient path for using environmental information to inform models describing when and where transmission will occur.


Assuntos
Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Ecologia , Epidemiologia , Movimento , Geografia
10.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0268482, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35816489

RESUMO

The emergence of Neolithic economies and their spread through Eurasia was one of the most crucial transitions of the Holocene, with different mechanisms of diffusion-demic, cultural-being proposed. While this phenomenon has been exhaustively studied in Europe, with repeated attempts to model the speed of Neolithic diffusion based on radiocarbon dates, much less attention has been devoted to the dispersal towards the East, and in particular to South Asia. The Neolithic in the latter region at least partly derived from southwest Asia, given the presence of "founder crops" such as wheat and barley. The process of their eastward diffusion, however, may have been significantly different to the westward dispersal, which was mainly due to demic diffusion, as local domesticates were already available and farming was already practiced in parts of South Asia. Here, we use radiocarbon dates specifically related to the spread of the southwest Asian Neolithic crops to model the speed of dispersal of this agricultural package towards South Asia. To assess potential geographical and environmental effects on the dispersal, we simulate different speeds depending on the biomes being crossed, employing a genetic algorithm to search for the values that most closely approach the radiocarbon dates. We find that the most important barrier to be crossed were the Zagros mountains, where the speed was lowest, possibly due to topography and climate. A large portion of the study area is dominated by deserts and shrublands, where the speed of advance, albeit closer to the range expected for demic diffusion, was lower than observed in Europe, which can also potentially be attributed to environmental constraints in the adaptation of the crops. Finally, a notable acceleration begins in the Indus valley, exceeding the range of demic diffusion in the tropical and subtropical environments east of the Indus. We propose that the latter is due to the rapid diffusion among populations already familiar with plant cultivation.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Embalagem de Medicamentos , Europa (Continente) , Geografia , Oriente Médio
11.
Glob Health Action ; 15(1): 2095782, 2022 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35848796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) in children is difficult to detect and often needs specialists to diagnose; the health system is supposed to refer to higher level of health care when diagnosis is not settled in a sick child. In Pakistan, the primary health care level can usually not diagnose childhood TB and will refer to a paediatricians working at a secondary or tertiary care hospital. We aimed to determine the health services access to child TB services in Pakistan. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the geographical access to child TB services in Pakistan. METHOD: We used geospatial analysis to calculate the distance from the nearest public health facility to settlements, using qGIS, as well as population living within the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommended 5-km distance. RESULT: At primary health care level, 14.1% of facilities report child TB cases to national tuberculosis program and 74% of the population had geographical access to general primary health care within 5-km radius. To secondary- and tertiary-level health care, 33.5% of the population had geographical access within 5-km radius. The average distance from a facility for diagnosis of childhood TB was 26.3 km from all settlement to the nearest child TB sites. The population of one province (Balochistan) had longer distances to health care services. CONCLUSION: With fairly good coverage of primary health care but lower coverage of specialist care for childhood TB, the health system depends heavily on a good referral system from the communities.


Assuntos
Tuberculose , Criança , Geografia , Instalações de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/terapia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805240

RESUMO

The linkage mechanisms and optimization strategies between land use transition and eco-environmental effects that occur in the production-living-ecological space of karst mountain areas remain under-explored in the current literature. Based on county data collected in Longlin Multinational Autonomous County of Guangxi, which is located in the rocky desertification area of Yunnan, Guangxi, and Guizhou, this study contributes a county-level analysis on land use transition and eco-environmental effects by addressing two research questions: (1) Which factors of land use transition are related to the eco-environmental effects of production-living-ecological space? (2) What are the key land allocation mechanisms behind the interventions of local rocky desertification regulation policies? We conducted two sets of analyses to answer these two questions: quantitative analyses of the spatial and temporal evolution between land use transition, rocky desertification, and its eco-environmental effects, and qualitative analyses of policy interventions on production-living-ecological land development and rocky desertification management. The findings show that the occurrence of rocky desertification accompanied by unreasonable land use structure transition and its important factor is caused by ecological land being restricted by production-living land. Specifically, urbanization strategies coordinating ecological and socio-economic effects is significant to karst mountain areas. Moreover, the orderly increase of woodland slows down rocky desertification. Policies of "returning farmland to forest" and "afforestation of wasteland" have significantly reduced rocky desertification that can be applied to other geographical situations.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , China , Clima , Geografia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886243

RESUMO

The quantitative analysis of the urban-rural integration development (URID) level and its driving factors is of great significance for the new-type urbanization of urban agglomerations. This study constructed a multidimensional framework in the perspective of a population-space-economy-society-ecology framework to measure the URID level from 2000 to 2020 and further explored the driving mechanism of the URID changes by a geographical detector model in the Hangzhou Bay urban agglomeration (HBUA). The results showed that the land-use change in the HBUA from 2000 to 2020 showed a typical characteristic of the transition between cultivated and construction land. The URID level in the HBUA improved from 0.294 in 2000 to 0.563 in 2020, and the year 2005 may have been the inflection point of URID in the HBUA. The URID level showed a significant spatial aggregation with high values. Hangzhou, Jiaxing, and Ningbo were hot spots since 2015, and the cold spots were Huzhou and Shaoxing. The population and spatial integration had more important impacts on URID levels in 2000, 2005, and 2020, while economic and social integration had more significant impacts on URID levels in 2010 and 2015. This study provided a deeper understanding of the evolution of URID in an urban agglomeration and could be used as a reference for decision makers.


Assuntos
Baías , Urbanização , China , Cidades , Ecologia , Geografia , Rios , Reforma Urbana
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12781, 2022 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35896722

RESUMO

The main targets of this were to screen the factors that may influence the distribution of 25-hydroxyvitamin D[25(OH)D] reference value in healthy elderly people in China, and further explored the geographical distribution differences of 25(OH)D reference value in China. In this study, we collected the 25(OH)D of 25,470 healthy elderly from 58 cities in China to analyze the correlation between 25(OH)D and 22 geography secondary indexes through spearman regression analysis. Six indexes with significant correlation were extracted, and a ridge regression model was built, and the country's urban healthy elderly'25(OH)D reference value was predicted. By using the disjunctive Kriging method, we obtained the geographical distribution of 25(OH)D reference values for healthy elderly people in China. The reference value of 25(OH)D for healthy elderly in China was significantly correlated with the 6 secondary indexes, namely, latitude (°), annual temperature range (°C), annual sunshine hours (h), annual mean temperature (°C), annual mean relative humidity (%), and annual precipitation (mm). The geographical distribution of 25(OH)D values of healthy elderly in China showed a trend of being higher in South China and lower in North China, and higher in coastal areas and lower in inland areas. This study lays a foundation for further research on the mechanism of different influencing factors on the reference value of 25(OH)D index. A ridge regression model composed of significant influencing factors has been established to provide the basis for formulating reference criteria for the treatment factors of the vitamin D deficiency and prognostic factors of the COVID-19 using 25(OH)D reference value in different regions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Geografia , Humanos , Análise Espacial , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia
15.
Lancet ; 400(10347): 185-235, 2022 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35843246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The health risks associated with moderate alcohol consumption continue to be debated. Small amounts of alcohol might lower the risk of some health outcomes but increase the risk of others, suggesting that the overall risk depends, in part, on background disease rates, which vary by region, age, sex, and year. METHODS: For this analysis, we constructed burden-weighted dose-response relative risk curves across 22 health outcomes to estimate the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL) and non-drinker equivalence (NDE), the consumption level at which the health risk is equivalent to that of a non-drinker, using disease rates from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2020 for 21 regions, including 204 countries and territories, by 5-year age group, sex, and year for individuals aged 15-95 years and older from 1990 to 2020. Based on the NDE, we quantified the population consuming harmful amounts of alcohol. FINDINGS: The burden-weighted relative risk curves for alcohol use varied by region and age. Among individuals aged 15-39 years in 2020, the TMREL varied between 0 (95% uncertainty interval 0-0) and 0·603 (0·400-1·00) standard drinks per day, and the NDE varied between 0·002 (0-0) and 1·75 (0·698-4·30) standard drinks per day. Among individuals aged 40 years and older, the burden-weighted relative risk curve was J-shaped for all regions, with a 2020 TMREL that ranged from 0·114 (0-0·403) to 1·87 (0·500-3·30) standard drinks per day and an NDE that ranged between 0·193 (0-0·900) and 6·94 (3·40-8·30) standard drinks per day. Among individuals consuming harmful amounts of alcohol in 2020, 59·1% (54·3-65·4) were aged 15-39 years and 76·9% (73·0-81·3) were male. INTERPRETATION: There is strong evidence to support recommendations on alcohol consumption varying by age and location. Stronger interventions, particularly those tailored towards younger individuals, are needed to reduce the substantial global health loss attributable to alcohol. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Carga Global da Doença , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Geografia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco
16.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0269841, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35802724

RESUMO

Evaluation of scenic resources is imperative in national park planning, and 3S technology has been applied for this purpose because it effectively leverages modern geo-informatics technology. We investigated the scenic resources in the Yesanpo National Park based on 3S technology. The Nearest-Neighbor Index, Kernel density estimation, imbalance index, and geographical concentration index in modern geography were introduced into the spatial distribution evaluation of scenic resources, and here, for the first time, the spatial combination index of scenic resources was proposed as one of the quantitative analysis indices of spatial distribution of scenic resources. Moreover, the spatial combination distribution characteristics of scenic resources were analyzed quantitatively and graphically. The characteristics of the spatial distribution of scenic resources in the Yesanpo National Park were as follows: The spatial distribution type of scenic spots in the Yesanpo National Park is a clustered type. The spatial distribution of the scenic resource groups in the Yesanpo National Park was extremely imbalanced and highly concentrated. Based on the identification of scenic resources, we evaluated the scenic resources of each area and propose sustainable development plans for each area. This evaluation method can be applied to similar national parks to promote the quantitative and graphical evaluation of the spatial distribution of scenic resources and provide support for the decision-making processes related to national park planning and management.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Parques Recreativos , China , Geografia , Análise Espacial
17.
Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill ; 15(3): 177-190, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35722667

RESUMO

Multi-element analysis combined with chemometric method has been used to investigate the distinguish between Sengcu rice and other types of rice origins in Vietnam. In Sengcu rice, As, Ba Sr, Pb, Ca, Se were confirmed as the key elements for geographical traceability among three fields of Lao Cai, whereas Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Ag, As were major factors to distinguish between Sengcu and other types of rice. Based on linear discriminant analysis and partial least squares-discriminant analysis model, overall correct identification rates distinguishing between Sengcu and other types of rice were approximately 100% in both training and validation test. Moreover, to distinguish geographical origin of Sengcu rice samples, these rates vary from 80% to 99%. These results suggest the presence of food adulteration illustrated in the latter.


Assuntos
Oryza , Análise Discriminante , Contaminação de Alimentos , Geografia , Análise Multivariada
18.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 290: 1046-1047, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35673198

RESUMO

PREDIMED, Clinical Data Warehouse of Grenoble Alps University Hospital, is currently participating in daily COVID-19 epidemic follow-up via spatial and chronological analysis of geographical maps. This monitoring is aimed for cluster detection and vulnerable population discovery. Our real-time geographical representations allow us to track the epidemic both inside and outside the hospital.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Data Warehousing , Geografia , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos
19.
Food Chem ; 393: 133377, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35691070

RESUMO

Thyme is an aromatic herb traditionally used for food purposes due to its organoleptic characteristics and medicinal properties, which is highly susceptible to food fraud. In this study, GC-HRMS-based fingerprinting was applied for the first time to determine the geographical traceability of thyme based on different origins (Spain, Poland, and Morocco), as well as to assess its processing by comparing sterilized vs. non-sterilized thyme. Unsupervised chemometric methods (PCA and HCA) revealed a predominant influence of the geographical origin on thyme fingerprints rather than processing effects. Supervised PLS-DA and OPLS-DA were used for discrimination purposes, revealing high predictive ability for further samples (100%), and allowing the identification of differential compounds (markers). A total of 24 markers were putatively identified (13 metabolites were confirmed) belonging to different classes: monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, alkenylbenzenes, and other miscellaneous compounds. This study outlines the potential of combining untargeted analysis by GC-HRMS with chemometrics for thyme authenticity and traceability.


Assuntos
Thymus (Planta) , Biomarcadores/análise , Análise Discriminante , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Geografia
20.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 29(2): 361-377, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674617

RESUMO

The article analyzes the role played by the National Astronomical Observatory (Observatorio Astronómico Nacional) in the territorial expansion of Chile at the end of the nineteenth century, through the relationship with three geographical explorations associated with this process. It is proposed that the Observatory played a central role in these geographic explorations, helping to obtain precise geographic coordinates to produce accurate maps of the territories annexed to the north and south of Chile. The results allow us to affirm that the National Astronomical Observatory provided strategic services during territorial expansion, and geography was an important part of its institutional scientific work.


El artículo analiza el rol que jugó el Observatorio Astronómico Nacional en la expansión territorial de Chile a fines del siglo XIX, a través de la relación que sostuvo con tres exploraciones geográficas asociadas a este proceso. Se propone que el Observatorio cumplió un papel central para estas exploraciones geográficas, ayudando a obtener coordenadas geográficas precisas en pos de producir mapas exactos de los territorios anexados al norte y sur de Chile. Los resultados permiten afirmar que el Observatorio Astronómico Nacional fue una institución que prestó servicios estratégicos durante la expansión territorial y, a su vez, que la geografía fue parte importante de sus trabajos científicos institucionales.


Assuntos
Astronomia , Astronomia/história , Chile , Geografia
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