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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 268: 113579, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189844

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Gnaphalium affine D. Don is an important Traditional Chinese herbal Medicine (TCM) used to treat hyperuricemia, asthma, rheumatic arthritis, antitussive, expectorant and cardiovascular in folk medicine because of anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential beneficial effect of G. affine extract (GAE) on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis and explore the possible underlying mechanism in cardiomyocyte. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ingredients of GAE were isolated and tentatively identified by HPLC-ESI-Q-Qribatrip-MS/MS. The cardioprotective and anti-oxidant effects of GAE were evaluated in the experimental model with H2O2 induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells. H9c2 cells were pretreated for 3 h with or without GAE or with GAE plus PX866 (PI3K inhibitor), then exposed to H2O2 for 6 h, H9c2 cells viability were detected by CCK8 kit, the content of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and intracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured by the commercial biochemical kits, western blotting, immunohistochemical (IHC), immunofluorescence (IF) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays were performed to evaluate the proteins and mRNA expression, propidium iodide (PI) staining was adopted to indicate H9c2 cells apoptosis. RESULTS: Firstly, seventeen polyphenols and flavonoids compounds with the characteristics of anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant in GAE were tentatively identified by HPLC-ESI-Q-Qribatrip-MS/MS. In the experimental model, GAE not only significantly improved cells viability, but also showed anti-oxidant effects through improving SOD activity, up-regulating nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and decreasing intracellular concentration of ROS and MDA and the proteins expression of p47phox, p67phox and gp91phox. On the other hand, GAE revealed anti-apoptotic effect through up-regulating the expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), down-regulating Bcl2-associated X (BAX) and cleaved-caspase 3. Furthermore, GAE significantly facilitated phosphorylation of AKT and glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3ß) but not AMPK, while the effects were blocked by PX866 (PI3K inhibitor). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggested that GAE showed strong anti-oxidant effect to ameliorate oxidative stress and attenuate apoptosis induced by H2O2 in H9c2 cells by targeting PI3K/AKT/GSK-3ß signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Gnaphalium , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
2.
Chin J Nat Med ; 16(5): 347-353, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29860995

RESUMO

Gnaphalium affine D. Don, a medicinal and edible plant, has been used to treat gout in traditional Chinese medicine and popularly consumed in China for a long time. A detailed phytochemical investigation on the aerial part of G. affine led to the isolation of two new esters of caffeoylquinic acid named (-) ethyl 1, 4-di-O-caffeoylquinate (1) and (-) methyl 1, 4-di-O-caffeoylquinate (2), together with 35 known compounds (3-37). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data and first-order multiplet analysis. All the isolated compounds were tested for their xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity with an in vitro enzyme inhibitory screening assay. Among the tested compounds, 1 (IC50 11.94 µmol·L-1) and 2 (IC50 15.04 µmol·L-1) showed a good inhibitory activity. The current results supported the medical use of the plant.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Gnaphalium/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ácido Quínico/análogos & derivados , Xantina Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Adenina/análogos & derivados , Adenina/química , Adenina/isolamento & purificação , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Supressores da Gota/química , Supressores da Gota/isolamento & purificação , Supressores da Gota/farmacologia , Hidroxibenzoatos/química , Hidroxibenzoatos/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Quínico/química , Ácido Quínico/isolamento & purificação
3.
Phytomedicine ; 41: 54-61, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29519319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gnaphalium affine D. Don is a folk medicine of China believed to be efficacious in the treatment of many ailments, including hyperuricemia and gout. PURPOSE: Based on a previous study, we isolated two flavones, luteolin and luteolin-4'-O-glucoside, from G. affine. Our aim was to assess the potential beneficial effects of treatment and mechanisms of these two flavones on hyperuricemia and acute gouty arthritis. METHODS: The model of potassium oxonate (PO)-induced hyperuricemia and monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced inflammation in mice has been established. We evaluated serum uric acid (Sur), xanthine oxidase (XO) activity, protein expression of urate transporter 1 (mURAT1) and glucose transporter 9 (mGLUT9) in renal and kidney protection in a hyperuricemia model. In addition, paw swelling and levels of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum were assessed in MSU crystal-induced mice. RESULTS: Luteolin and luteolin-4'-O-glucoside showed a potent clinical effect in treating hyperuricemia and gout. We observed that the two flavones possess potent effect in hyperuricemia mice by decreasing the level of mURAT1 and inhibiting XO activity, which contribute to enhancing uric acid (UA) excretion and improving hyperuricemia-induced renal dysfunction. In addition, luteolin and luteolin-4'-O-glucoside also alleviated paw swelling and inflammation induced by MSU crystals. Further investigation implied that luteolin and luteolin-4'-O-glucoside improved the symptoms of inflammation by decreasing the levels of IL-1ß and TNF-α. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that luteolin and luteolin-4'-O-glucoside could be developed as therapeutics for treating hyperuricemia and gouty arthritis.


Assuntos
Artrite Gotosa/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Gnaphalium/química , Hiperuricemia/tratamento farmacológico , Luteolina/farmacologia , Animais , Artrite Gotosa/induzido quimicamente , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/metabolismo , Hiperuricemia/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Ácido Úrico/toxicidade , Xantina Oxidase/metabolismo
4.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 17(1): 320, 2017 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28623927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Gnaphalium pensylvanicum willd. is used in China as a folk medicine to treat anti-inflammatory, cough and rheumatism arthritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of the extract of G. pensylvanicum to treat hyperuricemia and acute gouty arthritis in animal model. METHODS: G. pensylvanicum extract was evaluated in an experimental model with potassium oxonate (PO) induced hyperuricemia in mice which was used to evaluate anti-hyperuricemia activity and xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibition. Therapies for acute gouty arthritis was also investigated on monosodium urate (MSU) crystal induced paw edema model. RESULTS: G. pensylvanicum extract showed activity in reducing serum uric acid (Sur) through effect renal glucose transporter 9 (GLUT9), organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) and urate transporter 1 (URAT1) mainly and inhibited XO activity in vivo of mice with PO induced hyperuricemia. The extract of G. pensylvanicum also showed significant anti-inflammatory activity and reduced the paw swelling on MSU crystal-induced paw edema model. Meanwhile, 13 caffeoylquinic acid derivatives and 1 flavone were identified by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS as the main active component of G. pensylvanicum. CONCLUSIONS: The extract of G. pensylvanicum showed significant effect on evaluated models and therefore may be active agents for the treatment of hyperuricemia and acute gouty arthritis.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Artrite Gotosa/tratamento farmacológico , Gnaphalium/química , Supressores da Gota/administração & dosagem , Hiperuricemia/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Ácido Quínico/análogos & derivados , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Artrite Gotosa/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/genética , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/metabolismo , Supressores da Gota/química , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/genética , Hiperuricemia/imunologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ácido Quínico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Quínico/química , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 203: 304-311, 2017 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28390941

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The Gnaphalium affine D. Don is used in China as a folk medicine to treat gout, anti-inflammatory, antitussive and expectorant activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of the extract of G. affine to treat hyperuricemia and acute gouty arthritis in animal model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: G. affine extract was evaluated in an experimental model with potassium oxonate (PO) induced hyperuricemia in mice which was used to evaluate anti-hyperuricemia activity and xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibition. Therapies for acute gouty arthritis was also investigated on monosodium urate (MSU) crystal induced paw edema model. RESULTS: G. affine extract showed expressive results on active in reducing serum uric acid (Sur) through effect renal mGLUT9 and mURAT1 mainly and inhibit XO activity in vivo. The extract of G. affine also showed significant anti-inflammatory activity and reduced the paw swelling on MSU crystal-induced paw edema model. Meanwhile, eight major compounds were identified by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS. CONCLUSIONS: The extract of G. affine showed significant effect on evaluated models and therefore may be active agents for the treatment of hyperuricemia and acute gouty arthritis.


Assuntos
Artrite Gotosa/tratamento farmacológico , Gnaphalium/química , Hiperuricemia/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Ácido Oxônico/toxicidade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Xantina Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores
6.
Molecules ; 21(9)2016 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27649136

RESUMO

In this study, a new method based on immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) combined with ultrafiltration-ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UF-UPLC-MS) was developed for discovering ligands for xanthine oxidase (XO) in Gnaphalium hypoleucum DC., a folk medicine used in China for the treatment of gout. By IMAC, the high flavonoid content of G. hypoleucum could be determined rapidly and efficiently. UF-UPLC-MS was used to select the bound xanthine oxidase ligands in the mixture and identify them. Finally, two flavonoids, luteolin-4'-O-glucoside and luteolin, were successfully screened and identified as the candidate XO inhibitors of G. hypoleucum. They were evaluated in vitro for XO inhibitory activity and their interaction mechanism was studied coupled with molecular simulations. The results were in favor of the hypothesis that the flavonoids of G. hypoleucum might be the active content for gout treatment by inhibiting XO.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Gnaphalium/química , Xantina Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia de Afinidade , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas , Ultrafiltração , Xantina Oxidase/química
7.
Cell Biochem Biophys ; 74(3): 407-17, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27324043

RESUMO

Gnaphalium affine is an annual herbaceous plant that is used as a traditional medicine in some Latin American and Asian countries. However, systematic studies on its anti-inflammatory activity and signaling pathways have not yet been reported. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of G. affine methanol extract in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells and fractioned the methanol extract into hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), butyl alcohol (BuOH), and distilled water (DW) by measuring the generation of nitric oxide (NO). G. affine inhibited the generation of NO and prostaglandin E2. The chloroform-soluble fraction most effectively inhibited LPS-stimulated NO production. We also examined the cytotoxicity of G. affine in three normal cell lines: RAW264.7, HEK293, and HaCaT. Cell viability assays showed that the methanol extract and chloroform-soluble fraction of G. affine had no cytotoxic effect on normal cell lines. The expression of pro-inflammatory mediators was also investigated. Western blotting and immunofluorescence showed that G. affine reduces the expression of iNOS, COX-2, and MAPKs, as well as activation of NF-κB in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. RT-PCR showed that G. affine also negatively regulates inflammatory cytokines at the gene expression level. Taken together, G. affine exerts its anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of NO generation as a result of inhibiting NF-κB and MAPKs-related inflammatory signaling pathways. In addition, the result of GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of nineteen different types of constituents including guaiacol in the chloroform-soluble fraction of G. affine.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Gnaphalium/química , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Western Blotting , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/análise , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Gnaphalium/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 176: 356-64, 2015 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26561928

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Gnaphalium affine D. Don (GA) has been traditionally used as a medicinal herb in China for the treatment of many ailments including rheumatoid arthritis. However, the anti-arthritic mechanism of GA has still not been demonstrated. This study aims to reveal the anti-inflammatory activity and anti-arthritic mechanism of ethanol extract of G. affine D. Don. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anti-inflammatory potential of GA was analyzed in vivo in carrageenan induced mice paw edema (acute study). Also, in vivo study was applied in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats. In vitro experiments for analyzing the anti-inflammatory potential of GA were performed on rat alveolar macrophages cell line (NR8383). Analysis of nitric oxide release in NR8383 cells was done by Griess reaction. RT-PCR and western blotting experiment was performed to analyze the expression of phosphorylated p65 and IκBα/ß-actin in NF-κB pathway. The production of TNF-α, IL-1ß, and COX-2 in NR8383 cells were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The chemical profile of GA was analyzed by HPLC-VWD. RESULTS: GA significantly reduced the paw volume in carrageenan induced rat paw edema rat at different doses (300 and 600 mg/kg), compared with the standard indomethacin treatment. In CIA, GA can obviously ameliorate the inflammatory symptom, including cytokine, histological symptom and paw swelling. In the vitro study, GA was able to reduce the nitric oxide (NO) levels in NR8383 cells that had been stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The level of TNF-α, IL-1ß, and COX-2 was also decreased with GA treatment in NR8383 cells that had been stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Interestingly, GA was found to decrease the level of phosphorylated p65 and IκBα in NR8383 cells. Fifteen compounds were identified by HPLC-VWD with the reference substances and verified by LC-MS. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the experiment scientifically validated its traditional use in inflammatory conditions.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Gnaphalium , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Artrite Experimental/sangue , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Carragenina , Linhagem Celular , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/patologia , Feminino , Pé/patologia , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Articulação do Joelho/efeitos dos fármacos , Articulação do Joelho/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fitoterapia , Ratos Wistar , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
9.
Chin Med Sci J ; 29(4): 225-30, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25429747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the inhibitory effect of Gnaphalium affine extracts on xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in vitro and to analyze the mechanism of this effect. METHODS: In this in vitro study, Kinetic measurements were performed in 4 different inhibitor concentrations and 5 different xanthine concentrations (60, 100, 200, 300, 400 Μmol/L). Dixon and Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis were used to determine Ki values and the inhibition mode for the compounds isolated from Gnaphalium affine extract. RESULTS: Four potent xanthine oxidase inhibitors were found in 95% ethanolic (v/v) Gnaphalium affine extract. Among them, the flavone Eupatilin exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on XO with a inhibition constant (Ki) of 0.37 Μmol/L, lower than the Ki of allopurinol (4.56 mol/L), a known synthetic XO inhibitor. Apigenin (Ki of 0.56 Μmol/L, a proportion of 0.0053‰ in Gnaphalium affine), luteolin (Ki of 2.63 Μmol/L, 0.0032‰ in Gnaphalium affine) and 5-hydroxy-6,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone (Ki of 3.15 Μmol/L, 0.0043‰ in Gnaphalium affine) also contributed to the inhibitory effect of Gnaphalium affine extract on XO activity. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the use of Gnaphalium affine in the treatment of gout could be attributed to its inhibitory effect on XO. This study provides a rational basis for the traditional use of Gnaphalium affine against gout.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/farmacologia , Gnaphalium/química , Xantina Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 186(7): 4051-6, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24519638

RESUMO

In a preliminary study, we found that the cadmium (Cd) concentrations in shoots of the winter farmland weeds Cardamine hirsuta Linn. and Gnaphalium affine D. Don exceeded the critical value of a Cd-hyperaccumulator (100 mg kg(-1)), indicating that these two farmland weeds might be Cd-hyperaccumulators. In this study, we grew these species in soil containing various concentrations of Cd to further evaluate their Cd accumulation characteristics. The biomasses of C. hirsuta and G. affine decreased with increasing Cd concentrations in the soil, while the root/shoot ratio and the Cd concentrations in shoot tissues increased. The Cd concentrations in shoots of C. hirsuta and G. affine reached 121.96 and 143.91 mg kg(-1), respectively, at the soil Cd concentration of 50 mg kg(-1). Both of these concentrations exceeded the critical value of a Cd-hyperaccumulator (100 mg kg(-1)). The shoot bioconcentration factors of C. hirsuta and G. affine were greater than 1. The translocation factor of C. hirsuta was less than 1 and that of G. affine was greater than 1. These findings indicated that C. hirsuta is a Cd-accumulator and G. affine is Cd-hyperaccumulator. Both plants are distributed widely in the field, and they could be used to remediate Cd-contaminated farmland soil in winter.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Cardamine/metabolismo , Gnaphalium/metabolismo , Plantas Daninhas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Agricultura , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Cádmio/análise , Cardamine/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gnaphalium/química , Raízes de Plantas , Plantas Daninhas/química , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
11.
Bogotá; s.n; 2014. 70 p. ilus, graf.
Tese em Espanhol | LILACS, MOSAICO - Saúde integrativa | ID: biblio-911725

RESUMO

Se estudiaron plantas autóctonas de páramos colombianos, preconizados por la medicina tradicional como antiinflamatorios y citotóxicas, con el fin de identificar los compuestos responsables de las acciones terapéuticas mencionadas y hacer uso de sus extractos en el control de problemas como el cáncer y la inflamación. Se investigaron mezclas de hojas y tallos de especímenes de Ageratina vacciniaefolia, Conyza trihecatactis y Gnaphalium graveolens, pertenecientes a la familia Asteraceae, recolectadas en los páramos de Sumapaz y Cruz verde situados al sureste y nororiente de la ciudad de Bogotá (Colombia), en la cordillera oriental de los Andes. La obtención de los extractos y fracciones de las diferentes especies se realizó utilizando solventes de baja, mediana y alta polaridad. Los compuestos fueron monitoreados mediante Cromatografía en Capa Fina (CCF) y separados por Cromatografía en Columna (CC). Para su identificación se utilizaron técnicas espectroscópicas como RMN (experimentos 1H y 13C, HSQC, HMBC). La actividad antiinflamatoria se realizó mediante el modelo experimental del edema en la pata de ratas Wistar, inducido por la inyección plantar de carragenina (Muniappan & Sundarara, 2003) y un estudio histopatológico. Finalmente los ensayos de citotoxicidad frente a la línea celular OCI-AML3 fueron realizados mediante citometría de flujo. De las fracciones de Conyza trihecatactis se aislaron las siguientes sustancias: Ent-(13R)-labdan-14-en-8,13-diol, Ent-(13R)-8-hidroxilabdan-14-en-13-O-ß-D-xilopiranosa y el Ent-(13R)-labdan-8(17),14-dien-13-O-ß-D-xilopiranosa. De las fracciones de Ageratina vacciniaefolia se aislaron: Ácido kaur-16-en-19-oico, Ácido (-)9, 15-dihidroxikaur-16-en-19-oico, Ácido (+) kaur-16-en-19-oico y el ß-D-glucopyranosil éster del Ácido(-)-17-(ß-xilopiranosa)-kauran-19-oico. De las fracciones de Gnaphalium graveolens se aisló el ácido ent-kaur-9(11), 16-dien-19-oico. La fracción de acetato de etilo, obtenida del extracto en éter de petróleo de Conyza trihecatactis mostró un buen resultado en la actividad antiinflamatoria a la quinta y séptima hora del tratamiento a una concentración de 300mg/kg; de igual manera esta fue la fracción más activa en los ensayos de citotoxicidad a una concentración de 10µg/mL.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Conyza , Citotoxinas , Diterpenos , Gnaphalium , Colômbia , Modelos Animais , Extratos Vegetais , Plantas Medicinais
12.
Molecules ; 18(7): 7751-60, 2013 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23823875

RESUMO

Two new phenolic glycosides, named gnaphaffine A and B (compounds 1 and 2), were isolated from Gnaphalium affine. together with six known compounds, including caffeic acid (3), everlastoside L (4), isorhamnetin-7-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (5), quercetin- 3-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (6), scutellarein-7-O-ß-D-glucoside (7) and api-genin-7-O-ß-D- glucopyranoside (8). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including ESI-MS and 2D NMR spectroscopy (HMQC and HMBC). All compounds were evaluated for their anti-complementary activity on the classical pathway of the complement system in vitro.


Assuntos
Inativadores do Complemento/farmacologia , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Gnaphalium/metabolismo , Fenóis/farmacologia , Inativadores do Complemento/química , Glicosídeos/análise , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Preparações de Plantas/análise , Preparações de Plantas/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
13.
Molecules ; 18(7): 8298-318, 2013 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23860277

RESUMO

The genus Gnaphalium, a herb distributed worldwide, comprises approximately 200 species of the Compositae (Asteraceae) family that belongs to the tribe Gnaphalieae. Some species are traditionally used as wild vegetables and in folk medicine. This review focuses on the phytochemical investigations and biological studies of plants from the genus Gnaphalium over the past few decades. More than 125 chemical constituents have been isolated from the genus Gnaphalium, including flavonoids, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes, phytosterols, anthraquinones, caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, and other compounds. The extracts of this genus, as well as compounds isolated from it, have been demonstrated to possess multiple pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal, anti-complement, antitussive and expectorant, insect antifeedant, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and antihypouricemic properties. The present review compiles the information available on this genus because of its relevance to food and ethnopharmacology and the potential therapeutic uses of these species.


Assuntos
Gnaphalium/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Etnofarmacologia , Gnaphalium/classificação , Medicina Herbária , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação
14.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 58: 311-7, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23685244

RESUMO

The antioxidant activity of Gnaphalium affine extract (GAE) against H2O2-induced oxidative injury in Caco-2 cells was evaluated, and the main antioxidant component was isolated and identified by column chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, time-of-flight mass spectrometer and nuclear magnetic resonance. In vitro assays, GAE showed remarkable antioxidant activity to scavenge free radicals (ABTS, DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals), inhibit lipid peroxidation and show reducing power. In food system, GAE exhibited the obvious capacity to inhibit the oxidation of peanut oil and lard, which may be attributed to its high content of phenolic compounds. Moreover, GAE could effectively protect Caco-2 cell against H2O2-induced oxidative injury. With the isolation and purification by chromatography, quercetin was identified as the main antioxidant component of GAE, which was capable of scavenging ABTS, DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. These results suggest that G. affine is a potential source for preparing functional foods and nutraceuticals in food industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Gnaphalium/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Células CACO-2 , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Zhong Yao Cai ; 35(4): 566-8, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23019902

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To research the chemical constituents from Gnaphalium hypoleucum. METHODS: Compounds were separated by using silica gel, ODS, Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and their structures were elucidated by means of spectral data analysis. RESULTS: Ten compounds were isolated and identified as tetracosanoic acid (1), 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,8-tetramethoxyflavone (2), beta-sitosterol (3), 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,8,4'-pentamethoxyflavone (4), 5-hydroxy-3,6, 7,8,3',4'-hexamethoxyflavone (5), apigenin (6), luteolin (7), quercetin (8), luteolin4'-O-beta-D-glucoside (9), quercetin-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside (10). CONCLUSION: All of these compounds are isolated from this plant for the first time. Compound 5 is isolated from the genus for the first time.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/análise , Gnaphalium/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
16.
PLoS One ; 7(6): e39806, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22768128

RESUMO

Over 4000 flavonoids have been identified so far and among these, many are known to have antitumor activities. The basis of the relationships between chemical structures, type and position of substituent groups and the effects these compounds exert specifically on cancer cells are not completely elucidated. Here we report the differential cytotoxic effects of two flavone isomers on human cancer cells from breast (MCF7, SK-BR-3), colon (Caco-2, HCT116), pancreas (MIA PaCa, Panc 28), and prostate (PC3, LNCaP) that vary in differentiation status and tumorigenic potential. These flavones are derived from plants of the family Asteraceae, genera Gnaphalium and Achyrocline reputed to have anti-cancer properties. Our studies indicate that 5,7-dihydroxy-3,6,8-trimethoxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one (5,7-dihydroxy-3,6,8-trimethoxy flavone) displays potent activity against more differentiated carcinomas of the colon (Caco-2), and pancreas (Panc28), whereas 3,5-dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one (3,5-dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxy flavone) cytototoxic action is observed on poorly differentiated carcinomas of the colon (HCT116), pancreas (Mia PaCa), and breast (SK-BR3). Both flavones induced cell death (>50%) as proven by MTT cell viability assay in these cancer cell lines, all of which are regarded as highly tumorigenic. At the concentrations studied (5-80 µM), neither flavone demonstrated activity against the less tumorigenic cell lines, breast cancer MCF-7 cells, androgen-responsive LNCaP human prostate cancer line, and androgen-unresponsive PC3 prostate cancer cells. 5,7-dihydroxy-3,6,8-trimethoxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one (5,7-dihydroxy-3,6,8-trimethoxy flavone) displays activity against more differentiated carcinomas of the colon and pancreas, but minimal cytotoxicity on poorly differentiated carcinomas of these organs. On the contrary, 3,5-dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one (3,5-dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxy flavone) is highly cytotoxic to poorly differentiated carcinomas of the colon, pancreas, and breast with minimal activity against more differentiated carcinomas of the same organs. These differential effects suggest activation of distinct apoptotic pathways. In conclusion, the specific chemical properties of these two flavone isomers dictate mechanistic properties which may be relevant when evaluating biological responses to flavones.


Assuntos
Achyrocline/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Flavonas/química , Flavonas/farmacologia , Gnaphalium/química , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Feminino , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Marcação In Situ das Extremidades Cortadas , Isomerismo , Masculino , Fitoterapia
17.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 62(Pt 11): 2602-2607, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22199216

RESUMO

A pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic bacterium, strain 23e(T), was isolated from the leaves of Gnaphalium spicatum (cudweed). The cells of strain 23e(T) were Gram-reaction negative, motile and non-spore-forming rods. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, strain 23e(T) was related to Methylobacterium organophilum ATCC 27886(T) (97.1%) and Methylobacterium marchantiae JT1(T) (97%), and the phylogenetic similarities to all other Methylobacterium species with validly published names were less than 97%. Major cellular fatty acids were C(18:1)ω7c, C(16:00) and C(18:0). The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and cpn60 gene sequences, fatty acid profiles, whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight/MS analysis, physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain 23e(T) from the phylogenetically closest relatives. We propose that strain 23e(T) represents a novel species within the genus Methylobacterium, for which the name Methylobacterium gnaphalii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 23e(T) (=DSM 24027(T)=NBRC 107716(T)).


Assuntos
Gnaphalium/microbiologia , Methylobacterium/classificação , Filogenia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Methylobacterium/genética , Methylobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Ubiquinona/análise
18.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 59(9): 1160-2, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21881262

RESUMO

A new 3-hydroxydihydrobenzofuran glucoside, gnaphaliol 9-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (2), was isolated from the aerial parts of Gnaphalium polycaulon together with 1-{(2R*,3S*-3-(ß-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2,3-dihydro-2-[1-(hydroxyl methyl)vinyl]-1-benzofuran-5-yl}-ethanone or gnaphaliol 3-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (1), (Z)-3-hexenyl O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (3) and adenosine (4). The absolute configurations at C-2 and C-3 positions of compound 1 were determined to be 2R and 3R. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of their physical and spectroscopic data.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/química , Glucosídeos/química , Gnaphalium/química , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Conformação Molecular , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Estereoisomerismo
19.
J AOAC Int ; 94(4): 1076-81, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21919340

RESUMO

An HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous determination of gnaphaliin A and B, active compounds of Gnaphalium liebmannii Sch. Bp ex Klatt. The HPLC separation was performed on an Inertsil ODS-3 (150 x 4.6 mm id, 5 microm) RP C18 column operated at 40 degrees C; the isocratic mobile phase was 0.02% aqueous orthophosphoric acid-methanol-acetonitrile (50 + 30 + 20, v/v/v), with a run time of 20 min and flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. Detection with a photodiode array detector (PDAD) was at 270 nm. The method was validated for linearity, repeatability, LOD, and LOQ. The LOD and LOQ for gnaphaliin A and B were found to be in the range of 0.4-0.5 and 1.0-1.4 microg/mL, respectively. This is the first report of an analytical method developed for the quantitative analysis of flavones from Gnaphalium species by HPLC-PDAD with applications for raw material and commercial products.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Flavonoides/química , Flores/química , Gnaphalium/química , Estrutura Molecular , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
Ann Bot ; 108(2): 381-90, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21724654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: High alpine environments are characterized by short growing seasons, stochastic climatic conditions and fluctuating pollinator visits. These conditions are rather unfavourable for sexual reproduction of flowering plants. Apomixis, asexual reproduction via seed, provides reproductive assurance without the need of pollinators and potentially accelerates seed development. Therefore, apomixis is expected to provide selective advantages in high-alpine biota. Indeed, apomictic species occur frequently in the subalpine to alpine grassland zone of the European Alps, but the mode of reproduction of the subnival to nival flora was largely unknown. METHODS: The mode of reproduction in 14 species belonging to seven families was investigated via flow cytometric seed screen. The sampling comprised 12 species typical for nival to subnival plant communities of the European Alps without any previous information on apomixis (Achillea atrata, Androsace alpina, Arabis caerulea, Erigeron uniflorus, Gnaphalium hoppeanum, Leucanthemopsis alpina, Oxyria digyna, Potentilla frigida, Ranunculus alpestris, R. glacialis, R. pygmaeus and Saxifraga bryoides), and two high-alpine species with apomixis reported from other geographical areas (Leontopodium alpinum and Potentilla crantzii). KEY RESULTS: Flow cytometric data were clearly interpretable for all 46 population samples, confirming the utility of the method for broad screenings on non-model organisms. Formation of endosperm in all species of Asteraceae was documented. Ratios of endosperm : embryo showed pseudogamous apomixis for Potentilla crantzii (ratio approx. 3), but sexual reproduction for all other species (ratios approx. 1·5). CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of apomixis is not correlated to high altitudes, and cannot be readily explained by selective forces due to environmental conditions. The investigated species have probably other adaptations to high altitudes to maintain reproductive assurance via sexuality. We hypothesize that shifts to apomixis are rather connected to frequencies of polyploidization than to ecological conditions.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Altitude , Asteraceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Achillea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Erigeron/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Europa (Continente) , Gnaphalium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Potentilla/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ranunculus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reprodução Assexuada , Saxifragaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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