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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15379, 2024 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38965282

RESUMO

Venom is a remarkable innovation found across the animal kingdom, yet the evolutionary origins of venom systems in various groups, including spiders, remain enigmatic. Here, we investigated the organogenesis of the venom apparatus in the common house spider, Parasteatoda tepidariorum. The venom apparatus consists of a pair of secretory glands, each connected to an opening at the fang tip by a duct that runs through the chelicerae. We performed bulk RNA-seq to identify venom gland-specific markers and assayed their expression using RNA in situ hybridisation experiments on whole-mount time-series. These revealed that the gland primordium emerges during embryonic stage 13 at the chelicera tip, progresses proximally by the end of embryonic development and extends into the prosoma post-eclosion. The initiation of expression of an important toxin component in late postembryos marks the activation of venom-secreting cells. Our selected markers also exhibited distinct expression patterns in adult venom glands: sage and the toxin marker were expressed in the secretory epithelium, forkhead and sum-1 in the surrounding muscle layer, while Distal-less was predominantly expressed at the gland extremities. Our study provides the first comprehensive analysis of venom gland morphogenesis in spiders, offering key insights into their evolution and development.


Assuntos
Organogênese , Venenos de Aranha , Aranhas , Animais , Aranhas/embriologia , Aranhas/metabolismo , Venenos de Aranha/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Glândulas Exócrinas/metabolismo , Glândulas Exócrinas/embriologia
2.
J Physiol ; 602(14): 3341-3350, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847391

RESUMO

Fluid and enzyme secretion from exocrine glands is initiated by Ca2+ signalling in acinar cells and is activated by external neural or hormonal signals. A wealth of information has been derived from studies in acutely isolated exocrine cells but Ca2+ signalling has until recently not been studied in undisrupted intact tissue in live mice. Our in vivo observations using animals expressing genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators in specific cell types in exocrine glands revealed both similarities to and differences from the spatiotemporal characteristics previously reported in isolated cells. These in vivo studies facilitate further understanding of how both neuronal and hormonal input shapes Ca2+ signalling events in a physiological setting and how these signals are translated into the stimulation of fluid secretion and exocytosis.


Assuntos
Sinalização do Cálcio , Glândulas Exócrinas , Animais , Glândulas Exócrinas/metabolismo , Glândulas Exócrinas/fisiologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/fisiologia , Camundongos , Hormônios/metabolismo , Hormônios/fisiologia , Cálcio/metabolismo
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10678, 2024 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724551

RESUMO

Mutations in LRBA, a BEACH domain protein, cause severe immune deficiency in humans. LRBA is expressed in many tissues and organs according to biochemical analysis, but little is known about its cellular and subcellular localization, and its deficiency phenotype outside the immune system. By LacZ histochemistry of Lrba gene-trap mice, we performed a comprehensive survey of LRBA expression in numerous tissues, detecting it in many if not all epithelia, in exocrine and endocrine cells, and in subpopulations of neurons. Immunofluorescence microscopy of the exocrine and endocrine pancreas, salivary glands, and intestinal segments, confirmed these patterns of cellular expression and provided information on the subcellular localizations of the LRBA protein. Immuno-electron microscopy demonstrated that in neurons and endocrine cells, which co-express LRBA and its closest relative, neurobeachin, both proteins display partial association with endomembranes in complementary, rather than overlapping, subcellular distributions. Prominent manifestations of human LRBA deficiency, such as inflammatory bowel disease or endocrinopathies, are believed to be primarily due to immune dysregulation. However, as essentially all affected tissues also express LRBA, it is possible that LRBA deficiency enhances their vulnerability and contributes to the pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Glândulas Endócrinas , Epitélio , Glândulas Exócrinas , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência , Neurônios , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Glândulas Endócrinas/metabolismo , Epitélio/metabolismo , Glândulas Exócrinas/metabolismo , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/metabolismo , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/patologia , Mutação , Neurônios/metabolismo
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38688407

RESUMO

This study investigated the morphology of Rhinella crucifer cutaneous glands, as well as the protein/peptide profiles and bioactivities of body gland secretions (BGS) and parotoid macrogland secretions (PS). The parotoid as well as dorsal and ventral skin fragments of male and female individuals were processed for histological analysis. The protein and peptide profiles of male and female gland secretions were evaluated. Male secretions were also assessed for proteolytic, trypsin inhibiting, hemagglutinating, hemolytic, antimicrobial, and anticoagulant activities. The R. crucifer skin structure presented protuberances that are clearly visible and formed by the integument, which has cutaneous glands throughout the body. An average of 438 and 333 glands were identified in males in females, respectively. No significant differences were observed in the distribution of glands across the body as well as for area and perimeter of glands. Differences were observed in protein composition between the PS and BGS from males and females, and secretions from animals collected from undisturbed and anthropogenically disturbed areas. Proteins with similarities to catalase and elongation factor 1-alpha were detected in the PS. Zymography revealed proteolytic activity in both male BGS and PS. Male BGS showed antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli and anticoagulant activity, being able to prolong prothrombin time by 6.34-fold and activated partial thromboplastin time by 2.17-fold. Finally, male PS and BGS caused a maximum hemolysis degree of 1.4%. The data showed that the cutaneous secretions of R. crucifer are potentially promising for biotechnological prospecting.


Assuntos
Bufonidae , Pele , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Bufonidae/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/química , Glândulas Exócrinas/metabolismo , Secreções Corporais/química , Proteínas de Anfíbios/metabolismo , Proteínas de Anfíbios/farmacologia
5.
Ocul Surf ; 31: 63-80, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38141817

RESUMO

Myoepithelial cells (MECs) are a unique subset of epithelial cells that possess several smooth muscle cell characteristics, such as a high number of actin-myosin filaments and the ability to contract. These cells are primarily located around the secretory cells of exocrine glands, including the salivary, mammary, lacrimal, and sweat glands. Their primary functions involve the construction of the basement membrane and help with secretion of gland products through contraction. So far, no comparative analysis of MECs in different exocrine glands had ever evaluated their differences. In this review, we took advantage of the various publicly available scRNAseq data from mouse exocrine glands to identify their shared and unique characteristics. The aim of this review is to compare the role of MECs in maintaining healthy glandular function, their involvement in disease states, and their regenerative capacity, with a particular emphasis on the latest research findings in these areas.


Assuntos
Glândulas Exócrinas , Aparelho Lacrimal , Camundongos , Animais , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Biologia Molecular
6.
Sci Immunol ; 8(90): eadd5724, 2023 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38134242

RESUMO

Tissue-resident CD8+ T cells (TRM) continuously scan peptide-MHC (pMHC) complexes in their organ of residence to intercept microbial invaders. Recent data showed that TRM lodged in exocrine glands scan tissue in the absence of any chemoattractant or adhesion receptor signaling, thus bypassing the requirement for canonical migration-promoting factors. The signals eliciting this noncanonical motility and its relevance for organ surveillance have remained unknown. Using mouse models of viral infections, we report that exocrine gland TRM autonomously generated front-to-back F-actin flow for locomotion, accompanied by high cortical actomyosin contractility, and leading-edge bleb formation. The distinctive mode of exocrine gland TRM locomotion was triggered by sensing physical confinement and was closely correlated with nuclear deformation, which acts as a mechanosensor via an arachidonic acid and Ca2+ signaling pathway. By contrast, naïve CD8+ T cells or TRM surveilling microbe-exposed epithelial barriers did not show mechanosensing capacity. Inhibition of nuclear mechanosensing disrupted exocrine gland TRM scanning and impaired their ability to intercept target cells. These findings indicate that confinement is sufficient to elicit autonomous T cell surveillance in glands with restricted chemokine expression and constitutes a scanning strategy that complements chemosensing-dependent migration.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Viroses , Camundongos , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Memória Imunológica , Glândulas Exócrinas , Transdução de Sinais
7.
Arthropod Struct Dev ; 77: 101313, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37866255

RESUMO

The mandibular gland is an important exocrine gland connected to the mandibles. In ants, it plays a crucial role in alarm communication and reproduction. While the overall morphology of the mandibular gland does not vary much between ant species, significant differences exist in the ultrastructural characteristics and gland size in some reported cases. However, there have been few systematic comparative studies on this subject. In this paper, we conducted microscopic observations to analyze the morphological and ultrastructural similarities and differences of the mandibular gland in different castes of Camponotus japonicus. Our findings revealed that the mandibular glands of males were significantly larger than those of females. In terms of relative size, within the female castes the mandibular glands of minor workers were the largest. Additionally, our observations of the ultrastructure showed that secretory substances were most abundant in queens. All female castes and males showed the presence of crystalline structures in the secretory cells. The content of these biocrystals decreased from minor workers to major workers, queens, and males. In males, however, crystalline structures were rare and the most abundant substances are droplet-like secretions. The differences in morphology and ultrastructure between different castes suggest that the function of the mandibular gland varies among castes. In conclusion, our study provides insights into the morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of the mandibular gland in different castes of C. japonicus. Further research is needed to fully understand the specific functions and mechanisms of this gland in ants.


Assuntos
Formigas , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Formigas/anatomia & histologia , Glândulas Exócrinas/ultraestrutura , Mandíbula
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(45): e2302071120, 2023 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37903277

RESUMO

Social organization is commonly dynamic, with extreme examples in annual social insects, but little is known about the underlying signals and mechanisms. Bumble bee larvae with close contact to a queen do not differentiate into gynes, pupate at an earlier age, and are commonly smaller than siblings that do not contact a queen. We combined detailed observations, proteomics, microRNA transcriptomics, and gland removal surgery to study the regulation of brood development and division of labor in the annual social bumble bee Bombus terrestris. We found that regurgitates fed to larvae by queens and workers differ in their protein and microRNA composition. The proteome of the regurgitate overlaps significantly with that of the mandibular (MG) and hypopharyngeal glands (HPG), suggesting that these exocrine glands are sources of regurgitate proteins. The proteome of the MG and HPG, but not the salivary glands, differs between queens and workers, with caste-specificity preserved for the MG and regurgitate proteomes. Queens subjected to surgical removal of the MG showed normal behavior, brood care, and weight gain, but failed to shorten larval development. These findings suggest that substances in the queen MG are fed to larvae and influence their developmental program. We suggest that when workers emerge and contribute to larval feeding, they dilute the effects of the queen substances, until she can no longer manipulate the development of all larvae. Longer developmental duration may allow female larvae to differentiate into gynes rather than to workers, mediating the colony transition from the ergonomic to the reproductive phase.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Proteoma , Abelhas , Feminino , Animais , Proteoma/metabolismo , Larva/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Glândulas Exócrinas/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo
9.
Neotrop Entomol ; 52(6): 1129-1137, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37906377

RESUMO

Social insects are characterized by having a wide diversity of exocrine glands, with highlights for ants with about 85 glands spreading throughout the body. The mandibular and intramandibular glands are associated with the production of pheromones. The army ants (Dorylinae) play an important role in the structure of the invertebrate community because they are efficient predators and provide suitable conditions for various animals following their invasions in the food search. Labidus coecus (Latreille) is an underground-ameliorating ant and Labidus praedator (Smith) is a generalist surface predator which can deplete invertebrate biomass by up to 75%. This work investigated the morphology of the mandibular and intramandibular glands of L. praedator and L. coecus workers. The glands were analyzed by light microscopy, histochemistry, and scanning electron microscopy. The mandibular and intramandibular glands of the two species were classified as class III glands. The data on the morphology of the mandibular glands has revealed that they have characteristics in common with other subfamilies. The intramandibular glands of the two species of Labidus have similar morphology and chemical composition, which indicates that the components of these glands can have the same function despite their different habits.


Assuntos
Formigas , Animais , Formigas/anatomia & histologia , Invertebrados , Glândulas Exócrinas/anatomia & histologia , Glândulas Exócrinas/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Biomassa
10.
Arthropod Struct Dev ; 75: 101286, 2023 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37429115

RESUMO

We focus on the morphology of the "segmental glands" and their openings in third instar Stenus larvae. The location of the openings was similar in both studied species, with paired rosette-like structures present on the head, all thoracic segments and abdominal segments 1-9. No such openings could be found on the antennae, the maxillary palps, the urogomphi, and the legs as suggested in some older publications. We presume that the glands up to abdominal segment 7 are "adhesive" glands. They are compound glandular units consisting of a secretory syncytium with a common reservoir and a canal cell. The common reservoir is connected through a single efferent duct with the opening of the gland. Glands of abdominal segments 8 and 9 show differences in their length, number of reservoirs, the orientation of the efferent canal, the inner structures of the gland openings towards the exterior and the shape and content of the secretion vesicles indicating that they are silk glands for cocoon building. The spinning behaviour has been observed during the building of the hatching and pupation retreats. The larva first attaches to the substrate with its pygopod, secretes silk droplets from silk gland openings and pulls out a silk filament from the tip of its urogomphi. Whereas L1 and L2 instars produce an open single-layered net, L3 build a closed bi-layered cocoon.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Seda , Glândulas Exócrinas
11.
Micron ; 171: 103463, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37182305

RESUMO

The metapleural gland is a unique feature of the ant phenotype, but diversity in its anatomy and function across the ants is not well documented or understood. We studied the morphology of the metapleural gland in 20 mainly Oriental Strumigenys species using histology, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and micro-CT. The gland is formed by a cluster of class-3 cells, their secretion is transported through a bundle of ducts into the sclerotized atrium and is guided along a series of parallel cuticular ridges towards the atrial opening. Among the examined species, queens have more gland cells than conspecific workers, while the examined males do not have the gland. The social parasite S. mutica has the most developed metapleural gland. In addition, we describe a novel class-1 atrial cone gland which is associated with the metapleural gland. The epithelium of this cone gland forms an invagination into the ventral atrium of the metapleural gland. The cuticular cone may be lacking in some Afrotropical and Neotropical species, although these may still contain the epithelial gland. The functional and evolutionary drivers of morphological variation in the exocrine system across species form interesting questions for future work.


Assuntos
Formigas , Fibrilação Atrial , Animais , Masculino , Formigas/anatomia & histologia , Fibrilação Atrial/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Evolução Biológica , Transporte Biológico , Glândulas Exócrinas/anatomia & histologia
12.
Arthropod Struct Dev ; 73: 101246, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36822131

RESUMO

The insect cuticle is multifunctional and often includes projections used for support, communication or protection. Ants in the genus Strumigenys exhibit a peculiar honeycomb-like spongiform tissue that covers their petiole, postpetiole and sometimes also the posterior mesosoma and anterior part of the first gastral segment. The tissue is abundantly developed in workers and queens, and much reduced in males. We found this spongiform tissue is associated with a novel exocrine gland that is made up by class-3 secretory cells that are clustered underneath the major pillars of the cuticular extensions, their associated narrow ducts enter these extensions and open at the surface through small pores. The chemical nature and function of the secretion are still unknown. The honeycomb texture may act in the storage and dispersion of the glandular secretions. In addition to the spongiform tissue gland, the posterior region of the petiole and postpetiole also contain intersegmental petiole and postpetiole glands, of which the ducts open through the intersegmental membrane that forms the connection with the next segment. Future work aimed at identifying the chemicals secreted by these glands will shed light onto the function of these unusual structures.


Assuntos
Formigas , Masculino , Animais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Glândulas Exócrinas
13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1398: 225-249, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36717498

RESUMO

Exocrine and endocrine glands deliver their secretory product, respectively, at the surface of the target organs or within the bloodstream. The release of their products has been shown to rely on secretory mechanisms often involving aquaporins (AQPs). This chapter will provide insight into the role of AQPs in secretory glands located within the gastrointestinal tract, including salivary glands, gastric glands, duodenal Brunner's glands, liver, gallbladder, intestinal goblets cells, and pancreas, as well and in other parts of the body, including airway submucosal glands, lacrimal glands, mammary glands, and eccrine sweat glands. The involvement of AQPs in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions will also be highlighted.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas , Glândulas Exócrinas , Humanos , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Aquaporinas/fisiologia , Glândulas Duodenais/fisiologia , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/fisiologia , Pâncreas/fisiologia , Glândulas Salivares/fisiologia , Glândulas Exócrinas/metabolismo , Glândulas Exócrinas/fisiologia
14.
Arthropod Struct Dev ; 72: 101236, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36708649

RESUMO

The labial gland is a major exocrine gland in the thoracic cavity of ants, which is connected to the mouth area and opens at the base of the labium. The labial gland in the various castes and males of Camponotus japonicus were examined using dissection, light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Our findings reveal clear caste differences in the appearance of the labial gland, and suggest a relationship between gland structure and its behavioral role in queens, males and workers: queens possess the largest reservoir sac; males have the smallest; workers have abundant secretion droplets in the gland cells of the tubules; epithelial thickness of gland cells varies considerably between workers and reproductive ants. The apical cell region has a high density of microvilli and polymorphic mitochondria, whereas the central cell region is rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) which means its main secretions are proteinaceous compounds. We believe that the labial gland has a different function in the castes of C. japonicus: the gland of workers and queens may be used to feed the larvae; workers participate in trophallaxis in the nest, while the males are not involved in these activities. Calculations of the relative size of the labial gland for each caste and males indicated that minor workers have the relative highest developed labial gland, supporting a role in trophallaxis. In addition, we found a phenomenon of enlarged labial gland in minor workers, which accounted for almost 22%, but the reason for this is unknown.


Assuntos
Formigas , Masculino , Animais , Formigas/anatomia & histologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Larva , Glândulas Exócrinas/ultraestrutura , Boca
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232483

RESUMO

Sjögren's syndrome is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by systemic dysfunction of exocrine glands, mainly the salivary and lachrymal glands. Sjögren's syndrome consists of two forms: primary Sjögren's syndrome, which is characterized by dry eyes and dry mouth without autoimmune diseases; and secondary Sjögren's syndrome, which is characterized by symptoms associated with other autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Disease severities vary considerably from mild glandular dryness to severe glandular involvement with numerous extraglandular and systemic features. Sensorineural hearing loss is sometimes observed in both primary and secondary Sjögren's syndrome. This review article consists of (1) Pathology of Sjögren's syndrome, (2) Clinical manifestation of Sjögren's syndrome, (3) Autoimmune inner ear disease, (4) Histoanatomical features of the inner ear, (5) Immunological characteristics of the inner ear, (6) Pathophysiology of autoimmune inner ear disease, (7) Treatment for sensorineural hearing loss in Sjögren's syndrome, and (8) Future direction. Finally, we introduce a recently developed disease model of salivary gland inflammation and discuss future expectations for the treatment of sensorineural hearing loss in Sjögren's syndrome.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial , Ceratoconjuntivite Seca , Doenças do Labirinto , Síndrome de Sjogren , Glândulas Exócrinas/patologia , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/complicações , Humanos , Doenças do Labirinto/complicações
16.
Arthropod Struct Dev ; 71: 101212, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36270167

RESUMO

The prepharyngeal gland (prePG) and pharyngeal gland (PG) make up the largest exocrine structures in the head of the ant Camponotus japonicus. We used microscopy to study the histological and ultrastructural features of both glands in different castes. The number of secretory units in the prePG is considerably higher than in other ant species and shows a complex duct system which is made up by duct cells, secondary ducts and a main duct. These lead the secretions of hundreds to thousands of secretory cells into the prepharynx through a modified sieve plate at each side. The glove-shaped PG shows clear caste differences in tubule number. The ultrastructure of both the prePG and PG shows abundant mitochondria and secretion vesicles. Moreover, the prePG is loaded with rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) which means its main secretions are proteinaceous compounds, while the PG is dominated by smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) which means the main secretions are lipids. The morphological differences like cell number of the prePG and tubule number of the PG indicate different secretory abilities of each caste. We for the first time introduce histology-based relative size to indicate secretory activity. The proportionally high development of the prePG in minor workers supports a role in trophallaxis.


Assuntos
Formigas , Animais , Formigas/anatomia & histologia , Microscopia , Glândulas Exócrinas/ultraestrutura
17.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271344, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921282

RESUMO

An integral part of the courtship sequence of the German cockroach (Blattella germanica) involves the male raising his wings to expose tergal glands on his dorsum. When a female cockroach feeds on the secretion of these glands, she is optimally positioned for mating. Core chemical components have been identified, but the effect of male diet on the quality of the tergal gland secretion remains unexplored. After validating the pivotal role of tergal feeding in mating, we starved or fed reproductively mature males for one week. We then paired each male with a sexually receptive female and observed their interactions through an infrared-sensitive camera. While starvation had no effect on male courtship behavior, it did influence the duration of female tergal feeding and mating outcomes. Females fed longer on the gland secretion of fed males, and fed males experienced greater mating success than starved males (73.9% vs. 48.3%, respectively). These results suggest that the quality of the tergal gland secretions, and by association mating success, are dependent on the nutritional condition of the male.


Assuntos
Blattellidae , Corte , Glândulas Exócrinas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Animais , Blattellidae/fisiologia , Glândulas Exócrinas/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodução , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Asas de Animais
18.
Cells ; 11(11)2022 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681462

RESUMO

Sjögren's syndrome (SjS), characterized by keratoconjunctivitis sicca and dry mouth, is a common autoimmune disease, especially in middle-aged women. The immunopathogenesis of SjS is caused by the sequential infiltration of T and B cells into exocrine glands, including salivary and lacrimal glands. Effector cytokines produced by these immunocytes, such as interferons (IFNs), IL-17, IL-22, IL-21, IL-4, TNF-α, BAFF and APRIL, play critical roles in promoting autoimmune responses and inducing tissue damages. Epigenetic regulations, including DNA methylation, histone modification and non-coding RNAs, have recently been comprehensively studied during the activation of various immunocytes. The deficiency of key epigenetic enzymes usually leads to aberrant immune activation. Epigenetic modifications in T and B cells are usually found to be altered during the immunopathogenesis of SjS, and they are closely correlated with autoimmune responses. In particular, the important role of methylation in activating IFN pathways during SjS progression has been revealed. Thus, according to the involvement of epigenetic regulations in SjS, target therapies to reverse the altered epigenetic modifications in auto-responsive T and B cells are worthy of being considered as a potential therapeutic strategy for SjS.


Assuntos
Aparelho Lacrimal , Síndrome de Sjogren , Citocinas/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Glândulas Exócrinas , Feminino , Humanos , Aparelho Lacrimal/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome de Sjogren/genética , Síndrome de Sjogren/terapia
19.
J Morphol ; 283(8): 1094-1105, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35719125

RESUMO

Plethodontid salamanders possess numerous courtship glands. Previous studies have shown that the glands are more prominent in male individuals than females, and often experience periods of atrophy and hypertrophy throughout the year that correlate to the nonmating and mating seasons, respectively. We sampled male and female Eurycea bislineata throughout the year to test the hypothesis that external nasal glands are courtship glands. External nasal glands are paired, branched tubular glands that extend from excretory ducts dorsal to the nares to terminal secretory units posterior to the eyes. We found that the glands hypertrophy and stain/react more intensely with histochemical procedures during the mating season. Hypertrophy of the glands is more pronounced in males, and seasonal variation in epithelial height of external nasal glands of males is significantly correlated to that of seasonal variation in mental gland epithelial height, a known courtship gland found in males, when compared throughout the year. This correlation was not as strong in females, confirming sexual dimorphism of external nasal glands in terms of seasonal variation. We found no ultrastructural differences between male and female external nasal glands. In all specimens, the glandular tubules were lined by a simple, columnar epithelium that was packed with secretory granules that often obscured other cytoplasmic contents.


Assuntos
Glândulas Exócrinas , Urodelos , Animais , Corte , Glândulas Exócrinas/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Hipertrofia , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Urodelos/anatomia & histologia
20.
Arthropod Struct Dev ; 68: 101166, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35525205

RESUMO

Social insects present a great diversity of exocrine glands, which are linked to fundamental roles of social life, and their morphological characterization represents the first step toward the knowledge of their function. We here describe the exocrine glands present in the sting apparatus of queens and workers of the wasp Protopolybia exigua. Histological analysis of serial sections under light microscopy revealed a glandular epithelium in the spiracular plate, the quadrate plate, and the gonostyli, while the last two in addition also contain clusters of class-3 cells. A big cluster of class-3 cells was also found in the oblong plate of some workers and queens. These findings reveal that a variety of glands, in addition to the common venom gland and Dufour gland, are present in association with the sting apparatus, of which three glands are novel reports for the exocrine repertoire of social insects. The position of the glands suggests a role in lubrication to provide mobility of the sting and venom ejection and/or participation in alarm behavior, while a function related to reproduction is also possible. The peculiar characteristics displayed by swarm-founding wasps are linked with exocrine gland secretions, making their investigation in Epiponini wasps a vast and interesting field.


Assuntos
Vespas , Animais , Glândulas Exócrinas/ultraestrutura , Reprodução , Vespas/ultraestrutura
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