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2.
NTM ; 30(1): 63-88, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35166855

RESUMO

Patient history has enriched medical history since about the 1980s. But there are still research gaps in certain periods and themes, especially in topics related to the medical history of West Germany. This paper deals with the efforts of patients, lay persons, and medical advisors (diabetologists) to enable diabetics to secure employment as civil servants (Verbeamtung). Attention will be payed to the fact that this success relied on the activities of mediators, who translated and conveyed the patients' interests to society at large. This victory was concordant with similar initiatives in other fields of the diabetic life, including sexuality and lifestyle management. Therefore, efforts to achieve civil servant employment for diabetic patients were constitutive of a broader initiative that changed the image of the disease and promoted the integration of diabetic patients into West German society.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Estereotipagem , Emprego , Alemanha , Alemanha Ocidental , História do Século XX , Humanos
3.
Anaesthesiologie ; 71(7): 502-509, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34889966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In contrast to prehospital care there is a lack of specifications for the organization and equipment of medical emergency teams for in-hospital emergency care. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the organization, team composition, training, equipment and tasks of medical emergency teams in the Federal Republic of Germany. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Evaluation of a web-based survey of all hospitals participating in the German Resuscitation Register between February and March2020. The participants were asked about team composition; emergency equipment; type, content and scope of special training or further training as well as other additional tasks in the everyday clinical routine when participating in the medical emergency team. Hospitals with ≤ or >600 beds were compared. RESULTS: A total of 21 (>600 beds: 10, 48%; ≤600 beds: 11, 52%) hospitals participated in the survey. Team composition requirements were present at 76% (n = 16; ≤600 beds: 8, 72% vs. >600 beds: 8, 80%), training requirements for medical emergency teams at 38% (n = 16; ≤600 beds: 4, 36% vs. >600 beds: 4, 40%) of hospitals, with a focus on cardiac life support (n = 6, 28%; ≤600 beds: 3, 27% vs. >600 beds: 3, 30%) and airway management (n = 4, 19%; ≤600 beds: 3, 27% vs. >600 beds: 1, 10%). A 12-lead electrocardiogram (n = 7, 33%; ≤600 beds: 1, 9% vs. >600 beds: 6, 60%; p = 0.02), video laryngoscope (n = 7, 33%; ≤600 beds: 2, 18% vs. >600 beds: 5, 50%), ventilator without (n = 7, 33%; ≤600 beds: 2, 18% vs. >600 beds: 5, 50%) or with the possibility of non-invasive ventilation was part of the standard equipment in n = 4, 19% (≤600 beds: 1, 9% vs. >600 beds: 3, 30%). A total of 85% (n = 18; ≤600 beds: 10, 100% vs. >600 beds 8, 72%), had additional tasks in the daily clinical routine. While clinics with >600 beds staffed medical emergency teams 100% of the time from the intensive care units, in clinics ≤600 beds medical emergency teams were deployed significantly more often in the emergency department (n = 5, 45%) and in the normal wards (n = 5, 45%, p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Training and equipment of medical emergency teams in the Federal Republic of Germany is heterogeneous. They should at least meet the standards commonly used in prehospital emergency medicine and include the availability of a portable 12-lead electrocardiogram, a ventilator with the possibility of noninvasive ventilation and a video laryngoscope. Regardless of the size of the hospital, continuous availability of all members of the medical emergency teams should be ensured.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Ressuscitação , Alemanha Ocidental , Hospitais , Humanos , Sistema de Registros
4.
Psychiatr Prax ; 49(6): 296-303, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34905781

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Investigating the effects of internal migration on somatoform complaints (GBB-8) as well as psychological distress (PHQ-4; captures symptoms of anxiety and depression). METHODS: A representative sample from 2019 is used and divided into four groups (West, East, East-West, West-East). A variance analysis was conducted. RESULTS: The West group reports significantly more distress and somatoform symptoms than the East group. The group East-West report significantly more distress and somatoform complaints. CONCLUSION: The influence of internal migration, especially from East to West Germany, should be considered in future studies.


Assuntos
Angústia Psicológica , Alemanha , Alemanha Oriental , Alemanha Ocidental , Humanos
5.
Gesundheitswesen ; 83(S 02): S77-S86, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695865

RESUMO

ZIEL DER STUDIE: Routinedaten von Krankenkassen sind als Datenquelle mittlerweile gut etabliert. Hinsichtlich der Verallgemeinerbarkeit der Ergebnisse bei Analysen mit Daten einer Krankenkasse treten Fragen der Repräsentativität der Versichertenpopulation auf, insbesondere da nicht alle Studien auf soziodemografische Merkmale adjustieren. Diese Arbeit untersucht mittels deskriptiver Analyse, ob und inwieweit sich die Sozialstruktur der Versichertenpopulation der AOK Niedersachsen von der Sozialstruktur der Allgemeinbevölkerung und der sozialversicherungspflichtig Beschäftigten in Niedersachsen (NDS) und in der Bundesrepublik (BRD) unterscheiden. METHODIK: Die Datengrundlage bilden pseudonymisierte Daten der AOK NDS, die Beschäftigtenstatistik der Bundesagentur für Arbeit und der Bevölkerungsstand in NDS und der BRD. Die Versichertenpopulation wird an zwei Stichtagen 31.12.2012 und 31.12.2017 hinsichtlich der Geschlechter-und Altersstruktur mit der Bevölkerung in NDS und der BRD verglichen. Anschließend werden die Daten der sozialversicherungspflichtig Beschäftigten in der AOK NDS und aus der Beschäftigtenstatistik der Bundesagentur für Arbeit gegenübergestellt, um Ausbildungsabschlüsse, Komplexität der ausgeübten Tätigkeit und elf Berufsbereiche zu vergleichen. ERGEBNISSE: Die Geschlechterstruktur unterscheidet sich nicht zwischen den drei Vergleichspopulationen. Verglichen mit der Bevölkerung in NDS und der BRD ist der Anteil der unter 30-Jährigen in der AOK NDS überdurchschnittlich, der Anteil der Personen zwischen 50 und 76 Jahren etwas unterdurchschnittlich. Sozialversicherungspflichtig Beschäftigte mit Hochschulabschluss und in Tätigkeiten mit höherer Komplexität sind in der AOK NDS unterrepräsentiert. Die Verteilung der sozialversicherungspflichtig Beschäftigten auf elf Berufsbereiche unterscheidet sich ebenfalls. SCHLUSSFOLGERUNG: Die Studie zeigt, dass soziodemographische und sozio-ökonomische Merkmale in Studien mit Krankenkassendaten wann immer möglich berücksichtigt werden sollten. In Zukunft wird das Informationssystem Versorgungsdaten krankenkassenübergreifende Analysen mit Sekundärdaten ermöglichen. Fragestellungen der gesundheitlichen Ungleichheit können damit jedoch aufgrund des Fehlens von sozio-ökonomischen Merkmalen nicht beantwortet werden. Auch die Identifikation von vulnerablen Gruppen, die gezielt geeigneten Maßnahmen zugeführt werden könnten, ist ohne Berücksichtigung von sozio-ökonomischen Merkmalen erschwert. AIM OF THE WORK: Routine data from statutory health insurance funds are now a well-established source of data for scientific research. With regard to the generalizability of findings based on data from one health insurance fund, questions arise regarding the representativeness of the insured population, especially since not all studies adjust for socio-demographic characteristics. Our study examines whether and to what extent socio-demographic and occupational characteristics of the population insured with the AOK Lower Saxony differ from the total and working population of Lower Saxony and the Federal Republic of Germany. METHODS: The analyses are based on pseudonymised data from the AOK, the employment statistics of the Federal Employment Agency (FEA) and population statistics. The insured population was compared with the population of Lower Saxony and Germany at two cut-off dates (31.12.2012 and 31.12.2017) with respect to the distributions of age and gender. Subsequently, data of employed insured persons were compared with FEA-data in order to compare educational level, complexity of the work and occupational areas. RESULTS: The gender structure did not differ between the three populations. The proportion of insured women and men below 30 years of age was above the corresponding figures of Lower Saxony and Germany. Employed individuals holding a university degree or jobs with higher complexity were under-represented in the AOK. The distribution across eleven occupational areas in the AOK also differed from the reference populations. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows that socio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics should be considered whenever possible in studies using statutory health insurance data. In future, the new database "Information System Health Care Data" will enable analyses across all statutory health insurance providers. However, research questions of health inequalities cannot be answered with this approach due to the lack of socio-economic characteristics in these data. Identifying vulnerable groups that could be targeted for appropriate interventions is also difficult without taking socio-economic characteristics into account.


Assuntos
Seguro Saúde , Feminino , Alemanha , Alemanha Ocidental , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/economia , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 691680, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268291

RESUMO

A substantial body of research has shown worse health conditions for East- vs. West-Germany in the wake of reunification. In the present study, we investigate how these differences between the two formerly divided regions developed and what maintains them. Specifically, we consider the associations between health status, income satisfaction, and health-related locus of control. In a quasi-experimental and longitudinal study design, we are particularly interested in the differences between individuals who stayed in East-Germany and those who were born in the East but migrated to West-Germany. To this end, we examined data from seven waves of the Saxony Longitudinal Study (2003-2009). Specifically, we tested a cross-lagged panel model with random effects, which evinced very good model fit. Most parameters and processes were equivalent between individuals who stayed in East-Germany vs. moved to West-Germany. Crucially, there was the expected pattern of positive correlations between health, income, and locus of control. In addition, we found substantially lower values for all three of these variables for the individuals who stayed in East-Germany (vs. moved to West-Germany). A possible explanation is the increase in socio-economic status that the internal migrants experienced. These findings present an important contribution of research in order to foster a better understanding on the social dynamics in Germany related to internal/domestic migrants and implications in the context of health outcomes (e.g., significantly more unemployment in East vs. West-Germany), especially since almost 20-25% of East-German citizens migrated to West-Germany. Until now, there are no similar studies to the Saxony longitudinal project, since the data collection started in 1987 and almost every year an identical panel has been surveyed; which can be particularly useful for health authorities. The study mainly focuses on social science research and deals with the phenomenon of reunification, approaching several subjects such as mental and physical health, quality of life and the evaluation of the political system. Yet even though many people have experienced such a migration process, there has been little research on the subjects we approach. With our research we deepen the understanding of the health consequences of internal migration.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Alemanha Oriental , Alemanha Ocidental , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais
7.
Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother ; 49(4): 284-294, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34240622

RESUMO

ADHS - Disorder concepts and the beginnings of pharmacotherapy in the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic Abstract. After sporadic references before 1900, the concept of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder became established in the 20th century. The hyperactive and inattentive child then became the focus of neuropediatrics in the wake of the encephalitis lethargica epidemic by clinical presentations of postencephalitic residual conditions. From these patients, physicians distilled a subgroup with an blank neurological history but impressive clinical symptoms. Child psychiatry, which emerged in the middle of the last century, studied these minimally brain-damaged patients, searching for both causes and therapies. The disorder concepts of Reinhart Lempp and Gerhard Göllnitz are significant contributions from the Federal Republic of Germany and the GDR, respectively, which provide revealing insights into the establishment of pharmacotherapy with stimulants in the 1970s.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Criança , Alemanha , Alemanha Oriental , Alemanha Ocidental , História do Século XX , Humanos
8.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 73: 101968, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aetiology of childhood leukaemia is largely unknown. Analyses of geographical differences may enhance aetiologic insights. The reunification of Germany in 1990 provides a unique opportunity to evaluate incidence patterns and time trends in two merging countries with substantial lifestyle, social and socioeconomic differences. With this study we provide an extensive assessment of 28-year incidence patterns and temporal trends after the German reunification. METHODS: We identified all children diagnosed with a lymphoid leukaemia (LL) or acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) before the age of 15 years between 1991 and 2018 using the German Childhood Cancer Registry (N = 14,922), and evaluated the incidence pattern and temporal trends in former East Germany compared to West Germany by subtype, age at diagnosis and sex. RESULTS: Incidence rates of LL were substantially lower (around 20 %) in Eastern Germany compared to Western Germany at the time of reunification. This was followed by a remarkable increase in Eastern Germany across both sexes and age groups until around 2000, when incidence rates reached the same levels as those in Western German federal states. Thereafter, incidence rates remained rather stable with some indications of a slightly decreasing tendency in both Eastern and Western Germany (estimated annual percentage changes (EAPC) 2005-2018: East Germany = -0.8 %; West Germany = -0.4 %), driven by the 0- to 4-year olds. Overall, AML incidence rates were stable over time in Western Germany, while EAPC for Eastern Germany indicated an increasing tendency (EAPC 1991-2018 = 1.3 %) driven by the older children, mostly during the early 2000s and in most recent years. CONCLUSION: The underlying mechanisms driving the childhood leukaemia rates remain inconclusive. Linkage studies including individual and clinical data would be valuable in evaluating the impact of a population's social, socioeconomic and lifestyle changes on the risk of childhood leukaemia and disease aetiology overall.


Assuntos
Leucemia Linfoide , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Alemanha Oriental/epidemiologia , Alemanha Ocidental/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leucemia Linfoide/epidemiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Sistema de Registros
9.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(4): 2546-2555, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949148

RESUMO

AIMS: Heart failure (HF) is the most common primary inpatient diagnosis in Germany. We examined temporal trends of HF hospitalization within Germany focusing on regional differences. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed aggregated data of more than 320 million hospitalizations in Germany from 2000 to 2017. Temporal trends of HF-related parameters were analysed, focusing on regional differences between the federal states. The absolute number of HF-related hospitalizations throughout Germany increased continuously and almost doubled (from 239 694 to 464 724 cases, +94%) with the relative increase being higher in East Germany compared with West Germany (119% vs. 88%). These regional differences persisted after age standardization with 609 and 490 cases per 100 000 population, respectively. The length of stay decreased continuously across Germany (from 14.3 to 10.2 days; -29%), while the total number of HF-related hospital days increased by 51% in East Germany and 35% in West Germany. In 2017, HF remained the leading cause of in-hospital death (8.9% of all cases), with a markedly higher rate in East vs. West Germany (65 vs. 43 deaths per 100 000 population). CONCLUSIONS: Heart failure remains the most common cause of hospitalization and in-hospital death throughout Germany. The increase in HF-related morbidity and mortality was much higher in East Germany compared with West Germany during the observation period. A more detailed understanding of these striking disparities 30 years after the German reunification requires further investigations. There is an urgent need for action with regard to stronger control of risk factors and improvement of both chronic HF management and healthcare structures.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hospitalização , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Alemanha Ocidental , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos
10.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the German division, two culturally very similar populations were exposed to very disparate socioeconomic conditions, which converged again after 1989. The impact of healthcare and life circumstances on mortality differences can better be estimated when cultural explanations are widely neglectable. OBJECTIVES: For the first time, we analyse harmonised cause-of-death data explicitly by age. Hereby, we can show which ages or birth cohorts were particularly affected by German division and reunification in their mortality and to which causes of death this is attributable. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We harmonised the German cause-of-death statistics by applying an internationally standardised harmonisation process to account for differences and breaks in cause-of-death coding practices. We analysed the data using decomposition methods. RESULTS: During the 1980s, east-west disparities were increasing as progress in the reduction of cardiovascular mortality was much stronger in West Germany, notably at older ages. After 1989, East Germany was able to catch up to the west in many areas. This is especially true for elderly persons and women, while east-west disparities are still visible today, particularly among male adult cohorts (1950-1970) strongly affected by the East German transition crisis. CONCLUSIONS: The lower life expectancy of the East German population in the late 1980s was primarily caused by a slower pace of the cardiovascular revolution. The remaining present-day disparities are rather an aftermath of the East German transition crisis than direct aftereffects of the division.


Assuntos
Expectativa de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Alemanha Oriental , Alemanha Ocidental , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Pathologe ; 42(Suppl 1): 11-19, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170948

RESUMO

During the Second World War, the German Wehrmacht and the SS tested various chemical warfare agents on prisoners of concentration camps. The SS needed a pathologist to do this. Therefore, Reichsarzt SS Ernst-Robert Grawitz recruited the 32-year-old Hans Wolfgang Sachs. Despite his position as senior pathologist at the office of the Reichsarzt SS, Sachs was spared interrogation and prosecution after 1945, although the prosecution presented a document about chemical warfare and human experiments during the Nuremberg medical trial. In this, Sachs was named as a participant in so-called "N-Stoff" (chlorine trifluoride) experiments. Little is known about Sachs to this day. This article is intended to close this gap. Of particular interest are the motives and reasons why Sachs joined the party and the SS, as well as his career after 1945.


Assuntos
Campos de Concentração , Socialismo Nacional , Adulto , Alemanha , Alemanha Ocidental , História do Século XX , Humanos , Patologistas
13.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 20(3): 183-191, sept.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The outbreak of COVID-19 and the lack of vaccine made extraordinary actions such as social distancing necessary. While some individuals experience the restrictions on daily life as a heavy burden, others adapt to the situation and try to make the best of it. The present longitudinal study investigated the extent and predictors of the burden induced by the outbreak of COVID-19 in Germany. METHOD: Data were assessed in October 2019 using the DASS-21 and the PMH-Scale, and in March 2020 adding a six-item measure of burden and a 2-item rating of sense of control. RESULTS: In a sample of 436 participants, about 28% stayed in self-quarantine, 22 persons had relevant symptoms and one person was positively tested for COVID-19. Most participants experienced medium to high levels of burden but tried to make the best of it. Stress symptoms in 2019 predicted a higher level of burden and PMH predicted a lower level of burden in March 2020. Remarkably, depression and anxiety symptoms did not significantly predict burden. The protective effect of PMH and the negative impact of stress symptoms were mediated by perceived sense of control. CONCLUSIONS: The results emphasize the protective effect of PMH in extraordinary situations such as the current outbreak of COVID-19


ANTECEDENTES/OBJETIVO: El brote COVID-19 y la falta de vacuna hicieron necesarias acciones extraordinarias como la distancia social. Algunas personas experimentan las restricciones en la vida diaria como sobrecarga emocional y otras se adaptan a la situación, tratando de sacar lo mejor de ella. Se investigó el alcance y predictores de sobrecarga emocional inducida por el COVID-19 en Alemania. MÉTODO: Se evaluaron niveles de estrés y salud mental positiva en octubre de 2019 con DASS-21 y Escala-PMH, y en marzo de 2020, agregando medidas de sobrecarga emocional y percepción de control. RESULTADOS: En una muestra de 436 participantes, el 28% permaneció en cuarentena, 22 personas tuvieron síntomas relevantes y una dio positivo en COVID-19. La mayoría experimentaron niveles de sobrecarga emocional medio-alto, aunque trataron de sobrellevar la situación lo mejor posible. Los síntomas de estrés en octubre 2019 predijeron un nivel de sobrecarga más elevado en marzo 2020 y, contrariamente, los niveles de salud mental positiva en octubre 2019 predijeron un menor nivel de sobrecarga emocional en marzo 2020. Sorprendentemente, los síntomas de depresión y ansiedad no predijeron la sensación de sobrecarga posterior. El efecto protector de la salud mental positiva y el impacto negativo de los síntomas de estrés fueron mediados por la percepción de control. CONCLUSIONES: Se resalta el efecto protector de la salud mental positiva en situaciones extraordinarias como el brote COVID-19


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pandemias , Quarentena/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Prospectivos , Alemanha Ocidental/epidemiologia
14.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(6)2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545389

RESUMO

Although the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) population of North-West Germany has a remarkable number of melanistic specimens between 10% and 25%, the underlying genetic mutation-causing melanism is still unknown. We used a gene targeting approach focusing on MC1R and ASIP as important genes of coat coloration. Overall, 1384 bp of MC1R and 2039 bp of ASIP were sequenced in 24 specimens and several SNPs were detected. But only the ASIP-SNP c.33G>T completely segregated both phenotypes leading to the amino acid substitution p.Leu11Phe. The SNP was further evaluated in additional 471 samples. Generally, all black specimens (n = 33) were homozygous TT, whereas chestnut individuals were either homozygote GG (n = 436) or heterozygote GT (n = 26). Considering the fact that all melanistic animals shared two mutated alleles of the strongly associated SNP, we concluded that melanism is inherited in a recessive mode in European roe deer.


Assuntos
Proteína Agouti Sinalizadora/genética , Cervos/genética , Cor de Cabelo/genética , Melanose/genética , Alelos , Animais , Genótipo , Alemanha Ocidental , Humanos , Melanose/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptor Tipo 1 de Melanocortina/genética
15.
J Anesth Hist ; 6(1): 8-12, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acupuncture anesthesia was used instead of intubation anesthesia in the 1970s and 1980s in West Germany and West Berlin. In East Germany acupuncture played no decisive role. SOURCES: Different articles and papers in journals, in daily press, statements of contemporary witnesses, films, records in archives. RESULTS: As in other Western countries, acupuncture was hugely popular in the Federal Republic of Germany in the 1970s. Chief triggers were the state visits to China of the American President Richard Nixon in 1972 and shortly thereafter of West German Foreign Minister Walter Scheel and his wife Mildred, an x-ray technician. During that period observation of an operation under acupuncture anesthesia was an obligatory element in the agenda of a foreign delegation. Following this showcasing, acupuncture was widely adopted in Western surgery as an alternative to the previously exclusive employment of intubation anesthesia. While the alternative method was soon abandoned in the frontline city of West Berlin, it continued to prevail in other West German cities, e.g. Gießen and Munich. Following the Chinese example, the acupuncture effect was normally enhanced electrically. In accordance with the animosity between the USSR and the People's Republic of China, exchange between the German Democratic Republic and China was very restricted through the late 1980s. This made it easier for East German acupuncture sceptics to reject the procedure and brand it as unscientific. Those who advocated it were in a precarious position. CONCLUSIONS: Acupuncture was lauded in the West as ancient savvy destined to complement science-oriented medicine. However, the cultural transfer which accompanied the spread of acupuncture was flawed by misunderstanding and misguidance. Acupuncture anesthesia instead of intubation was not practiced in the GDR. Acceptance of acupuncture in East German medicine failed to make any headway until the last few years of the country's existence.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/história , Anestesia/história , China , Alemanha Oriental , Alemanha Ocidental , História do Século XX , Humanos , Estados Unidos
16.
NTM ; 28(2): 211-217, 2020 06.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382897

RESUMO

This paper is part of Forum COVID-19: Perspectives in the Humanities and Social Sciences. The Spanish Flu 1918-1920 caused between 50 and 100 million deaths. Despite this, West German officials ignored the pandemics of 1957/1958 and 1968-1970. Patient perseverance seems to be an appropriate label for the lack of any action. The appearance of new viruses had a massive impact on the discourse concerning pandemics: "patient perseverance" became "omnipresent prevention." The actual measures against SARS-CoV­2 exceed the "omnipresent prevention" used during the 2009 swine flu pandemic by far.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/história , Pandemias/história , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , COVID-19 , Alemanha Ocidental , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1 , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação/história
17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 277, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies on lifestyle risk factors mainly focused on age- or gender-specific differences. However, lifestyle risk factors also vary across regions. Aim of the present study was to examine the extent to which prevalence rates of SNAP (smoking, nutrition, alcohol consumption, physical activity) vary between East and West Germany or North and South Germany. METHODS: Data came from the population-representative 2015 Epidemiological Survey of Substance Abuse (ESA) comprising 9204 subjects aged 18 to 64 years. To assess an east-west or south-north gradient, two binary logistic regression models were carried out for each SNAP factor. RESULTS: The logistic regression models revealed statistically significant differences with higher rates of at-risk alcohol consumption and lower rates of unhealthy nutrition in East Germany compared to West Germany. Significant differences between North and South Germany were found for at-risk alcohol consumption with higher rates of at-risk alcohol consumption in South Germany. Daily smoking and low physical activity were equally distributed across regions. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of measures reducing at-risk alcohol consumption in Germany should take the identified east-west and south-north gradient into account. Since the prevalence of unhealthy nutrition was generally high, prevention and intervention measures should focus on Germany as a whole instead of specific regions.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Alemanha Oriental/epidemiologia , Alemanha Ocidental/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nervenarzt ; 91(Suppl 1): 35-42, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067084

RESUMO

For a long time, biographical sketches and obituaries have focused on Pette's instantly recognizable scientific contributions to German neurology and neurovirology; however, they often ignored or marginalized his role as vice-president of the Society of German Neurologists and Psychiatrists (GDNP) during the Nazi era. Recent investigations and reports based on newly discovered records question such one-sided assessments and paint a contradictory picture. Pette joined the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP) and the NS Medical Association in 1933 and in the same year signed the "vow of allegiance of the professors to Adolf Hitler and the National Socialistic State". In 1934 he succeeded Nonne as professor for neurology in Hamburg and from 1935 headed the neurological branch of the NS-controlled Society of German Neurologists and Psychiatrists (GDNP). As a result, Pette had a strong influence on all activities of this organization and had contact with party leadership and the government. In principle, he was not opposed to the "Law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring" and produced various expert reports addressed to the Appellate Hereditary Health Court in Hamburg. Simultaneously, he advocated differentiated diagnostics and rejected hasty sterilizations. He seems to have been acquainted with the "euthanasia" program and concomitant research projects but was not involved in them. During and after a lengthy denazification trial he stylized himself into a nonpolitical scientist representing an "oppositional attitude". In 1950 he was co-founder of the German Neurological Society (DGN) and was president until 1952 and then honorary president. Since 1969 the DGN awards the Heinrich Pette Prize. The Foundation for Research in Spinal Poliomyelitis founded by him shortly after WWII was named after him after his death. Since 2011 it bears the name "Heinrich Pette Institute, Leibniz Institute for Experimental Virology". In future, a prudent dealing with this ambivalent legacy seems to be advisable.


Assuntos
Eutanásia , Neurologia , Psiquiatria , Alemanha , Alemanha Ocidental , História do Século XX , Socialismo Nacional
19.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 34(6): 1319-1323, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A number of research results on closed venereology facilities in the Soviet Occupation Zone (SOZ) and the German Democratic Republic (GDR) have been presented in recent years. However, little is known about similar facilities in the Western Occupation Zones (WOZ) and in the early Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). METHOD: We have researched the records of the State Archive in Hamburg. Subsequently, the analysed sources were evaluated using the historically critical method. RESULTS: Three closed venereology wards existed in Hamburg. Compulsory commitments were conducted according to a three-stage procedure. In the immediate postwar period, the wards had barred windows and the doors were locked. Everyday life in the wards was initially determined by the postwar situation - poor facilities, poor hygiene, overcrowding. In the early 1950s, the number of beds was drastically reduced. The function of the wards consisted of isolation and medical care for the compulsorily committed persons. Medical care was in accordance with professional medical standards. DISCUSSION: Closed venereology wards in Hamburg followed the tradition established during the period of the Weimar Republic. This becomes apparent both in terms of the legal framework and in terms of the structure and functions of the wards. Thus, they clearly differ from the closed venereology facilities in the SOZ and in the GDR. These facilities were established in the tradition of Soviet prophylactics institutions. The wards in Hamburg served as isolation and treatment centres, the facilities in the SOZ and in the GDR also had a disciplinary function.


Assuntos
Unidades Hospitalares/história , Internação Involuntária/história , Venereologia/história , Alemanha Ocidental , História do Século XX , Unidades Hospitalares/organização & administração , Humanos , Internação Involuntária/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/terapia , II Guerra Mundial
20.
Gerontologist ; 60(2): 350-358, 2020 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Perceptions of how societies should care for the elderly people can differ among countries. This study examines to what extent individuals' value of informal care is shaped by the politico-economic system in which they grew up and if this value adjusts once an individual lives in a different politico-economic system. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We use data from the German Family Panel and take advantage of the unique setting of the German separation and reunification. Probit models are used to examine the effect of being born in East Germany on individuals' value of informal care relative to employment at different birth cohorts and survey waves (N = 14,093). Average marginal effects are calculated. RESULTS: Twenty years after reunification, East Germans who spent their adolescence under communism exhibit a higher value of informal care relative to employment than West Germans who grew up in a western social market economy. Differences in values between East and West Germans do not significantly converge over time. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Individuals' value of informal care is deeply shaped by the politico-economic system in which they grew up. If immigration policies are introduced to increase the care for elderly people, differences in individuals' cultural perceptions of elderly care should be considered as these will not suddenly adjust.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Emprego/psicologia , Sistemas Políticos/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Emigração e Imigração , Feminino , Alemanha , Alemanha Oriental , Alemanha Ocidental , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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