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1.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579147

RESUMO

Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease that causes severe tissue damage. Ghee butter from bovine colostrum (GBBC) is a clarified butter produced by heating milk fat to 40 °C and separating the precipitating protein. As colostrum mainly contains fatty acids (FAs), immunoglobulins, maternal immune cells, and cytokines, we hypothesized that it may exert anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the effects of GBBC on experimental AP in mice. Two intraperitoneal (ip) injections of L-arginine (8%) were given 1 h apart to generate the AP murine model. After 12 h from the first L-arginine injection, mice were divided into the following experimental groups: AP mice treated with GBBC (oral gavage (po) every 12 h) and non-treated AP mice (po vehicle every 12 h). Control animals received vehicle only. At 72 h, mice were euthanized. Histopathological examination along with myeloperoxidase (MPO) and amylase/lipase activity assays were performed. In a separate set of experiments, FFAR1 and FFAR4 antagonists were used to verify the involvement of respective receptors. Administration of GBBC decreased MPO activity in the pancreas and lungs along with the microscopical severity of AP in mice. Moreover, treatment with GBBC normalized pancreatic enzyme activity. FFAR1 and FFAR4 antagonists tended to reverse the anti-inflammatory effect of GBBC in mouse AP. Our results suggest that GBBC displays anti-inflammatory effects in the mouse model of AP, with the putative involvement of FFARs. This is the first study to show the anti-inflammatory potential of a nutritional supplement derived from GBBC.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Colostro/química , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Ghee/análise , Pancreatite/tratamento farmacológico , Amilases/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Arginina/efeitos adversos , Bovinos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipase/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pancreatite/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Gravidez , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo
2.
J Complement Integr Med ; 18(3): 507-515, 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691354

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Ghee is widely considered as the Indian name for clarified butterfat and processing of ghee with therapeutic herbs i.e., ghrita is renowned for augmenting their medicinal properties. The wound is considered as a challenging clinical problem with early and late complications. To reduce the burden of wounds with the shortest period and minimum scaring, an attempt was made to prepare and evaluate the wound healing potential of ghee based polyherbal formulation. METHODS: Based on local ethnic tribal claims, Semecarpus anacardium L., Argemone mexicana L., Cocculus hirsutus L., and Woodfordia fruticosa K. were collected from Western Ghats of India. The polyherbal Bhallatakadi Ghrita (BG) formulation was prepared as per Ayurvedic procedure and assessed for its wound healing potential using incision and excision wound animal models. RESULTS: BG treated group showed a complete contraction of wounds (99.82 ± 0.10%) (p<0.001) with 15.17 ± 0.40 days re-epithelization time and breaking strength (531.50 ± 5.89) (p<0.05). The hydroxyproline content of BG was found to be significantly higher i.e., 4.23 ± 0.21 (p<0.05). Quantitative estimation of BG exhibited 54.7 ± 3.7 mg100 g-1 of polyphenols and 42.3 ± 5.4 mg.100 g-1 flavonoids in terms of gallic acid and quercetin respectively. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of gallic acid and quercetin whereas the presence of fatty acids was confirmed by GC-MS analysis. CONCLUSIONS: It may conclude that the presence of quercetin, gallic acid, and fatty acids could have accelerated the healing rate of the ghrita formulation, as they have already been known for their potential wound healing properties.


Assuntos
Ghee , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Índia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Cicatrização
3.
Drug Deliv Transl Res ; 10(4): 1136-1146, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219727

RESUMO

The present study investigates the role of fish oil (FO)- and butter oil (BO)-enriched microemulsion-based system of galantamine hydrobromide (GH), an anti-Alzheimer drug, for its potential role in brain permeation enhancement and neuroprotection against oxidative stress. Microemulsion (ME)-based system of GH was prepared using water phase titration. The prepared ME was characterized by several physicochemical parameters like particle size, polydispersity index, and ex vivo drug permeation. Cell-based oxidative stress assays and pharmacokinetic studies were performed using C6 glial cell lines, and Sprague Dawley rats, respectively. The optimized ME comprised 5.3% v/v of Capmul MCM EP (as oil),15.8% v/v of Tween-80 (as surfactant), 5.3% v/v of Transcutol P (as co-surfactant), and 73.6% v/v of water (as aqueous phase). The addition of FO and BO resulted in a slight increase in the droplet size and decrease in transparency of ME. Cell-based anti-oxidative stress assays (glutathione assay, nitrite assay, and lipid peroxidation assay) showed the efficacy of formulation in the order of ME, BO ME, and FO ME, respectively. A similar trend was also observed in in vivo animal studies, wherein GH FO ME showed a comparatively higher percentage of drug reaching the brain when administered by intranasal route than by IV route. The study concluded the potential benefits of co-administering FO- and BO-enriched microemulsion is not only enhancing the permeation of drugs across BBB but also improving efficacy against lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative stress. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Galantamina/administração & dosagem , Ghee , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Administração Intranasal , Administração Intravenosa , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Emulsões , Óleos de Peixe/química , Óleos de Peixe/farmacocinética , Galantamina/sangue , Galantamina/química , Galantamina/farmacocinética , Glutationa/metabolismo , Cabras , Lipopolissacarídeos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/sangue , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacocinética , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
4.
J Fluoresc ; 30(1): 181-191, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940104

RESUMO

Desi ghee, obtained by buffalo and cow milk, is highly expensive because it contains valuable vitamins and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Its high demand and cost result in to its adulteration with inferior banaspati ghee. In this study, Fluorescence spectroscopy along with multivariate analysis has been utilised for the detection and quantification of adulteration. Spectroscopic analysis showed that buffalo ghee contains more vitamins and CLA than cow, whereas cow ghee is enriched with beta-carotene. For multivariate analysis, principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least square regression (PLSR) have been applied on the spectral data for the determination of adulteration. PLSR model was authenticated by predicting 23 unknown samples including 3 commercial brands of desi ghee. The root mean square error in prediction (RMSEP) of unknown samples was found to be 1.7 which is a reasonable value for quantitative prediction. Due to non-destructive and requiring no sample pre-treatment, this method can effectively be employed as on line characterization tool for the food safety assurance.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Ghee/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Leite/química , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/instrumentação
5.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(2): 45, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900652

RESUMO

In order to investigate the possible role of butter oil (BO) and omega-3 fatty acids-rich fish oil (O3FO) in the delivery of donepezil hydrochloride microemulsion (DH-ME) to the brain via intranasal route, the present study was conducted. DH:BO and DH:O3FO binary mixtures (9:1 to 1:9) were prepared by simple physical mixing and subjected to in vitro diffusion study. Ratios of DH:BO and DH:O3FO, which showed the highest diffusion, were selected for further development of microemulsion (ME). Globule sizes of DH-BO-ME and DH-O3FO-ME were found to be 87.66 ± 5.23 nm and 88.59 ± 8.23 nm, respectively. Nasal histopathological study and in vitro cytotoxicity study revealed the safety of the formulation. Higher percentage of nasal diffusion was found with DH-BO-ME (71.22 ± 1.21%) and DH-O3FO-ME (62.16 ± 1.23%) in comparison to DH-ME (59.69 ± 1.74%) and DH solution (55.01 ± 1.19%), which was further supported by in vitro cell permeability study. After intranasal administration, %bioavailability of drug in the rat brain (Sprague-Dawley rats)(on the basis of DH-ME IV) was higher with DH-BO-ME (313.59 ± 12.98%) and DH-O3FO-ME (361.73 ± 15.15%) in comparison to DH-ME (168.62 ± 6.60%) and DH solution (8.960 ± 0.23%). The results of ex vivo diffusion study and in vivo pharmacokinetic study suggested that BO and O3FO helped in enhancing the nasal permeability and the brain uptake of drug when administered intranasally.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Donepezila/administração & dosagem , Emulsões/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ghee , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
6.
J Fluoresc ; 29(6): 1411-1421, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758370

RESUMO

In the current study, the effect of ghee extraction methods (direct cream DC, milk butter MB and milk skin MS) on its molecular composition has been investigated using Fluorescence spectroscopy. The excitation wavelength of 300 nm was found the best to produce pronounced spectral signatures of beta-carotene, vitamins and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in both cow and buffalo ghee types. Principal component analysis (PCA) has been applied on the spectral data to visualize the classification among ghee samples extracted by three methods. Both cow and buffalo ghee contain spectral signatures of vitamin A, E, K, D and CLA which has been verified through plotting loading vectors. The analysis of loading plots has been suggested that for cow ghee, MS extraction method conserve relatively higher concentration of beta carotene while DC and MB methods are a good choice for preserving relatively more concentrations of vitamins D, E and K. Similarly, for buffalo ghee, MS extraction method appear with higher concentration of CLA, whereas DC extraction method looks to preserve relatively higher concentration of vitamin A while MB method retains relatively low concentration of CLA and vitamins as compared to other two methods.


Assuntos
Ghee/análise , Animais , Búfalos , Bovinos , Ácido Linoleico/análise , Leite/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Vitaminas/análise
7.
J Microencapsul ; 36(7): 603-621, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500482

RESUMO

Aim: Utility of cow ghee (CG) as permeation enhancer in development of topical ocular microemulsion (ME) for delivery of fluocinolone acetonide (FA) to posterior eye. Methods: For ME preparation, oil, surfactant and cosurfactant were screened based on solubility of FA. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed to determine their ratios. The developed MEs were characterised for their physicochemical properties like size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and stability etc. They were evaluated for ex vivo permeation and irritation. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies were performed on Sprague dawley rats. Results: Lauroglycol as oil, labrasol as surfactant and Transcutol as cosurfactant were selected. The optimised ratio of oil:surfactant:cosurfactant:water was 4:23:23:50. The developed FA loaded ME fortified with CG was characterised. Ex vivo study revealed higher permeation and non-irritancy. In vivo pharmacokinetic study showed retention of CG fortified ME in posterior rat eye. Conclusion: Present investigation established CG as permeation enhancer for ocular topical formulation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Emulsões/química , Fluocinolona Acetonida/administração & dosagem , Ghee , Administração Oftálmica , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacocinética , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Fluocinolona Acetonida/farmacocinética , Ghee/análise , Humanos , Segmento Posterior do Olho/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
8.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(9): 827-835, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413239

RESUMO

Fifty traditional Tibetan ghee (TTG) varieties were collected and analyzed their systematic characteristic indices, including physicochemical parameters, minerals, fatty acid composition, and thermal behavior. Results show that TTG contains a large amount of fat (71.68%-93.3%) and a small quantity of protein (0.51%-1.81%). The acid and peroxide values of TTG vary from 0.02 to 1.30 mg/g and 0.07 to 5.93 meq/kg, respectively. The content of minerals varied with altitude level and region significantly (p < 0.05), and the regional variations of fatty acids in TTG were also observed significantly, these differences may be due to the high unsaturated fatty acids level in the cow diets.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ghee/análise , Metais/análise , Proteínas/análise , Tibet , Triglicerídeos/análise
9.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 223: 117311, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277028

RESUMO

In this study, the potential of Raman spectroscopy has been utilized to characterize the methods direct cream (DC), milk butter (MB) and milk skin (MS) used for the extraction of desi ghee from buffalo and cow milk. Raman spectra from six types of ghee samples extracted by above methods were acquired using two laser wavelengths of 532 and 785 nm. The Raman spectra of cow ghee revealed that it contains three bands of beta-carotene at 1005, 1156 and 1520 cm-1 which differentiated it from buffalo ghee. To highlight small spectral differences, statistical analysis through principal component analysis (PCA) has been performed on the Raman spectra of ghee samples to reach subsequent conclusion. Based on the variations in molecular composition of cow ghee samples, it has been found that DC method retain relatively higher concentration of beta-carotene and MB method contain higher concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and fatty acids than MS method. Similarly, DC & MS methods were found best for retaining relatively higher concentration of CLA and fatty acids in buffalo ghee as compared to MB method which retains relatively higher concentration of fatty acids.


Assuntos
Ghee/análise , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Animais , Bovinos , Lasers , Leite/química , Análise de Componente Principal
10.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0197340, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29750812

RESUMO

Characterisation and thermal deterioration of desi ghee obtained from buffalo milk is presented for the first time using the potential of Fluorescence spectroscopy. The emission bands in non-heated desi ghee centred at 375 nm is labelled for vitamin D, 390 nm for vitamin K, 440-460 nm for isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), 490 nm for vitamin A and the region 620-700 nm is assigned to chlorophyll contents. Fluorescence emission spectra from all the heated and non-heated ghee samples were recorded using excitation wavelengths at 280, and 410 nm which were found best for getting maximum spectral signatures. Heating of desi ghee affects its molecular composition, however, the temperature range from 140 to 170°C may be defined safe for cooking /frying where it does not lose much of its molecular composition. Further, the rise in temperature induces prominent spectral variations which confirm the deterioration of valuable vitamins, isomers of CLA and chlorophyll contents. Fluorescence emission peak at 552 nm shows oxidation product and an increase in its intensity with the rise in temperature is observed. In order to classify heated samples at different temperatures, principal component analysis (PCA) has been applied on heated and non-heated ghee samples that further elucidated the temperature effects.


Assuntos
Búfalos , Ghee/análise , Temperatura , Animais , Culinária , Leite
11.
J Mass Spectrom ; 53(9): 753-762, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29790632

RESUMO

In this study, proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), coupled with a time-of-flight mass analyzer and a multipurpose automatic sampler, was evaluated as a rapid and nondestructive tool for the quality control of anhydrous milk fat. Anhydrous milk fats packed in cardboard and bag-in-box were compared during refrigerated shelf life at 4°C for 9 months. Anhydrous milk fat samples were taken at 120, 180, and 240 days and measured by PTR-MS during storage at 50°C for 11 days. Univariate and multivariate data analysis were performed in order to classify samples according to the packaging type and compare aromatic profiles. Markers related to both packaging and storage duration were identified, and all stored samples were clearly distinguishable from reference fresh samples. Significant differences in some key butter aroma compounds such as 2-pentanone, 2-heptanone, 2/3-methylbutanal, acetoin, and butanoic acid were observed between different types of packaging. During the refrigerated storage, differences related to packaging are more evident, while during the storage at 50°C, the fat oxidation induced by the high temperature becomes the most relevant phenomenon independently of the packaging type. These results indicate the importance of avoiding anhydrous milk fat storage at 50°C for long times during industrial production processes. All together data demonstrated the viability of PTR-MS as a rapid and high-sensitivity tool in agroindustry quality control program.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos , Ghee , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/normas , Ghee/análise , Ghee/normas , Odorantes/análise , Controle de Qualidade , Temperatura , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
12.
Appl Spectrosc ; 72(6): 833-846, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29569466

RESUMO

Raman spectroscopy as a fast and nondestructive technique has been used to investigate heating effects on Desi ghee during frying/cooking of food for the first time. A temperature in the range of 140-180℃ has been investigated within which Desi ghee can be used safely for cooking/frying without much alteration of its natural molecular composition. In addition, heating effects in case of reuse, heating for different times, and cooking inside pressure cookers are also presented. An excitation laser at 785 nm has been used to obtain Raman spectra and the range of 540-1800 cm-1 is found to contain prominent spectral bands. Prominent variations have been observed in the Raman bands of 560-770 cm-1, 790-1160 cm-1, and 1180-1285 cm-1 with the rise in temperature. The spectral variations have been verified using classifier principal component analysis. It has been found that Desi ghee can be reused if heated below 180℃ and it can be heated up to 30 min without any appreciable molecular changes if a controlled heating can be managed.


Assuntos
Culinária , Ghee/análise , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Calefação , Temperatura Alta , Análise de Componente Principal
13.
J Microencapsul ; 35(1): 62-77, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29307286

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to formulate a microemulsion (ME) using chitosan (CH) and the butter oil (BO) as a permeation enhancer for targeting drug to the posterior segment of the eye, via topical route. Triamcinolone acetonide (TA) was selected as the model drug since it undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism, leading to poor oral bioavailability of 23%. For optimisation of BO concentration, different ratios of TA:BO were prepared by simple physical mixing in the ratio of 1:9 to 9:1 and diffusion study was performed. MEs containing TA, TA:BO and TA CH ME were formulated by water titration method. Globule sizes of TA ME, TA:BO ME and TA CH ME were found to be 66.06 ± 0.32 nm, 78.52 ± 1.50 nm and 97.30 ± 2.50 nm, respectively. In ex vivo diffusion studies using goats eye, TA:BO ME (31.33 ± 0.46 and 33.98 ± 0.23) and TA CH ME (24.10 ± 0.41 and 27.00 ± 0.18) showed higher percentage of drug diffusion in comparison to TA ME (13.29 ± 0.41and 15.56 ± 0.34) and TA solution (8.20 ± 1.04 and 10.39 ± 0.22) in presence and in absence of vitreous humour. Fluorescence intensity of coumarin-6 (as a marker) loaded ME with BO and CH was found to be higher, confirming their role in altering membrane permeability and facilitating coumarin-6 diffusion to the posterior chamber. Overall, it was concluded that BO enhances the bioavailability of TA across the retina, thereby proving its potential as permeation enhancer in facilitating drug delivery to the posterior segment of the eye.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Córnea/metabolismo , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Ghee , Triancinolona Acetonida , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Quitosana/química , Quitosana/farmacocinética , Quitosana/farmacologia , Emulsões , Cabras , Triancinolona Acetonida/química , Triancinolona Acetonida/farmacocinética , Triancinolona Acetonida/farmacologia
15.
Ethiop J Health Sci ; 28(6): 759-770, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30607093

RESUMO

Background: Traditional medicinal systems like Ayurveda and Indian folk medicine have used Honey, Ghee, Glycyrrhiza glabra, and Nerium indicum effectively for treating wounds. The known result of these medications is faster healing. However, the mechanism of actions at the tissue level, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of healing is not well explored and documented. This present study was therefore designed to study the efficacy of these traditional medicines singly and in combinations on excision wounds in Wistar rats. Methods: At two different intervals (i.e., day 8 and day 16), biomechanical, histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) parameters were assessed at the wound site. IHC focused on the inflammatory rate by evaluating the level of cytokine, IL1ß and the tissue remodeling by studying the activity of myofibroblasts. Results: Rapid epithelization, better remodeling, favorable inflammatory changes and an adequate myofibroblast activity at the wound site was observed in all the treated groups compared to control. Conclusion: This study is therefore useful in exploring the mechanism of action of these traditional medicines and providing valuable scientific evidence.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Ghee , Glycyrrhiza , Mel , Nerium , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Apiterapia , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29267139

RESUMO

Cows' butterfat may be adulterated with animal fat materials like tallow which causes increased serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels upon consumption. There is no reliable technique to detect and quantify tallow adulteration in butter samples in a feasible way. In this study a highly sensitive near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods was developed to detect as well as quantify the level of tallow adulterant in clarified butter samples. For this investigation the pure clarified butter samples were intentionally adulterated with tallow at the following percentage levels: 1%, 3%, 5%, 7%, 9%, 11%, 13%, 15%, 17% and 20% (wt/wt). Altogether 99 clarified butter samples were used including nine pure samples (un-adulterated clarified butter) and 90 clarified butter samples adulterated with tallow. Each sample was analysed by using NIR spectroscopy in the reflection mode in the range 10,000-4000 cm-1, at 2 cm-1 resolution and using the transflectance sample accessory which provided a total path length of 0.5 mm. Chemometric models including principal components analysis (PCA), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA), and partial least-squares regressions (PLSR) were applied for statistical treatment of the obtained NIR spectral data. The PLSDA model was employed to differentiate pure butter samples from those adulterated with tallow. The employed model was then externally cross-validated by using a test set which included 30% of the total butter samples. The excellent performance of the model was proved by the low RMSEP value of 1.537% and the high correlation factor of 0.95. This newly developed method is robust, non-destructive, highly sensitive, and economical with very minor sample preparation and good ability to quantify less than 1.5% of tallow adulteration in clarified butter samples.


Assuntos
Gorduras/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Ghee/análise , Análise Discriminante , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
17.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 30(3): 875-879, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28653933

RESUMO

Present work is aimed to compare the physicochemical characterization and biochemical effects of oil extracted from Silybum Marianum and Sunflower oil, collected from Peshawar (Pakistan). To investigate the comparative effects on the body weight, organ weight and lipid profile, the crude oil of Silybum marianum, edible sunflower oil and vegetable ghee were given to three groups of rabbits under study. Percent proximate composition and food consumption of all rabbits were determined which showed no significant statistical variation. There is no data available about Silybum marianum oil on animal model in literature. This study clearly revealed that oil from Silybum marianum significantly reduces plasma cholesterol level in rabbits. A threefold higher Triglyceride levels was observed in vegetable ghee feeding groups compared with the sunflower and Silybum marianum oil feeding groups. The crude oil of Silybum marianum was found to be safe in rabbits compared with sunflower oil and vegetable ghee. The results of these studies revealed most valuable information and also support the refining and purification to convert this non-edible oil to edible oil.


Assuntos
Ghee , Lipídeos/sangue , Cardo-Mariano/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Animais , Coelhos , Óleo de Girassol
18.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 67(6): 957-958, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28585605

RESUMO

Fats and oils are one of the very important components of diet. However excess of either overall fat or certain kind of fats in the diet may result in negative health impacts including risk of obesity, dyslipidaemia, cardiovascular diseases and certain malignancies. It is thus important to have an optimum amount of fat in the diet, and also important to choose appropriate sources of fat in the diet. In this mini review we suggest pragmatic selection of cooking oils for optimum health benefits.


Assuntos
Culinária , Gorduras Insaturadas/química , Ghee , Óleos Vegetais/química , Dieta Saudável , Gorduras na Dieta , Gorduras/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Humanos
19.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 17(2): 977-82, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29671486

RESUMO

Solid lipid nanoparticles carrying a chemotherapeutic payload (i.e., temozolomide, TMZ) were synthesized using ghee, a clarified butter commonly used in traditional medicine and food products. Ghee solid lipid nanoparticles (GSLN) were characterized through dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, and UV-visible spectrometry. Formulations were generated with varying ratios of surfactant to lipid, resulting in a maximum TMZ entrapment efficiency of ˜70%. Optimal formulations were found to have an average size and polydispersity of ˜220 nm and 0.340, respectively. Release kinetics revealed TMZ-loaded GSLN (TMZ@GSLN) retained 10% of its pay-load at 2 h with ˜53% released in 5 h. Metabolic activity on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) revealed GSLN treatment resulted in an increase in viability following 3 d while treatment of glioblastoma LN-229 cells with TMZ@GSLN resulted in a significant decrease. Evaluation of diffusion of TMZ across a reconstructed HUVEC monolayer demonstrated TMZ@GSLN resulted in a significantly higher diffusion of drug when compared to free TMZ. This data suggests GSLN pose a promising delivery vehicle for TMZ-based therapeutics. Collectively, this data demonstrates GSLN exhibit favorable drug carrier properties with anti-proliferative properties in glioblastoma cancer cells.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos , Ghee , Nanopartículas/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dacarbazina/análogos & derivados , Dacarbazina/química , Dacarbazina/farmacocinética , Dacarbazina/farmacologia , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacocinética , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Temozolomida
20.
Cell Biochem Funct ; 34(8): 647-656, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27935133

RESUMO

Brown adipocytes dissipate chemical energy in the form of heat through the expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1); Ucp1 expression is further upregulated by the stimulation of ß-adrenergic receptors in brown adipocytes. An increase in energy expenditure by activated brown adipocytes potentially contributes to the prevention of or therapeutics for obesity. The present study examined the effects of milk by-products, buttermilk and butter oil, on brown adipogenesis and the function of brown adipocytes. The treatment with buttermilk modulated brown adipogenesis, depending on the product tested; during brown adipogenesis, buttermilk 1 inhibited the differentiation of HB2 brown preadipocytes. In contrast, buttermilk 3 and 5 increased the expression of Ucp1 in the absence of isoproterenol (Iso), a ß-adrenergic receptor agonist, suggesting the stimulation of brown adipogenesis. In addition, the Iso-induced expression of Ucp1 was enhanced by buttermilk 2 and 3. The treatment with buttermilk did not affect the basal or induced expression of Ucp1 by Iso in HB2 brown adipocytes, except for buttermilk 5, which increased the basal expression of Ucp1. Conversely, butter oil did not significantly affect the expression of Ucp1, irrespective of the cell phase of HB2 cells, ie, treatment during brown adipogenesis or of brown adipocytes. The results of the present study indicate that buttermilk is a regulator of brown adipogenesis and suggest its usefulness as a potential food material for antiobesity.


Assuntos
Adipócitos Marrons/metabolismo , Adipogenia , Leitelho , Leite/química , Adipócitos Marrons/citologia , Adipogenia/genética , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ghee , Humanos , Coloração e Rotulagem
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