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1.
BMC Med ; 21(1): 33, 2023 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36703194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current food system in England promotes a population diet that is high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS). To address this, the UK government has implemented legislation to restrict the promotion of HFSS products in prominent locations (e.g. store entrances, checkouts) in qualifying retailers since October 2022. This study investigated the perceived impact of the legislation for affected stakeholders. METHODS: A pre-implementation rapid qualitative evaluation of stakeholder interviews. One hundred eight UK stakeholders participated in the study including 34 consumers, 24 manufacturers and retailers, 22 local authority enforcement officers and 28 academic and charitable health representatives. A participatory conference was used to enable policy recommendations to be confirmed by stakeholders. RESULTS: Stakeholders perceived the legislation to be a 'good first step' towards improving population diet but recognised this needed to be considered amongst a range of long-term obesity policies. Areas of further support were identified and these are presented as six recommendations for government to support the successful implementation of the legislation: (1) provide a free central HFSS calculator, (2) refine legislation to enhance intent and clarity, (3) conduct a robust evaluation to assess intended and unintended outcomes, (4) provide greater support for smaller businesses, (5) provide ring-fenced resources to local authorities and (6) create and communicate a long-term roadmap for food and health. CONCLUSIONS: This legislation has the potential to reduce impulse HFSS purchases and makes a solid start towards creating healthier retail outlets for consumers. Immediate government actions to create a freely accessible HFSS calculator, support smaller businesses and provide additional resources to local authorities would support successful implementation and enforcement. Independent evaluation of the implementation of the legislation will enable monitoring of potential unintended consequences identified in this study and support refinement of the legislation. A long-term roadmap is necessary to outline strategies to support equal access to healthier and sustainable food across the whole food system within the next 20-30 years.


Assuntos
Comércio , Alimentos , Humanos , Dieta , Inglaterra , Governo
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674076

RESUMO

In the 21st century, the tension between economic growth, resources and the environment in countries around the world is increasing, and the sustainable development of the economy and society is under great pressure. Green development has become the only way for countries to promote sustainable development. Generally, capitalist countries achieve their green development goals through increasingly strict environmental protection regulations, technological upgrading, industrial upgrading and global transfer based on market mechanisms and legal environments. Evidently, this green development strategy relies on the core position of Western countries in the global technological leadership and the global division of labor. However, limited in terms of their economic strength and by technical barriers, how can developing countries, led by China, in the marginal position in the global market competition, carry out green development transformation? In line with the "high-quality development" strategy, governments at all levels in China are actively exploring green development strategies with their own characteristics. Based on the Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research and the face-to-face interview method, this paper summarizes a new strategy of systematic government-driven green development combining internal and external factors in the underdeveloped areas of inland China, which has gradually formed in the Xining metropolitan area (XMA) in the past 20 years. This strategy has the following characteristics: Firstly, during the period of rapid growth, the XMA areas have promoted each other through new urbanization and new industrialization and jointly promoted the formation of a green development turn in the new era. Secondly, the government is the core actor and driving force of China's regional green development and has gradually formulated and implemented a series of policy systems during this development. Restricted by local economic backwardness and low industrial profits, the implementation of green government policies tends to be mandatory. The majority of urban residents and rural people support this transformation because they have benefited from the transformation process. Thirdly, this green development strategy is reflected in many aspects, such as industry, ecology, the environment, space and transportation, and is part of a systematic, green-oriented transformation. Fourthly, the advantages of the socialist system with Chinese characteristics are the guarantee of the green development strategy. It is noteworthy that this kind of green development transformation requires a large amount of "additional" investment and the "rapid" upgrade of the industry. Therefore, it requires more time and the understanding and assistance of all sectors of society.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Sustentável , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Governo , Indústrias , Urbanização
4.
Evid Based Nurs ; 26(1): 1-3, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36603897

Assuntos
Governo , Humanos
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 51, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36694131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Around the world, policymakers have clearly communicated that COVID-19 vaccination programs need to be accepted by a large proportion of the population to allow life return to normal. However, according to the Center for Disease Control, about 31% of the United States population had not completed the primary vaccination series as of November 2022. AIMS: The primary aim of this work is to identify the factors associated by American citizens with the decision to be vaccinated against COVID-19. In addition, the proportion of fatal events from COVID-19 vaccinations was estimated and compared with the data in the VAERS database. METHODS: An online survey of COVID-19 health experiences was conducted. Information was collected regarding reasons for and against COVID-19 inoculations, experiences with COVID-19 illness and COVID-19 inoculations by survey respondents and their social circles. Logit regression analyses were carried out to identify factors influencing the likelihood of being vaccinated. RESULTS: A total of 2840 participants completed the survey between December 18 and 23, 2021. 51% (1383 of 2840) of the participants were female and the mean age was 47 (95% CI 46.36-47.64) years. Those who knew someone who experienced a health problem from COVID-19 were more likely to be vaccinated (OR: 1.309, 95% CI 1.094-1.566), while those who knew someone who experienced a health problem following vaccination were less likely to be vaccinated (OR: 0.567, 95% CI 0.461-0.698). 34% (959 of 2840) reported that they knew at least one person who had experienced a significant health problem due to the COVID-19 illness. Similarly, 22% (612 of 2840) of respondents indicated that they knew at least one person who had experienced a severe health problem following COVID-19 vaccination. With these survey data, the total number of fatalities due to COVID-19 inoculation may be as high as 278,000 (95% CI 217,330-332,608) when fatalities that may have occurred regardless of inoculation are removed. CONCLUSION: Knowing someone who reported serious health issues either from COVID-19 or from COVID-19 vaccination are important factors for the decision to get vaccinated. The large difference in the possible number of fatalities due to COVID-19 vaccination that emerges from this survey and the available governmental data should be further investigated.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Vacinação , Bases de Dados Factuais , Governo
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(2): 259, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36595039

RESUMO

This study explores the relationship between carbon emission patterns and the land surface temperature (LST) changes due to the rapid urbanization in the Semarang Metropolitan Region (SMR), an Indonesian area that has experienced rapid urban growth compared to other urban areas. This research used the stock-difference and gain-loss methods to calculate carbon stocks and emissions. Then, band 6 on Landsat 5 TM (2008) and band 10 on Landsat 8 OLI (2013 and 2018) were used to calculate the LST changes. These results showed that the peri-urban area had a more significant change. The correlation between carbon emissions and an increased SMR temperature correlates to 0.646. This shows that the carbon emissions pattern promotes temperature dynamics in the SMR. Furthermore, this study proved the release of carbon emissions in line with LST dynamics spatially. In this case, this study proved that rapid urbanization in the SMR promotes both carbon emission and LST. Those changes are also affected by vegetation canopy availability and other activities. As a result, the government must prioritize spatial planning in the SMR to mitigate environmental change risk. In addition, the government must develop novel strategies to deal with a wide range of fast and unpredictable potential changes in the urban area and its surroundings.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Urbanização , Temperatura , Indonésia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Governo , Cidades , Temperatura Alta
8.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279904, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652406

RESUMO

With the increasing attention of the capital market to environmental, social and governance information, sustainability reporting has become an important carrier for stakeholders to gain insight into sustainability of companies. But the emerged "greenwashing" problem has also brought haze to the value creation of capital market. To study the consequences of the pseudo-social responsibility behavior of "greenwashing", this paper takes China's listed companies as the research sample to empirically examine the relationship between sustainability reporting "greenwashing" and "shared value" creation. It is found that the "greenwashing" behavior of corporate sustainability reporting significantly reduces the "shared value" creation, while the degree of sustainability information asymmetry and the quality of information disclosure play a partial mediation role between them. Further analysis shows that the more effective internal control of a company and the greater pressure of external media supervision, the more conducive to weaken the negative impact of "greenwashing" on "shared value" creation. This paper enriches the literature on the economic consequences of "greenwashing" in sustainability disclosure and the influencing factors of "shared value" creation, extends the research on information disclosure and "shared value" from financial information to non-financial information. The results call for the state to promote legislative work, formulate unified standards and compress the "greenwashing" gray space; Governments could implement mandatory disclosure, implement independent authentication and strengthen "greenwashing" social supervision; Companies should strengthen capacity building and improve the "greenwashing" governance mechanism with the help of digital empowerment.


Assuntos
Organizações , Responsabilidade Social , Comportamento Social , Governo , Revelação , China
9.
Inquiry ; 60: 469580221148880, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36680364

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic increased social isolation for many older adults, causing concern for their health and well-being. To enhance understanding of how community-dwelling older adults were impacted by prolonged social isolation during COVID-19, a qualitative descriptive study was conducted to: (1) explore the self-reported factors supporting their resilience during COVID-19 related social isolation, and (2) to help understand the intentional and unintentional outcomes of the government mandated health measures. A total of 19 community dwelling older adults were sampled. Factors that supported older adults' resilience during COVID-19 included maintaining positivity, drawing on historical experiences of resilience and finding opportunities to connect with their community. However, collective safety came with losses: such as time, freedom, opportunity, engagement, and initiative. The findings provide insight on contributing factors to resilience against social isolation in older adults and suggest the value of collective, community-based approaches to build resilience across variable contexts in this population.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Idoso , Vida Independente , Pandemias , Isolamento Social , Governo
10.
Healthc Pap ; 21(1): 34-37, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36692914

RESUMO

Canadian and foreign governments are struggling with determining whether to reimburse expensive drugs for rare diseases. The problem is that although insurers want to offer fair access to medicines for patients with rare diseases, the drugs are often priced far above normal cost-effectiveness thresholds. This leaves insurers with no tools to determine how much to pay. This article notes one reasonable standard: prices should not, in these circumstances, allow for profiteering by innovative companies.


Assuntos
Governo , Doenças Raras , Humanos , Canadá
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673929

RESUMO

The public sector is becoming increasingly appealing. In the context of declining public money to support health studies and public health interventions, public-private partnerships with entities (including government agencies and scientific research institutes) are becoming increasingly important. When forming this type of cooperation, the participants highlight synergies between the private partners and the public's missions or goals. The tasks of private and public sector actors, on the other hand, frequently diverge significantly. The integrity and honesty of public officials, institutions, trust, and faith in those individuals and institutions may all be jeopardized by these collaborations. In this study, we use the institutional corruption framework to highlight systemic concerns raised by PPPs affiliated with the governments of one of South Asia's countries. Overall analytical frameworks for such collaborations tend to downplay or disregard these systemic impacts and their ethical implications, as we argue. We offer some guidelines for public sector stakeholders that want to think about PPPs in a more systemic and analytical way. Partnership as a default paradigm for engagement with the private sector needs to be reconsidered by public sector participants. They also need to be more vocal about which goals they can and cannot fulfill, given the limitations of public financing resources.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , Parcerias Público-Privadas , Humanos , Setor Público , Governo , Medição de Risco
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674050

RESUMO

"Big events", such as wars, economic crises, pandemics, or natural disasters, affect the risk environment in which people use drugs. While the impact of big events on injection risk behaviors and access to drug-treatment services is well documented, less is known about the effects of big events on drug markets. Based on self-reporting data on drug availability among people who use drugs (PWUD) in the aftermath of Hurricane Maria in Puerto Rico and during the COVID-19 lockdown in a Midwestern US state, this study aims to document the effects of big events on drug markets. Qualitative data on the effects of Hurricane Maria on drug markets are based on participants' self-reporting (N = 31). Data collection started after the hurricane and ended in 2020. Data on changes to the drug supply during the COVID-19 lockdown were collected based on semi-structured interviews with PWUD (N = 40) in a Midwestern US state. Findings show that while the drug markets might have initially been affected by big events, most effects were temporary. Drug availability, pricing, and quality might have suffered some initial fluctuations but stabilized as the drug markets absorbed the initial shocks caused by the hurricane and the lockdown measures. In preparation for increasingly more frequent and virulent pandemics and natural disasters, health infrastructures should be strengthened to prevent not only overdose episodes and deaths but also drug-related harms.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Desastres Naturais , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Porto Rico , Governo
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674099

RESUMO

Government intervention and structural transformation play an important role in both the economy and carbon emissions. Based on provincial panel data from China from 2003 to 2020, this paper employs econometric models to investigate the impact of government intervention and structural transformation on carbon emissions. In particular, structural transformation is divided into two indicators: The rationalization of the industrial structure and the upgrading of the industrial structure. According to the research findings, government intervention has significantly promoted carbon emissions and structural transformation has had dual effects on carbon emissions; meanwhile, the rationalization of the industrial structure has significantly increased carbon emissions, while the upgrading of the industrial structure has slowed down carbon emissions, with these findings passing the corresponding robustness test. The relationship between government intervention, structural transformation, and carbon emissions varies significantly over time and across regions. Further investigations revealed that government intervention and structural transformation have a significant impact on carbon emissions in various panel quantiles. Finally, the paper makes policy recommendations in order to provide empirical support for promoting China's high-quality economic development and achieving the "double carbon" goal.


Assuntos
Carbono , Governo , Carbono/análise , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Indústrias , Dióxido de Carbono/análise
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674101

RESUMO

Simultaneously with the development of the COVID-19 vaccination plan for minors, it is critical to understand the reasons related to parental COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy. This study aims to determine the reasons associated with vaccination hesitancy among parents, and the prevalence and the characteristics of the parents who are hesitant to allow their children aged between 5 to 11 years old to be administered the COVID-19 vaccines. A web-based questionnaire was used to perform this study between May 2022 to September 2022 in Saudi Arabia (SA). Several factors, personal and social, affected the participants' willingness to vaccinate their children with the COVID-19 vaccines. The age of the parents was found to have a significant impact on their decision to vaccinate their children. Those between the age of 40-49 years of age were the most willing to vaccinate (almost 41%) compared to those 50 years or older who were most resistant to vaccination. Female participants were more resistant to vaccinating their children compared to their male counterparts. Saudis were more resistant to vaccinating their children compared to the non-Saudi participants. Those private sector-employed parents were the most willing to vaccinate (16.6%), followed by those working in the governmental sector (13.8%). About 40.7% of non-healthcare workers were resistant to vaccinating their minor compared to healthcare workers (8.7%). In conclusion, the study presents several factors that affect the parental willingness to vaccinate their children in SA. These factors should be properly addressed when developing public health strategies to promote the COVID-19 vaccination of children in SA.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Anormalidades Urogenitais , Humanos , Criança , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pré-Escolar , Arábia Saudita , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Hesitação Vacinal , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Governo , Vacinação
17.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0277252, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36719865

RESUMO

This paper examines the impact of non-pharmaceutical intervention by government on stock market return as well as volatility. Using daily Malaysian equity data from January 28, 2020 to May 31, 2022, the regression analysis with bootstrapping technique reveals that the government's response in combating the deadly virus through Stringency index has shown a positive direct effect on both stock market returns and volatility, and indirect negative effect on stock market returns. The study revealed that international travel restriction and cancelling public events are the major contributors to the growth of volatility when estimated for Malaysia stock market index. On the one hand, heterogenous impact is expected from the perspective of different sectors when the individual social distancing measures were taken into account in determining stock return and volatility. Apart from that, the robustness check for the main findings remains intact in majority of the regression models after incorporating daily COVID-19 death rate, log (daily vaccination) and day-of-the-week effect as additional control variable in alternative.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Malásia/epidemiologia , Governo , Políticas
18.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 92, 2023 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An urban poor is a vulnerable group that needs government financing support to access health services. Once they are sick, they will fall deeper into poverty. The study aims to analyze the effectiveness of government-run insurance in hospital utilization in urban poor in Indonesia. METHODS: The research analyzed the 2018 Indonesian Basic Health Survey data. This cross-sectional survey collected 75,970 participants through stratification and multistage random sampling. Meanwhile, the study employed hospital utilization as an outcome variable and health insurance ownership as an exposure variable. Moreover, the study looked at age, gender, marital status, education, and occupation as control factors. The research employed a binary logistic regression to evaluate the data in the final step. RESULTS: The results show that someone with government-run insurance is 4.261 times more likely than the uninsured to utilize the hospital (95% CI 4.238-4.285). Someone with private-run insurance is 4.866 times more likely than the uninsured to use the hospital (95% CI 4.802-4.931). Moreover, someone with government-run and private-run insurance has 11.974 times more likely than the uninsured to utilize the hospital (95% CI 11.752-12.200). CONCLUSION: The study concluded that government-run insurance is more effective than the uninsured in improving hospital utilization among the urban poor in Indonesia. Meanwhile, private-run is more effective than government-run and uninsured in improving hospital utilization among the urban poor in Indonesia. Moreover, the most effective is to combine the kind of health insurance ownership (government-run and private-run).


Assuntos
Hospitais , Seguro Saúde , Humanos , Indonésia , Estudos Transversais , Governo , Cobertura do Seguro
19.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 98, 2023 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36639781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Japanese government has restricted people's going-out behavior by declaring a non-punitive state of emergency several times under COVID-19. This study aims to analyze how multiple policy interventions that impose non-legally binding restrictions on behavior associate with people's going-out. THEORY: This study models the stigma model of self-restraint behavior under the pandemic with habituation effects. The theoretical result indicates that the state of emergency's self-restraint effects weaken with the number of times. METHODS: The empirical analysis examines the impact of emergency declarations on going-out behavior using a prefecture-level daily panel dataset. The dataset includes Google's going-out behavior data, the Japanese government's policy interventions based on emergency declarations, and covariates that affect going-out behavior, such as weather and holidays. RESULTS: First, for multiple emergency declarations from the beginning of the pandemic to 2021, the negative association between emergency declarations and mobility was confirmed in a model that did not distinguish the number of emergency declarations. Second, in the model that considers the number of declarations, the negative association was found to decrease with the number of declarations. CONCLUSION: These empirical analyses are consistent with the results of theoretical analyses, which show that the negative association between people's going-out behavior and emergency declarations decreases in magnitude as the number of declarations increases.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Habituação Psicofisiológica , Estigma Social , Governo , Pandemias
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