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1.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364827

RESUMO

While increased intake of dietary fiber is known to reduce postprandial glycemic response, it is less understood whether the disruption of dietary fiber, in a blender, alters the postprandial glycemic response. We compared the postprandial glycemic response in 20 young, healthy college students (12 female, 8 male) after consuming whole fruit vs. blended fruit. The fruit included gala apple, with the seeds removed, and blackberries. We used a repeated measures two-way ANOVA with fruit treatment as the within-subject variable, sex as the between-subjects factor, and glucose maximum, glucose incremental area under the curve (iAUC), and 60 min glucose as dependent variables. Glucose maximum and glucose iAUC were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in blended fruit compared to whole fruit and 60 min glucose was marginally significantly lower (p = 0.057) in blended fruit compared to whole fruit. Sex was not a significant main effect and sex*treatment was not a significant interaction for any of the dependent variables. We hypothesize that a reduced glycemic response in blended apple and blackberries compared to whole apple and blackberries might be associated with the release of dietary fiber and nutritive components from ground blackberry seeds.


Assuntos
Malus , Rubus , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Feminino , Humanos , Frutas , Índice Glicêmico/fisiologia , Período Pós-Prandial , Glicemia , Fibras na Dieta , Glucose , Estudos Cross-Over , Insulina
2.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 73(8): 1124-1131, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329602

RESUMO

Asia has become the epicentre of type 2 diabetes (T2D), predominately due to the consumption of carbohydrate-rich and high-glycemic-index (high-GI) diets. Previously, almond consumption has been reported to reduce the risk of T2D, obesity, and related diseases. The hypothesis of this randomised cross-over clinical trial was that almond paste consumption with bread would improve postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses. Fifteen healthy Chinese men consumed four bread-based meals containing different amounts of almond paste and inulin. Our results show that co-ingesting bread with 15 g of almond paste and 4 g of inulin significantly reduced the postprandial glucose and insulin levels. The corresponding GI value was 44 (low GI), which was lower than the GI value of white bread, which was 60 (medium GI). However, co-ingestion of almond paste with bread increased the postprandial triglyceride levels. Further studies will be required to demonstrate these effects on a long term basis.Clinical trial registration No: NCT05504044.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Prunus dulcis , Masculino , Humanos , Glucose , Inulina , Insulina , Período Pós-Prandial , Índice Glicêmico , Fibras na Dieta , Glicemia , Estudos Cross-Over , Lipídeos , Carboidratos da Dieta
3.
Diabetes Care ; 45(12): 2862-2870, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36326712

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: High cereal fiber and low-glycemic index (GI) diets are associated with reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in cohort studies. Clinical trial evidence on event incidence is lacking. Therefore, to make trial outcomes more directly relevant to CVD, we compared the effect on carotid plaque development in diabetes of a low-GI diet versus a whole-grain wheat-fiber diet. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study randomized 169 men and women with well-controlled type 2 diabetes to counseling on a low GI-diet or whole-grain wheat-fiber diet for 3 years. Change in carotid vessel wall volume (VWV) (prespecified primary end point) was assessed by MRI as an indication of arterial damage. RESULTS: Of 169 randomized participants, 134 completed the study. No treatment differences were seen in VWV. However, on the whole-grain wheat-fiber diet, VWV increased significantly from baseline, 23 mm3 (95% CI 4, 41; P = 0.016), but not on the low-GI diet, 8 mm3 (95% CI -10, 26; P = 0.381). The low-GI diet resulted in preservation of renal function, as estimated glomerular filtration rate, compared with the reduction following the wheat-fiber diet. HbA1c was modestly reduced over the first 9 months in the intention-to-treat analysis and extended with greater compliance to 15 months in the per-protocol analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Since the low-GI diet was similar to the whole-grain wheat-fiber diet recommended for cardiovascular risk reduction, the low-GI diet may also be effective for CVD risk reduction.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Índice Glicêmico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Triticum/efeitos adversos , Fibras na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Dieta , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Glicemia
4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 3044545, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36440355

RESUMO

Background: The association of genetic and dietary factors with occurrence and progression of chronic diseases such as metabolic syndrome (MetS) has long been addressed but there is a lack of evidence for complex interrelationships, including direct and indirect effects of these variables. Hence, this study is aimed at evaluating the mediating role of glycemic indices in the association of melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) rs17782313 polymorphism, sociodemographic, and psychological factors with the risk of MetS in obese adults using structural equation modeling. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from 287 apparently healthy adults. Dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) were calculated from a validated 147-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). MC4R s17782313 genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Structural equation modeling was used to explore direct and indirect effects of genetic and nongenetic factors on MetS. Results: MC4R gene variant was directly associated with the risk of MetS (B = 0.010; P = 0.023). On the other hand, this variant was found to be indirectly and positively associated with LDL-C (B = 6.589; P = 0.042) through mediatory effects of GI and GL. Moreover, GI and GL also mediated indirect positive effects of sex and age on LDL-C (B = 3.970; P ≤ 0.01; B = 0.878; P ≤ 0.01, respectively) and HDL (B = 2.203; P ≤ 0.01; B = 0.129; P ≤ 0.01, respectively). MC4R rs17782313 polymorphism had positive effects on GI (B = 1.577; P ≤ 0.01) and GL (B = 1.235; P ≤ 0.01). Conclusion: Our data may state a hypothesis of the mediating effect of quantity and quality of carbohydrates consumed in relationship between genetic susceptibility to obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors. Further analyses should be carried out in high-quality cohort studies in order to confirm the findings.


Assuntos
Carga Glicêmica , Síndrome Metabólica , Adulto , Humanos , Índice Glicêmico , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/genética , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudos Transversais , LDL-Colesterol , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Genótipo
5.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 22(1): 288, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36404325

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The importance of genetic and dietary factors in occurrence and progression of chronic diseases such as metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been established. However, complex interrelationships, including direct and indirect effects of these variables are yet to be clarified. So, our aim was to investigate the mediating role of glycemic indices in the relationship between CARTPT rs2239670 polymorphism, socio-demographic and psychological factors and metabolic risk factors and the presence of MetS in adults with obesity. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 288 apparently healthy adults with obesity aged 20-50 years, dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) were measured using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Biochemical parameters, blood pressure and anthropometric indicators were assayed by standard methods. Genotyping was carried out by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS: CARTPT rs2239670 had a positive direct effect on MetS (B = 0.037 ± 0.022; P = 0.043) and, on the other hand, this variant was found to be indirectly associated with MetS presence through mediation of GI (B = 0.039 ± 0.017; P = 0.009). CARTPT was a significant predictor of both dietary GI and GL (B = 1.647 ± 0.080 and B = 3.339 ± 0.242, respectively). Additionally, glycemic indicators appeared to mediate the association of age and gender with LDL-C (B = 0.917 ± 0.332; P = 0.006) and HDL (B = 1.047 ± 0.484; P = 0.031), respectively. GI showed a positive relationship with LDL-C (P = 0.024) in men and similar relationships were found between GL and LDL-C (P = 0.050) and cholesterol (P = 0.022) levels in women. CONCLUSION: The SEM findings suggest a hypothesis of the mediating effect of glycemic indices in the relationship between genetic susceptibility to obesity and MetS presence. Our findings need to be confirmed with large prospective studies.


Assuntos
Carga Glicêmica , Síndrome Metabólica , Humanos , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Índice Glicêmico/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Estudos Transversais , LDL-Colesterol , Estudos Prospectivos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Fatores de Risco , Polimorfismo Genético
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(40): 12760-12771, 2022 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36190451

RESUMO

Rice is the main staple food for a large population around the world, while it generally has a high glycemic index and low resistant starch (RS) content. Although many strategies have been applied to develop healthier rice products with increased RS contents, their actual effects on gut microbiota and human health remain elusive. In this review, currently available production methods of rice RS are briefly summarized, followed by a critical discussion on their interactions with gut microbiota and subsequent effects on human health, from correlation implications to causal mechanisms. Different contents, types, and structures of RS have been produced by strategies such as genetic manipulation and controlling cooking conditions. The difference can largely determine effects of rice RS on gut microbiota composition and metabolites by specific RS-gut microbiota interactions. This review can thus help the rice industry develop rice products with desirable RS contents and structures to generally improve human health.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Oryza , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Oryza/química , Amido Resistente , Amido/química
7.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36234886

RESUMO

Pasta is a good carrier for plant enrichment substances due to its popularity among consumers. The purpose of the study was to investigate the functional potential and optimize the recipe of pasta made from durum semolina with the addition of black cumin cake at the level of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25%. The use of black cumin cake resulted in a statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in the content of protein, fat, ash, and fiber, including both the insoluble and soluble fractions. A reduction in the digestible carbohydrate content, in vitro starch hydrolysis index (HI), was observed. Pasta with a reduced glycemic index (GI) compared to the semolina control was obtained. The content of polyphenols, including flavonoids, in the cake-enriched pasta increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05), which resulted in higher antioxidant activity against DPPH. The increase in the iron content was over 2.5 times higher in the sample with the 25% addition of black cumin cake than in the control sample. The functional addition significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased the loss of dry matter and influenced the cooking time of pasta.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Nigella sativa , Antioxidantes/química , Culinária/métodos , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Farinha/análise , Índice Glicêmico , Ferro , Nigella sativa/metabolismo , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Amido/química , Triticum/química
8.
Physiol Behav ; 257: 113976, 2022 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a chronic low-grade inflammatory state that is related to prediabetes, increased Rhoassociated kinase 2 (ROCK2) activity and concentration of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Therefore, the study was conducted to investigate the effects of 12-week moderate aerobic exercise on ROCK2 activity, hs-CRP, glycosylated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), and glycemic index in obese patients with impaired glucose tolerance. METHODS: In a quasi-experimental design with pre and post-test, 42 obese men with prediabetes [mean±SD, age: 44.73 ± 3.30 years, body mass index (BMI): 33.22 ± 2.05 kg/m2, HbA1c: 6.29% ± 0.75] were allocated into two randomized homogeneous groups: Aerobic training group (AT, n = 22) or control group (C, n = 20). Exercise group performed a moderate aerobic exercise program three sessions per week, 60 min per session for 12 weeks. Body mass, BMI, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), serum levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), homeostasis model assessment of ß-cell function (HOMA-B); HbA1c, hs-CRP, or ROCK2 activity were measured before and after the study period. The data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA 2 × 2 and paired sample t-test at a significant level of p < 0.05. RESULTS: AT caused a significant reduction in body mass (p ≤ 0.001), BMI (p = 0.04), HOMA-B (p = 0.003), serum levels of FBG (p = 0.002), HbA1c (p = 0.039), hs-CRP (p ≤ 0.0001), and ROCK2 activity (p = 0.001). In contrast, in the same group, a significant increase was observed in VO2max (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed that moderate aerobic exercise was an effective and safe method to prevent type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in obese men with prediabetes by improving glucose metabolism, reduction of body mass, ROCK2 activity and serum levels of hs-CRP.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Intolerância à Glucose , Resistência à Insulina , Estado Pré-Diabético , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Glicemia/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Exercício Físico , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Índice Glicêmico , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/terapia , Estado Pré-Diabético/complicações , Estado Pré-Diabético/terapia , Quinases Associadas a rho
9.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 31(3): 371-377, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36173209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) have garnered scholarly attention for their roles in weight management and glycemic control. Flaxseed is a good source of fiber, lignans, and omega-3 fatty acids. This study evaluated healthy individuals' acute glycemic response and satiety following the consumption of flaxseed-enriched snack bars. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Nineteen healthy men and women consumed flaxseed bars or a glucose solution containing 50 g of available carbohydrates. Capillary blood glucose concentrations were obtained through the finger-prick test. The GI and GL values of the flaxseed bars were calculated using incremental area under the glucose response curve. Over 2 h, subjective satiety was examined at 0 (fasting), 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120min following the consumption of flaxseed bars or saltine crackers containing 300 kcal by using a visual analogue scale (VAS). RESULTS: Compared with that of the glucose solution, the glucose concentrations of the flaxseed bars (15-90 min) were significantly lower (p<0.001). The GI and GL values of the flaxseed bars were 30.0±23.0 and 2.3±0.2, respectively. Compared with saltine cracker consumption, flaxseed bars consumption resulted in lower hunger and higher satiety. The satiety index score of the flaxseed bars was 1.6 times higher than that of the saltine crackers. CONCLUSIONS: Although further studies are warranted to evaluate the long-term effects of flaxseed-enriched snacks on glycemia and energy balance, our findings suggest that the incorporation of flaxseed into snack bars is a viable strategy for the management of obesity and diabetes.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Linho , Lignanas , Glicemia , Estudos Cross-Over , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Feminino , Linho/metabolismo , Glucose , Índice Glicêmico/fisiologia , Humanos , Lignanas/farmacologia , Masculino , Lanches
10.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273943, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048786

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) has been investigated in the field of cancer research for several years. However, the relationship between GI or GL and lung cancer risk remains inconsistent. Therefore, this study aimed to summarize previous findings on this relationship. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science databases, and Cochrane Library were searched by July 2021. This review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. A fixed or random-effects model was adopted for meta-analysis to compute the pooled relative risks (RR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Subgroup analyses, sensitivity analyses, and publication bias analyses were also performed. RESULTS: In total, nine articles were included, with four case-control studies and five cohort studies, including 17,019 cases and 786,479 controls. After merging the studies, pooled multivariable RRs of lung cancer based on the highest versus the lowest intake were 1.14 (95%CI: 1.03-1.26) and 0.93 (95%CI: 0.84-1.02) for GI and GL. Results persisted in most stratifications after stratifying by potential confounders in the relationship between GI and lung cancer risk. There was a non-linear dose response relation for GI with lung caner risk. CONCLUSION: GI typically has a positive relationship with lung cancer risk. However, no associations between GL and lung cancer risk were observed based on current evidence, suggesting that this issue should be studied and verified further to substantiate these findings.


Assuntos
Carga Glicêmica , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Carboidratos da Dieta , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
11.
Nutr Res ; 106: 12-23, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122501

RESUMO

Lentils lower acute glycemic responses and promote satiety, benefits that may aid in chronic disease prevention. However, perceived gastrointestinal (GI) effects may deter inclusion of dietary pulses in the diet. We hypothesized that 8 weeks of lentil-based vs meat-based meals would improve glycemic control and improve satiety in metabolically at-risk, nondiabetic adults. Because GI symptoms are rarely reported, we also explored the temporal effects of symptom severity. Adults with an increased waist circumference (male > 40 inches, female > 35 inches) participated in an 8-week dietary intervention that included 5 prepared midday meals each week that were isocaloric but varied in cooked green lentil dosage: 0 g (CON), 300 g (MOD), or 600 g (HI). Assessments included glucose and insulin integrated area under the curve measured during a 75-g carbohydrate tolerance test, hepatic Homeostatic Model of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), and peripheral insulin resistance. On 1 randomized day each week, satiety was assessed at 4:00 pm and GI symptoms at 8:00 pm. A linear model assessed changes in glycemic and GI measures by meal group. Thirty adults (mean ± SD; age, 41.6 ± 11.7 years, body mass index, 35.1 ± 6.3) completed the intervention. HOMA-IR increased in CON (+1.2 units) and decreased in a dose-dependent manner in MOD (-0.9 units, P = .03) and HI (-1.5 units, P < .01) relative to CON. Most participants (87.4%) reported no to mild GI symptoms. Of these, flatulence was mild on average with bloating, abdominal discomfort, and cramping severity 0.3, 0.5, and 0.5 units lower (P < .001). We observed a dose-dependent reduction on rising hepatic insulin resistance and low GI symptom severity with long-term lentil consumption in metabolically at-risk adults.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Lens (Planta) , Adulto , Glicemia , Estudos Cross-Over , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Feminino , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Prandial
12.
Nutrients ; 14(18)2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36145078

RESUMO

Designing cereal-based products with appropriate metabolic responses is of high interest to the food industry in view of the potential health impact of the product. The objective of this study was to test whether a model that used the nutrient composition of breakfast cereals to predict their glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) could also accurately predict the GI and GL for complete (containing protein, reconstituted in water) infant cereal prototypes. Four independent studies measured the postprandial glucose response of 20 complete infant cereal prototypes (51-76 g/100 g glycemic carbohydrates) in healthy adults. The predictions were strongly correlated with the measured values for both the GI (r = 0.93, p-value < 0.01) and GL (r = 0.98, p-value < 0.01). The in vivo incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for glucose showed a strong linear relationship with the predicted GL (r = 0.99, p < 0.01). In summary, the model previously developed to predict the GI and GL of breakfast cereals was both accurate and precise for infant cereals and could be considered a simple tool to support nutritionally responsible product development.


Assuntos
Índice Glicêmico , Carga Glicêmica , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Índice Glicêmico/fisiologia , Humanos , Água
13.
Nutrients ; 14(18)2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36145115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postprandial glycemic excursions are associated with impairment control of diabetes mellitus. Long-term consumption of flaxseed can lower blood glucose levels; however, its effects on the postprandial glycemic response remain unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the acute effects of raw flaxseed consumption on the 2 h postprandial glycemic curve in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: This was a randomized crossover clinical trial. Nineteen men with T2DM were randomly assigned a standardized breakfast without (control) or with a previous intake of 15 g of ground raw golden flaxseed (flax). Glycemia was measured at fasting and postprandial at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min. Palatability markers (visual appeal, smell, and pleasantness of taste) and taste intensity (sweetness, saltiness, bitterness, sourness, and creaminess) were evaluated. RESULTS: The peak glucose rise and the 2 h AUC glycemic response reduced in the flax group by 17% (p = 0.001) and 24% (p < 0.001), respectively. The glucose peak time, palatability, and taste parameters did not differ between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Ingestion of 15 g of ground raw golden flaxseed before breakfast decreases the 2 h postprandial glycemic response in men with T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Linho , Glicemia , Estudos Cross-Over , Glucose , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Insulina , Masculino , Período Pós-Prandial
14.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 192: 110089, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122866

RESUMO

AIM: To explore intraindividual (between-meals) and interindividual (between-subjects) variability of postprandial glucose response (PGR) in type 1 diabetes (T1DM). METHODS: Data were taken from five cross-over trials in 61 subjects with T1DM on insulin pump wherein the effects of different dietary components or the intraindividual-variability of PGR to the same meal were evaluated by CGM. Predictors (type of meal or nutrient composition) of early (iAUC0-3h), late (iAUC3-6h), total (iAUC0-6h), and time-course of postprandial blood glucose changes (iAUC3-6hminus0-3h) were evaluated using two mixed-effect linear regression models considering the patient's identification number as random-effect. RESULTS: High-glycemic-index (HGI) and low-glycemic-index meals were the best positive and negative predictors of glucose iAUC0-3h, respectively. A Low-Fat-HGI meal significantly predicted iAUC3-6hminus0-3h (Estimate 3268; p = 0.017). Among nutrients, dietary fiber was the only significant negative predictor of iAUC0-3h (Estimate -550; p < 0.001) and iAUC0-6h (Estimate -742; p = 0.01) and positive predictor of iAUC3-6hminus0-3h (Estimate 336; p = 0.043). For all models, the random-effect patient was statistically significant (p < 0.001 by ANOVA). CONCLUSION: Beyond the meal characteristics (including glycemic index, fat and fiber content), individual traits significantly influence PGR. Specific interindividual factors should be further identified to properly predict glucose response to meals with different composition in individuals with T1DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Humanos , Glucose , Insulina , Período Pós-Prandial , Refeições , Glicemia , Índice Glicêmico , Fibras na Dieta , Estudos Cross-Over
15.
Mol Neurobiol ; 59(12): 7303-7322, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36175825

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with brain amyloid-ß (Aß) peptide accumulation and neuroinflammation. Currants, a low glycemic index dried fruit, and their components display pleiotropic neuroprotective effects in AD. We examined how diet containing 5% Corinthian currant paste (CurD) administered in 1-month-old 5xFAD mice for 1, 3, and 6 months affects Aß levels and neuroinflammation in comparison to control diet (ConD) or sugar-matched diet containing 3.5% glucose/fructose (GFD). No change in serum glucose or insulin levels was observed among the three groups. CurD administered for 3 months reduced brain Aß42 levels in male mice as compared to ConD and GFD, but after 6 months, Aß42 levels were increased in mice both on CurD and GFD compared to ConD. CurD for 3 months also reduced TNFα and IL-1ß levels in male and female mouse cortex homogenates compared to ConD and GFD. However, after 6 months, TNFα levels were increased in cortex homogenates of mice both on CurD and GFD as compared to ConD. A similar pattern was observed for TNFα-expressing cells, mostly co-expressing the microglial marker CD11b, in mouse hippocampus. IL-1ß levels were similarly increased in the brain of all groups after 6 months. Furthermore, a time dependent decrease of secreted TNFα levels was found in BV2 microglial cells treated with currant phenolic extract as compared to glucose/fructose solution. Overall, our findings suggest that a short-term currant consumption reduces neuroinflammation in 5xFAD mice as compared to sugar-matched or control diet, but longer-term intake of currant or sugar-matched diet enhances neuroinflammation.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Camundongos , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Índice Glicêmico , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Camundongos Transgênicos , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Microglia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dieta , Frutose , Glucose , Açúcares
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14956, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056114

RESUMO

The severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) quickly progresses with unfavorable outcomes due to the host immune response and metabolism alteration. Hence, we hypothesized that leukocyte glucose index (LGI) is a biomarker for severe COVID-19. This study involved 109 patients and the usefulness of LGI was evaluated and compared with other risk factors to predict COVID 19 severity. LGI was identified as an independent risk factor (odds ratio [OR] = 1.727, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.026-3.048, P = 0.041), with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.749 (95% CI: 0.642-0.857, P < 0.0001). Interestingly, LGI was a potential risk factor (OR = 2.694, 95% CI: 1.575-5.283, Pcorrected < 0.05) for severe COVID-19 in female but not in male patients. In addition, LGI proved to be a strong predictor of the severity in patients with diabetes (AUC = 0.915 (95% CI: 0.830-1), sensitivity = 0.833, and specificity = 0.931). The AUC of LGI, together with the respiratory rate (LGI + RR), showed a considerable improvement (AUC = 0.894, 95% CI: 0.835-0.954) compared to the other biochemical and respiratory parameters analyzed. Together, these findings indicate that LGI could potentially be used as a biomarker of severity in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Biomarcadores , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Feminino , Glucose , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Leucócitos , Masculino
17.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 32(10): 2310-2320, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35973887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are increasingly recognized as important for the prevention and management of diabetes mellitus. To extend the portfolio of assessment methods for large-scale epidemiological studies, we propose a GI-specific addition to an already established FFQ. METHODS AND RESULTS: The German version of the EPIC-FFQ was extended by GI-specific questions for major carbohydrate sources varying notably in GI (breakfast cereals, bread, pasta, rice, potato etc.). We performed relative validation analyses comparing the GI-extended FFQ to three to four 3-day weighted dietary records (3-d WDR) in 100 middle-aged individuals with diabetes mellitus participating in the German Diabetes Study (GDS). Level of agreement between the two methods was assessed by correlation and cross-classification analyses as well as Bland-Altman-Plots, conducted separately for women and men. Spearman correlation analysis for female participants suggested good agreement between the GI-extended FFQ and 3-d WDRs for energy adjusted dietary GL (r = 0.52, p = 0.0004). For both women and men, agreement with the estimations of dietary GI, GL (for men) and carbohydrates from low and higher-GI food sources from the GI-extended FFQ was acceptable (r: 0.28-0.45). Classification of the dietary GI and GL in the opposite quartile was <10% comparing the GI-extended FFQ and 3-d WDR. Bland-Altman plots suggested a tendency for an overestimation of the dietary GI from the GI-extended FFQ in the lower GI-ranges, particularly for men. CONCLUSION: Compared to the 3-d WDR, the GI-extended FFQ showed a moderate to good relative validity for parameters of carbohydrate quality.


Assuntos
Índice Glicêmico , Carga Glicêmica , Carboidratos , Dieta , Registros de Dieta , Carboidratos da Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 56(suple. 2): 23-28, may. - ago. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1396205

RESUMO

La última década se ha destacado por los importantes avances en el desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías para pacientes que viven con diabetes mellitus (DM). Las innovaciones han estado orientadas principalmente a: mejorar la calidad de vida, reducir el impacto que genera la ocurrencia de hipoglucemias y reducir la carga de la enfermedad colaborando en la toma diaria de decisiones1. El monitoreo continuo de glucosa (MCG) es una herramienta que ha experimentado un importante avance al aportar información dinámica del estado metabólico en los pacientes y permitir la toma de decisiones, demostrado por un control metabólico estable, menores excursiones glucémicas, y una reducción significativa en la aparición y gravedad de las hipoglucemias2-5. Las presentes recomendaciones tienen como objetivo brindar herramientas rápidas para la interpretación de datos metabólicos y la consiguiente toma de decisiones terapéuticas. A tal fin se realizó una exhaustiva revisión de las principales guías y recomendaciones vigentes; posteriormente, el Grupo de Trabajo adaptó esa información según una serie de preguntas con criterio clínico práctico. El avance de los MCG es innegable, no solo en el desarrollo tecnológico, sino que se han convertido en una herramienta educativa para las personas con DM, su entorno y el equipo de salud al posibilitar un ajuste dinámico del tratamiento, prevenir complicaciones agudas y mejorar la calidad de vida. En esta ecuación enfatizamos la importancia de la educación diabetológica continua de la persona con DM y su entorno, participando activamente en la toma de decisiones para, de esta manera, cumplir con los objetivos propuestos: mejorar la calidad de vida, reducir la carga de la enfermedad y disminuir las excursiones glucémicas agudas.


The last decade has been highlighted by important advances in the development of new technologies for patients living with diabetes. The innovations have been oriented above all to improve the quality of life, reduce the impact generated by the occurrence of hypoglycemia and reduce the burden of the disease by collaborating in daily decision-making1. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a tool that has undergone significant progress, providing dynamic information on the metabolic status of patients, allowing decision making, demonstrated by stable metabolic control, lower glycemic excursions and a significant reduction in the occurrence and severity of hypoglycemia2-5. The purpose of these recommendations, developed by members of the Innovation Committee of the Argentine Society of Diabetes, is to provide rapid tools for the interpretation of metabolic data and the subsequent therapeutic decisionmaking. To this end, an exhaustive review of the main current guidelines and recommendations has been carried out, later the working group adapted this information according to a series of questions with practical clinical criteria. The progress of CGMs is undeniable, not only in technological development, but it has become an educational tool for people with diabetes, their environment, and the health team, offering the possibility of a dynamic adjustment of treatment, prevention of acute complications and improving quality of life. In this equation, we emphasize the importance of continuous diabetes education for the person with diabetes and their environment, actively participating in decision-making, and in this way, meeting the proposed objectives: improving quality of life, reducing the burden of disease, and decreasing acute glycemic excursions.


Assuntos
Hipoglicemia , Glicemia , Índice Glicêmico , Controle Glicêmico , Glucose
19.
Nutrients ; 14(15)2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35956366

RESUMO

Non-sugar components of kiwifruit reduce the amplitude of the glycaemic response to co-consumed cereal starch. We determined the relative contribution of different non-sugar kiwifruit components to this anti-glycaemic effect. Healthy participants (n = 9) ingested equal carbohydrate meals containing 20 g starch as wheat biscuit (WB, 30 g), and the sugar equivalent of two kiwifruit (KFsug, 20.4 g), either intrinsic or added as glucose, fructose and sucrose (2:2:1). The meals were WB+KFsug (control, no non-sugar kiwifruit components), WB + whole kiwifruit pulp (WB+KF), WB + neutralised kiwifruit pulp (WB+KFneut), WB + low-fibre kiwifruit juice (WB+KFjuice) and WB+KFsug + kiwifruit organic acids (WB+KFsug+OA). All meals were spiked with 100 mg sodium [1-13C] acetate to measure intestinal absorption. Each participant ingested all meals in random order. Blood glucose and breath 13CO2 were measured at ingestion and at 15 min intervals up to 180 min. Compared with WB+KFsug, whole kiwifruit pulp (WB+KF) almost halved glycaemic response amplitude (p < 0.001), reduced incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (iAUC) at 30 min (peak) by 50% (p < 0.001), and averted late postprandial hypoglycaemia. All other treatments suppressed response amplitude half as much as whole kiwifruit and averted acute hypoglycaemia, with little effect on iAUC. Effects on 13CO2 exhalation paralleled effects on blood glucose (R2 = 0.97). Dietary fibre and organic acids contributed equally to the anti-glycaemic effect of kiwifruit by reducing intestinal absorption rate. Kiwifruit flesh effectively attenuates glycaemic response in carbohydrate exchange, as it contains fructose, dietary fibre and organic acids.


Assuntos
Actinidia , Glicemia , Acetatos , Dióxido de Carbono , Estudos Cross-Over , Carboidratos da Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Frutose , Glucose , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Insulina , Período Pós-Prandial , Amido
20.
Nutrients ; 14(16)2022 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36014822

RESUMO

Despite multiple pharmacological options, including rapid-acting insulin analogs, postprandial hyperglycemia is still highly prevalent in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. We hypothesize that the new rapid-acting insulin formulation, the so-called faster-acting Aspart, may have a different effect in controlling postprandial hyperglycemic burden according to the quality of the meal compared to the traditional Aspart. Twenty-five patients with type 1 diabetes were consecutively recruited at the diabetes care center of the University Hospital affiliate of the Magna Græcia University of Catanzaro. Each patient performed four meal tests one week apart, two with a predefined high glycemic index (HGI) food and two with a low glycemic index (LGI) food using insulin Aspart once and Faster Aspart the other time. The 0-30 min, 0-60 min, and 0-120 min glucose Area Under the Curve (AUC) of postprandial glycemic excursion, calculated from continuous glucose monitoring data, were significantly lower with Faster Aspart administered before the HGI test meal as compared to Aspart. A significant difference in favor of Faster Aspart was also found when comparing the 0-60 min and 0-120 min AUC after the LGI meal. Faster Aspart may provide better postprandial glucose control than Aspart regardless of the glycemic index of the meal.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hiperglicemia , Glicemia , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Estudos Cross-Over , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina , Insulina Aspart/uso terapêutico , Período Pós-Prandial
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