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1.
Food Chem ; 398: 133951, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35987009

RESUMO

In this paper, we developed a sensor for on-site measuring beverage sucrose level based on cascade enzyme particles and a blood glucose meter. The cascade enzyme particles with sucrose hydrolyzing capability were prepared by co-precipitation of manganese carbonate, in which the stability of the enzymes was substantially enhanced by the particle encapsulation effect. The quantitative measurement of glucose produced by the hydrolysis of sucrose was performed using a commercial glucose meter, a commonly owned electrochemical device in homes, greatly improving detection accuracy and expanding applications. Actual sample testing demonstrated the high sensitivity and selectivity of the sensor, allowing for accurate detection of sucrose in beverages. This sensing strategy can also be further expanded to a variety of analytical assays, using blood glucose meters for portable quantitative testing.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Glicemia , Bebidas , Catálise , Glucose , Sacarose
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115680, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36058479

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of disease centered on obesity, which is the result of stagnation of liver qi according to traditional Chinese medicine. Panax notoginseng is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, entering liver and stomach meridians and dissipating blood stasis, in which panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) are the main active components. However, its effects and mechanism on metabolic syndrome has not been revealed yet. AIM OF STUDY: To evaluate the anti-MetS effect of PNS, including body weight and adiposity, glucose metabolism and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as well as to explore the mechanism and signaling pathway of PNS on MetS effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HPLC was utilized to affirm the percentages of saponins in PNS. In vivo, normal C57BL/6J mice and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced MetS mice were used to evaluate anti-MetS effect of PNS. Body weight, food and water intake were recorded. NMR imager was used for NMR imaging and lipid-water analysis. Blood glucose detection, glucose and insulin tolerance test were performed to evaluate glucose metabolism. Biochemical indexes analysis and histopathological staining were used to evaluate the effect on NAFLD. The expressions of mRNA and proteins related to thermogenesis in adipose tissue were determined using real-time PCR and Western blot. In silico, network pharmacology was utilized to predict potential mechanism. In vitro, matured 3T3-L1 adipocyte was used as subject to confirm the signaling pathway by Western blot. RESULTS: We determined the content of PNS component by HPLC. In vivo, PNS could improve metabolic syndrome with weight loss, reduction of adiposity, improvement of adipose distribution, correction of glucose metabolism disorder and attenuation of NAFLD. Mechanismly, PNS boosted energy exhaustion and dramatically enhanced thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT), induced white adipose tissue (WAT) browning. In silico, utilizing network pharmacology strategy, we identified 307 candidate targets which were enriched in MAPK signaling pathway specifically in liver tissue and adipocyte. In vitro validation confirmed ERK and p38MAPK mediated anti-MetS effects of PNS, not JNK signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: PNS exerted protective effect on metabolic syndrome through MAPK-mediated adipose thermogenic activation, which may serve as a prospective therapeutic drug for metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Insulinas , Síndrome Metabólica , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Panax notoginseng , Saponinas , Animais , Glicemia , Peso Corporal , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Glucose , Lipídeos , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Farmacologia em Rede , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Panax notoginseng/química , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Saponinas/farmacologia , Saponinas/uso terapêutico , Água
3.
Food Chem ; 399: 133999, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037688

RESUMO

Melastoma dodecandrum Lour. (MDL) extracts have shown potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, suggesting MDL might be a good source of α-glucosidase inhibitors. The aim of the study was to identify compounds in MDL extracts with α-glucosidase inhibitory activities and evaluate their effect on postprandial blood glucose as well as elucidating the underlying mechanisms of inhibition. A total of 34 polyphenols were identified in MDL fruits, among which 10 anthocyanins and three proanthocyanidin derivatives were discovered for the first time. Dosing mice with MDL extracts (100 mg/kg body weight, by gavage) was associated with a significantly decrease in postprandial blood glucose concentrations after oral administration of maltose. The most potent α-glucosidase inhibitor was identified as casuarictin (IC50 of 0.21 µg/mL). Casuarictin bound competitively to α-glucosidase, occupying not only the catalytic site but also forming strong hydrogen bonds with α-glucosidase residues. Therefore, casuarictin derived from MDL fruits might be used as novel α-glucosidase inhibitor in functional foods or other dietary products.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Melastomataceae , Animais , Antocianinas , Glicemia/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Melastomataceae/metabolismo , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
4.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 124: 42-49, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182150

RESUMO

Growing studies have linked metal exposure to diabetes risk. However, these studies had inconsistent results. We used a multiple linear regression model to investigate the sex-specific and dose-response associations between urinary metals (cobalt (Co) and molybdenum (Mo)) and diabetes-related indicators (fasting plasma glucose (FPG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and insulin) in a cross-sectional study based on the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The urinary metal concentrations of 1423 eligible individuals were stratified on the basis of the quartile distribution. Our results showed that the urinary Co level in males at the fourth quartile (Q4) was strongly correlated with increased FPG (ß = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.17-1.04), HbA1c (ß = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.09-0.54), insulin (ß = 8.18, 95% CI: 2.84-13.52), and HOMA-IR (ß = 3.42, 95% CI: 1.40-5.44) when compared with first quartile (Q1). High urinary Mo levels (Q4 vs. Q1) were associated with elevated FPG (ß = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.17-0.75) and HbA1c (ß = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.11-0.42) in the overall population. Positive linear dose-response associations were observed between urinary Co and insulin (Pnonlinear = 0.513) and HOMA-IR (Pnonlinear = 0.736) in males, as well as a positive linear dose-response relationship between urinary Mo and FPG (Pnonlinear = 0.826) and HbA1c (Pnonlinear = 0.376) in the overall population. Significant sex-specific and dose-response relationships were observed between urinary metals (Co and Mo) and diabetes-related indicators, and the potential mechanisms should be further investigated.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Resistência à Insulina , Adulto , Glicemia , Cobalto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Insulina , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Masculino , Metais , Molibdênio , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estados Unidos
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247071, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285609

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition, antioxidant activity and hypoglycemic effects of whole kumquat (Ku) powder in diabetic rats fed a high-fat-high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet. The antioxidant activities were evaluated using stable 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method, 2,2´-azinobis (3-ethyl benzo thiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS) and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Total phenolic content was (51.85 mg GAE/g) and total flavonoid content was (0.24 mg Cateachin Equivalent, CE/g). DPPH and ABTS values were 3.32 and 3.98 mg Trolox equivalent (TE)/g where FRAP value was 3.00 mM Fe2+/kg dry material. A total of 90 albino rats were used in the present study. Rats group were as follows: normal diet; normal treated (2, 4, and 6% Ku.), diabetic rats (non-treated), diabetic + HFHC diet (non-treated), HFHC (non-treated), Diabetic (treated), HFHC (treated) and Diabetic + HFHC (treated). The diets were followed for 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experiment. Serum glucose was recorded and thyroid hormones (T4, Thyroxine and T3, Triiodothyronine) were conducted. Diet supplemented with Kumquat at different concentrations have a hypoglycemic effect and improve the thyroid hormones of both diabetic rats and HFHC diabetic rats.


Resumo O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a composição química, a atividade antioxidante e os efeitos hipoglicêmicos do pó de kumquat (Ku) em ratos diabéticos alimentados com uma dieta rica em gordura e colesterol (HFHC). As atividades antioxidantes foram avaliadas usando o método de eliminação de radicais livres de 1,1-difenil 2-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis (ácido 3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfônico) radical cátion (ABTS) e antioxidante redutor férrico potência (FRAP). O conteúdo fenólico total foi (51,85 mg GAE / g) e o conteúdo total de flavonoides foi (0,24 mg Cateachin Equivalent, CE / g). Os valores de DPPH e ABTS foram 3,32 e 3,98 mg equivalente de Trolox (TE) / g, em que o valor de FRAP foi de 3,00 mM Fe2 + / kg de material seco. Um total de 90 ratos albinos foi usado ​​no presente estudo. O grupo dos ratos foi o seguinte: dieta normal: tratados normais (2, 4 e 6% Ku.), ratos diabéticos (não tratados), diabéticos + dieta HFHC (não tratados), HFHC (não tratados), diabéticos (tratados), HFHC (tratados) e diabéticos + HFHC (tratados). As dietas foram seguidas por 8 semanas. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas ao final do experimento. A glicose sérica foi registrada e os hormônios tireoidianos (T4, Tiroxina e T3, Triiodotironina) foram conduzidos. A dieta suplementada com kumquat em diferentes concentrações tem um efeito hipoglicêmico e melhora os hormônios tireoidianos tanto de ratos diabéticos quanto de ratos diabéticos com HFHC.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Rutaceae , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Pós , Hormônios Tireóideos , Glicemia , Frutas
6.
Food Chem ; 402: 134502, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36303392

RESUMO

To investigate the multi-scale structural changes and digestibility of parboiled rice, the side chain distribution, helical structure, short/long-range ordered structure, and lamellar structure were systematically characterized and an in vivo postprandial blood glucose test was applied. The results indicate that parboiling has little effect on the side chain distribution, double helix content and helical structure order of parboiled rice. The crystal type of rice starch changed from type A to A + V or B + V after parboiling and the relative crystallinity decreased from 30.45 % to a minimum of 6.87 %. The in vivo study also indicated that parboiling significantly reduces the glycaemic index of rice to medium level. Our work is the first to focus on the parboiling conditions, multi-scale structural changes and in vivo digestibility of parboiled rice, which might provide guidance for the design of less digestible parboiled rice in the future.


Assuntos
Oryza , Oryza/química , Culinária/métodos , Amido/química , Glicemia , Digestão
7.
Ann Pharmacother ; 57(1): 51-54, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35652701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are more than 350 reports of hyperglycemia post-influenza vaccine according to the Vaccine Adverse Effect Reporting System. Only one case report has been published detailing unusual post-vaccination hyperglycemia. The mechanism as to why hyperglycemia may occur post-vaccination has not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE: Primary: To identify hyperglycemia within the first 24 hours of influenza vaccine. Secondary: To identify transient property of hyperglycemia within 4 days after vaccine. METHODS: Multicenter prospective cohort study. Recruitment conducted throughout San Antonio, Texas, during 2018-2020 influenza seasons. Patients were included if 18 years or older, had diabetes mellitus, and currently checking their blood glucose daily. Patients excluded if they had a recent medication change that would effect their blood glucose readings. Patients had hemoglobin A1c and blood glucose measured prior to vaccination with a single dose (0.5 mL) of the tri-valent influenza vaccine intramuscularly. Glucose readings were collected within 24 hours post-vaccination and subsequent mornings for 4 days. RESULTS: A total of 34 patients were included. Average patient age was 75 years with 60% white, 30% black, and 10% Hispanic. Median fasting glucose pre-vaccination was significantly lower than the median value 0 to 24 hours post-vaccination (140 vs 203 mg/dL, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Hyperglycemia was noted 0 to 24 hours post-vaccination and was transient in nature with a return to baseline by post-vaccination day 2. This trial was conducted to close a potential gap in counseling regarding the flu vaccine and decrease any potential concern surrounding the vaccine in patients with diabetes that could lead to reduced vaccination rates.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hiperglicemia , Vacinas contra Influenza , Idoso , Humanos , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Hiperglicemia/diagnóstico , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Vacinação/efeitos adversos
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115791, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36240976

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Fufang-zhenzhu-tiaozhi formula (FTZ) is a patented preparation of traditional Chinese medicine that has been used to treat hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in the clinic for almost 10 years. Our previous study had demonstrated that FTZ can protect islet ß cell injury in vitro. However, the efficacy of FTZ on ß cell regeneration in vivo and the involved anti-diabetic mechanism remains unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: We aim to investigate the effects of FTZ as a good remedy for islet protection and ß cell regeneration, and to reveal the underlying mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were fed with high-fat diet for 3 weeks and then intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin (90 mg/kg/d × 1 d) to establish type 2 diabetes (T2D) models. Mice in each group were divided into three batches that sacrificed after 3, 7 and 28 days of FTZ administration. Body weight, blood glucose, and oral glucose tolerance test were measured at indicated time points. Fasting insulin was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Neonatal ß cell was assessed by insulin & PCNA double immunofluorescence staining, and the underlying mechanisms related to ß cell regeneration were further performed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, insulin & glucagon double immunofluorescence staining and Western blot. RESULTS: FTZ and metformin can significantly help with the symptoms of DM, such as alleviating weight loss, reducing blood glucose, improving the level of insulin in vivo, and relieving insulin resistance, suggesting FTZ and metformin treatment maintained the normal morphological function of islet. Notably, ß cell regeneration, which is indicated by insulin and PCNA double-positive cells, was promoted by FTZ, whereas few neonatal ß cells were observed in metformin group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining, and its quantification results showed that FTZ effectively prevented the invasion of inflammatory cells into the islets in diabetic mice. Most ß cells in the islets of diabetic model mice were devoid, and the islets were almost all α cells, while the diabetic mice administered FTZ could still maintain about half of the ß cells in the islet. Furthermore, FTZ upregulated the expression of critical transcription factors during ß cell development and maturation (such as PDX-1, MAFA and NGN3) in diabetic mice. CONCLUSIONS: FTZ can alleviate diabetes symptoms and promote ß cell regeneration in diabetic mice. Moreover, FTZ promotes ß cell regeneration by preserving islet (resisting inflammatory cells invading islets), maintaining the number of ß cells in islets, and increasing the expression of PDX-1, MAFA and NGN3.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Ilhotas Pancreáticas , Metformina , Camundongos , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Amarelo de Eosina-(YS)/metabolismo , Amarelo de Eosina-(YS)/farmacologia , Hematoxilina/metabolismo , Hematoxilina/farmacologia , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Insulina , Regeneração , Metformina/farmacologia
9.
Food Chem ; 403: 134434, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36358076

RESUMO

α-Amylase inhibitory activity plays an important role in reducing blood glucose. Food-derived α-amylase inhibitors have attracted significant attention due to their safety. This study obtained peptides displaying α-amylase inhibitory activity from pepsin hydrolysate of quinoa protein concentrates. Gel filtration chromatography revealed that the <1 kDa component exhibited significant α-amylase inhibitory capability, while the purified component was identified via mass spectrometry identification. Six peptides with α-amylase inhibitory activity were selected, wherein the inhibitory ability of the peptide MMFPH was 66.41 % higher than the others. Molecular docking indicated that the peptide MMFPH residues restricted the α-amylase activity by binding to the active α-amylase site. The molecular interaction experiments showed that the peptides and α-amylase were in a fast-binding and slow-dissociation mode, allowing the small peptides produced via quinoa protein digestion to bind more rapidly to α-amylase, thus preventing a rise in blood glucose in vivo.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa , Hidrolisados de Proteína , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Chenopodium quinoa/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Glicemia , alfa-Amilases , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptídeos/química
10.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 162: 110132, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152594

RESUMO

With the development of blood glucose monitoring medical devices, higher requirements are put forward for the sensitivity and detection limit of biosensors. Herein, a high-performance flexible enzymatic glucose biosensor was prepared by electrochemical deposition of dendritic gold nanostructure on carbon cloth substrate, then covalently immobilizing glucose oxidase on the dendritic gold, and then increasing enzyme loading by enzyme precipitation coating. The morphology of dendritic gold nanostructures was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical performance of the biosensor was analyzed by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). It is found that the obtained biosensor has high sensitivity (72.45 µA mM-1 cm-2), low detection limit (6.7 µM) and ultra-wide linear range (0.02-31.7 mM) for glucose detection. In addition, the biosensor also has good selectivity, reproducibility and stability. In the detection of real serum samples, the biosensor also shows good accuracy and practicality. The results show that the new biosensor has great potential for applications in biomedical and health care.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Nanoestruturas , Ouro/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Eletrodos , Glucose/química , Glicemia , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Glucose Oxidase/química
11.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 225: 106198, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181990

RESUMO

To evaluate the effects of long-term vitamin D supplementation on metabolic profiles in middle-aged to elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), a randomized controlled trial was conducted among patients with T2D aged 50-70 years. A total of 270 patients underwent randomization with 135 being allocated to the vitamin D group and 135 to the control group, and participants in the vitamin D group received oral vitamin D3 (800 IU/day) for 30 months. Serum 25(OH)D and metabolic variables were measured at baseline, and after 6, 12, 18, and 30 months of intervention. After 30 months, the vitamin D group showed a greater increase in serum 25(OH)D than the control group (12.39 ± 6.99 vs 5.35 ± 5.29 ng/ml, P < 0.001). Meanwhile, changes in the levels of fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, non-high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and uric acid differed significantly between the two groups (all P < 0.05). Stratified analysis indicated that change in uric acid differed significantly between the two groups in subgroup with baseline 25(OH)D ≥ 20 ng/ml (P = 0.042) or subgroup with female patients (P = 0.034). And the change in fasting blood glucose (FBG) differed significantly between the vitamin D group (-0.30 ± 2.52 mmol/L) and the control group (0.49 ± 1.78 mmol/L, P = 0.049) among patients achieving 25(OH)D concentrations of 30 ng/ml at the end of this trial. A significant difference in the change of triglyceride was observed between the two groups among patients with obesity at baseline [0.05(-0.59, 0.23) vs 0.41(-0.01, 0.80) mmol/L, P = 0.023]. These findings suggested that long-term vitamin D supplementation significantly reduced fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and serum concentrations of non-HDL-C, hs-CRP, and uric acid among middle-aged to elderly patients with T2D. And vitamin D status, gender, and baseline obesity may modify the effects of vitamin D supplementation.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Humanos , Feminino , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Ácido Úrico , Glicemia/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Insulina/metabolismo , Obesidade , Metaboloma , Método Duplo-Cego
12.
Neurosci Lett ; 792: 136955, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347339

RESUMO

GPR139 is an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor that is expressed in restricted areas of the nervous system, including the hypothalamus. In this study, we hypothesized that GPR139 could be involved in the regulation of energy balance and metabolism. In the first part of the study, we confirmed that GPR139 is expressed in the hypothalamus and particularly in proopiomelanocortin and agouti-related peptide neurons of the mediobasal hypothalamus. Using a lentivirus with a short-hairpin RNA, we inhibited the expression of GPR139 bilaterally in the mediobasal hypothalamus of mice. The intervention promoted a 40% reduction in the hypothalamic expression of GPR139, which was accompanied by an increase in body mass, a reduction in fasting blood glucose levels, and an increase in insulin levels. In the hypothalamus, inhibition of GPR139 was accompanied by a reduction in the expression of orexin. As previous studies using a pharmacological antagonist of orexin showed a beneficial impact on type 2 diabetes and glucose metabolism, we propose that the inhibition of hypothalamic GPR139 could be acting indirectly through the orexin system to control systemic glucose and insulin. In conclusion, this study advances the characterization of GPR139 in the hypothalamus, demonstrating its involvement in the regulation of body mass, blood insulin, and glycemia.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insulina , Camundongos , Animais , Orexinas/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 1): 159184, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36202368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Associations between individual exposure to ozone (O3) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have rarely been investigated, and critical windows of O3 exposure for GDM have not been identified. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the associations of gestational O3 exposure with GDM and glucose homeostasis as well as to identify the potential critical windows. METHODS: A total of 7834 pregnant women were included. Individual O3 exposure concentrations were evaluated using a high temporal-spatial resolution model. Each participant underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to screen for GDM between 24 and 28 gestational weeks. Multiple logistic and multiple linear regression models were used to estimate the associations of O3 with GDM risks and with blood glucose levels of OGTT, respectively. Distributed lag nonlinear models (DLNMs) were used to estimate the critical windows of O3 exposure for GDM. RESULTS: Nearly 13.29 % of participants developed GDM. After controlling for covariates, we observed increased GDM risks per IQR increment of O3 exposure in the first trimester (OR = 1.738, 95 % CI: 1.002-3.016) and the first two trimesters (OR = 1.576, 95 % CI: 1.005-2.473). Gestational O3 exposure was positively associated with increased fasting blood glucose (the first trimester: ß = 2.964, 95 % CI: 1.529-4.398; the first two trimesters: ß = 1.620, 95 % CI: 0.436-2.804) and 2 h blood glucose (the first trimester: ß = 6.569, 95 % CI: 1.775-11.363; the first two trimesters: ß = 6.839, 95 % CI: 2.896-10.782). We also observed a concentration-response relationship of gestational O3 exposure with GDM risk, as well as fasting and 2 h blood glucose levels. Additionally, 5-10 gestational weeks was identified as a critical window of O3 exposure for GDM development. CONCLUSION: In summary, we found that gestational O3 exposure disrupts glucose homeostasis and increases the risk of GDM in pregnant women. Furthermore, 5-10 gestational weeks could be a critical window for the effects of O3 exposure on GDM.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Diabetes Gestacional , Ozônio , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Diabetes Gestacional/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Poluição do Ar/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Glicemia , Coorte de Nascimento , China/epidemiologia , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/análise , Homeostase
14.
Med Gas Res ; 13(2): 72-77, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36204786

RESUMO

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a complex disorder caused by long-standing diabetes. Oxidative stress was considered the critical creed in this DPN pathophysiology. Hydrogen has antioxidative effects on diabetes mellitus and related complications. However, there is still no concern on the beneficial effects of hydrogen in DPN. This paper aimed to evaluate the effects of exogenous hydrogen to reduce the severity of DPN in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Compared with hydrogen-rich saline treatment, hydrogen inhalation significantly reduced blood glucose levels in diabetic rats in the 4th and 8th weeks. With regard to nerve function, hydrogen administration significantly attenuated the decrease in the velocity of motor nerve conduction in diabetic animals. In addition, hydrogen significantly attenuated oxidative stress by reducing the level of malondialdehyde, reactive oxygen species, and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and meaningfully enhanced the antioxidant capability by partially restoring the activities of superoxide dismutase. Further studies showed that hydrogen significantly upregulated the expression of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 and downstream proteins such as catalase and hemeoxygenase-1 in the nerves of diabetic animals. Our paper showed that hydrogen exerts significant protective effects in DPN by downregulating oxidative stress via the pathway of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2, which suggests its potential value in clinical applications.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Neuropatias Diabéticas , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Glicemia , Catalase/metabolismo , Catalase/farmacologia , Catalase/uso terapêutico , Desoxiguanosina/metabolismo , Desoxiguanosina/farmacologia , Desoxiguanosina/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Neuropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neuropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Hidrogênio , Malondialdeído , NAD/metabolismo , NAD/farmacologia , NAD/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Estreptozocina , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/farmacologia , Superóxido Dismutase/uso terapêutico
15.
Mol Med Rep ; 27(1)2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367173

RESUMO

Increasing endogenous secretion of glucagon­like peptide (GLP)­1 is considered a promising therapeutic approach for type 2 diabetes because decreased GLP­1 plasma concentrations have been observed in patients with this condition. Nesfatin­1, which is a central and peripheral anorexigenic peptide, has been reported to release GLP­1 from enteroendocrine STC­1 cells, although whether nesfatin­1 stimulates GLP­1 secretion in vivo remains to be elucidated. Previous studies have indicated that nesfatin­1 has glucose­lowering and insulinotropic effects in mice and rats; however, the in vivo mechanism remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate whether peripheral administration of nesfatin­1 increased blood concentrations of GLP­1 and insulin in food­deprived mice. Nesfatin­1 was administered intraperitoneally to 18­h fasted mice. Plasma GLP­1 and insulin concentrations in the mice administered 2.5 µmol/kg nesfatin­1 were higher than those in saline­treated mice. Blood glucose concentrations in mice treated with 1.25 and 2.5 µmol/kg nesfatin­1 were lower than those in saline­treated mice. The mRNA expression of preproglucagon in mouse ilea after treatment with 1.25 µmol/kg nesfatin­1 was higher than that in saline­treated mice. The administration of 1.25 µmol/kg nesfatin­1 raised GLP­1 concentrations at 30 and 60 min and insulin concentrations at 30 and 60 min after injection. Furthermore, the higher level of nesfatin­1­induced insulin was diminished by pre­administration of anti­GLP­1 antiserum. Intraperitoneally administered nesfatin­1 increased insulin concentrations by accelerating GLP­1 secretion. The results are the first in vivo demonstration of promotion of GLP­1 secretion by nesfatin­1 in the mouse, suggesting the developmental potential of nesfatin­1 for GLP­1 release.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon , Camundongos , Ratos , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Células Enteroendócrinas , Insulina/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo
16.
J Intensive Care Med ; 38(1): 42-50, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35611506

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Dysglycemia is associated with poor outcomes in critically ill patients,which is uncertain in patients with diabetes regarding to the situation of glucose control before hospitalization. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of the difference between the level of blood glucose during ICU stay and before admission to ICU upon the outcomes of critically ill patients with diabetes. METHOD: Patients with diabetes expected to stay for more than 24hs were enrolled, HbA1c was converted to A1C-derived average glucose (ADAG) by the equation: ADAG = [ (HbA1c * 28.7) - 46.7 ] * 18-1, blood glucose were measured four times a day during the first 7 days after admission, the mean glucose level(MGL) and SOFA (within 3, 5, and 7days) were calculated for each person, GAPadm and GAPmean was calculated as admission blood glucose and MGL minus ADAG, the incidence of moderate hypoglycemia(MH), severe hypoglycemia (SH), total dosage of glucocorticoids and average daily dosage of insulin, duration of renal replacement therapy(RRT), ventilator-free hours, and non-ICU days were also collected. Patients were divided into survival group and nonsurvival group according to survival or not at 28-day, the relationship between GAP and mortality were analyzed. RESULTS: 431 patients were divided into survival group and nonsurvival group. The two groups had a comparable level of HbA1c, the nonsurvivors had greater APACHE II, SOFA, GAPadm, GAPmean-3, GAPmean-5, GAPmean-7 and higher MH and SH incidences. Less duration of ventilator-free, non-ICU stay and longer duration of RRT were recorded in the nonsurvival group. GAPmean-5 had the greatest predictive power with an AUC of 0.807(95%CI: 0.762-0.851), the cut-off value was 3.6 mmol/L (sensitivity 77.7% and specificity 76.6%). The AUC was increased to 0.852(95%CI: 0.814-0.889) incorporated with SOFA5 (NRI = 11.34%). CONCLUSION: Glycemic GAP between the MGL within 5 days and ADAG was independently associated with 28-day mortality of critically ill patients with diabetes. The predictive power was optimized with addition of SOFA5.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hipoglicemia , Humanos , Glicemia , Estado Terminal , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Glucose , Estudos Retrospectivos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
17.
J Proteomics ; 271: 104769, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to find new plasma biomarkers in early pregnancy. DESIGN: The original study enrolled 1219 pregnant women. We investigated protein expression profiles of placental tissues from women with GDM (n = 89) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (n = 83). Maternal plasma samples between two groups in early and middle pregnancy were used for validation of candidate biomarkers. METHODS: Differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified by label-free quantitative proteomics from human placenta samples between two groups. Several DEPs were validated in plasma by Luminex assays. An automatic biochemical analyzer was used to detect blood lipid indexes. The associations of GAL-3BP with biochemical indicators were demonstrated by Pearson's correlation analysis. Binary logistic regression was used to model potential predictive indicators in early pregnancy of GDM. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the predictive model and the value of GAL-3BP. RESULTS: 123 DEPs were found in placenta involved in ribosomal function, pancreatic secretion, oxidative phosphorylation, and inflammatory signaling pathway. Plasma GAL-3BP are significantly higher in women with GDM than NGT in the first (p = 0.008) and second (p = 0.026) trimester, but C9 and VWF have no difference. The predictive value of GAL-3BP in the first trimester of pregnancy (AUC 0.64) is better than that in the second trimester (AUC 0.61), and combined predictive model of TG and GAL-3BP at early pregnancy has greater predictive and diagnostic value for GDM (AUC 0.69) than individual GAL-3BP (AUC 0.64). CONCLUSIONS: Plasma TG and GAL-3BP has good predictive and diagnostic value at early pregnancy, suggesting that these two indicators may be used as biomarkers for early prediction and diagnosis of GDM. SIGNIFICANCE: The advantage of this study is that circulating TG and GAL-3BP might differentiate the progress of women with GDM and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) at the early stage of pregnancy. It is the first study to consider the role of GAL-3BP as an early predictive biomarker in the development of GDM during the whole pregnancy. Another advantage is that volunteers in this study were recruited from two provinces in China to eliminate the impacts of environmental confounders. The similar changes of blood glucose/lipid indicators for women with GDM and NGT in both regions was found in the first and second trimester of pregnancy, which added to the reliability of analytical results.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Placenta/química , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , China , Lipídeos
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 3): 159570, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283523

RESUMO

Phthalate metabolites are widely present in humans and can have many adverse effects on pregnant women. To date, many studies on the effects of phthalate metabolites on the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have been published, but the findings of these studies are controversial. We conducted a case-control study to quantify the concentrations of seven phthalate metabolites in the serum of pregnant women and to investigate their association with the risk of GDM and blood glucose levels in pregnant women. Therefore, 201 serum samples (139 pregnant women with GDM and 62 control serum samples) were collected from Hangzhou, China, between 2011 and 2012. The results showed that mono butyl phthalate (MBP; mean = 4.08 ng/mL) was the most abundant phthalate metabolites in human serum, followed by mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP; mean = 1.28 ng/mL) and mono isobutyl phthalate (MiBP; mean = 1.20 ng/mL). The other results indicated significant associations between MBP (ß = 2.24, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 5.07, P = 0.050) and MiBP (ß = 1.84, 95 % CI: 1.03, 3.31, P = 0.041) concentrations in human serum and the incidence of GDM. Moreover, serum MBP (ß = 0.40, 95 % CI: 0.10, 0.70, P = 0.010) and MiBP levels (ß = 0.18, 95 % CI: 0.010, 0.35, P = 0.047) in humans were positively associated with 2-hour blood glucose levels. Our study provides affirmative evidence on previously inconsistent findings that MBP and MiBP exposure may increase the risk of GDM in pregnant women.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Gestantes , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ácidos Ftálicos/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental
19.
Physiol Rev ; 103(1): 7-30, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35635320

RESUMO

In this paper, we provide an overview of the evolution of the definition of hyperglycemia during the past century and the alterations in glucose dynamics that cause fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia. We discuss how extensive mechanistic, physiological research into the factors and pathways that regulate the appearance of glucose in the circulation and its uptake and metabolism by tissues and organs has contributed knowledge that has advanced our understanding of different types of hyperglycemia, namely prediabetes and diabetes and their subtypes (impaired fasting plasma glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, combined impaired fasting plasma glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes mellitus), their relationships with medical complications, and how to prevent and treat hyperglycemia.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Intolerância à Glucose , Hiperglicemia , Estado Pré-Diabético , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Glucose , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Açúcares
20.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(2): 84-93, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130569

RESUMO

Long-term glycemic fluctuation has been associated with cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the findings are inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis to summarize the association between parameters of long-term glycemic variability and risk of cardiovascular events in T2DM patients. Medline, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched for longitudinal follow-up studies comparing the incidence of cardiovascular events in T2DM patients with higher or lower long-term glycemic variability. A random-effect model incorporating the potential heterogeneity among the included studies was used to pool the results. Twelve follow-up studies with 146 653 T2DM patients were included. The mean follow-up duration was 4.9 years. Pooled results showed that compared to those with the lowest glycemic variability, patients with the highest glycemic variability had significantly increased risk of cardiovascular events, as evidenced by the standard deviation of glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c-SD: relative risk (RR)=1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23 to 1.69, p<0.001; I2=70%], HbA1c coefficient of variation (HbA1c-CV: RR=1.46, 95% CI: 1.19 to 1.79. p<0.001; I2=83%), standard deviation of fasting plasma glucose (FPG-SD: RR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.65, p=0.009; I2=0%), and FPG coefficient of variation (FPG-CV: RR=1.29, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.64, p=0.04; I2=47%). In conclusion, increased long-term glycemic variability may be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events in T2DM patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Glicemia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Jejum , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
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