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1.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 33: 1-6, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491024

RESUMO

To calculate the equivalent system mass of mushrooms, a conceptual configuration of a mushroom farm as part of a bioregenerative life support system on an inhabited lunar base was designed. The mushroom farm consists of two connected modules. Each module is a double-shell rigid pipe-in-pipe aluminum structure. The first module is used to prepare and sterilize the substrate, while the mushrooms are sown and grown in the second module. Planned productivity of the mushroom farm is 28 kg of fresh mushrooms per one process cycle lasting 66 days for 14 consumers. Mushroom production can be increased using additional modules. The calculated equivalent system masses of the mushroom farm and the mushrooms produced therein is 88,432 kg and 31,550 kg per 1 kg of dry mushrooms in one process cycle, respectively. At that, the biggest contributor to the equivalent system mass of mushrooms is the total pressurized volume of the farm - 68%. The results obtained may be a prerequisite for performing trade-off studies between different configurations of mushroom farm and calculating a space diet using the equivalent system mass of mushrooms.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Agaricales/química , Dieta , Fazendas , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida , Lua
2.
Trop Biomed ; 39(1): 150-159, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507938

RESUMO

The poultry industry is a major contributor to the Philippine economy. Given the rising concerns in antibiotic resistance and food security, farmers need to maximize profit and output while ensuring safe and ecologically sustainable farming practices. This study surveyed antibiotic use in 12 commercial poultry farms in the Philippines. All farms reported the use of medically important antibiotics either for prophylaxis (91.67%), metaphylaxis (100%), and growth promotion (50%). Considering the widespread use of medically important antibiotics, we then investigated the potential contribution of local antibiotic treatment protocols to the emergence of antibiotic resistance genes in the fecal samples of broiler chickens under a controlled experimental setup. Significantly, we observed the emergence of antibiotic resistance genes ( ermB) in fecal samples of antibiotic-treated broilers after 7 days and 21 days in antibiotic-free broilers raised in the same farming environment. These data were corroborated by antibiotic resistance gene profiles of fecal samples from commercial poultry farms. Antibiotic resistance genes ( tetA, tetB, tetU, tetW, qnrB, qnrS) were prevalent in the fecal samples of antibiotic-treated broilers treated with tetracycline and quinolone antibiotics. Therefore, our study provides concrete evidence for the strong correlation between the use of medically important antibiotics in poultry farming and the emergence of antibiotic resistance genes. Antimicrobial resistance is a major contributor to failures in infectious disease treatment strategies in humans and animals. Therefore, the cost-benefit ratio of poorly regulated antibiotic treatment protocols in poultry farming could have a long-term detrimental impact on our economy and public health. Our study suggests the need to review our current policies and practices in using medically important antibiotics in the Philippine poultry industry.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Galinhas , Agricultura , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Fazendas , Filipinas , Aves Domésticas
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7189, 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504929

RESUMO

When managed bee colonies are brought to farms for crop pollination, they can be exposed to pesticide residues. Quantifying the risk posed by these exposures can indicate which pesticides are of the greatest concern and helps focus efforts to reduce the most harmful exposures. To estimate the risk from pesticides to bees while they are pollinating blueberry fields, we sampled blueberry flowers, foraging bees, pollen collected by returning honey bee and bumble bee foragers at colonies, and wax from honey bee hives in blooming blueberry farms in southwest Michigan. We screened the samples for 261 active ingredients using a modified QuEChERS method. The most abundant pesticides were those applied by blueberry growers during blueberry bloom (e.g., fenbuconazole and methoxyfenozide). However, we also detected highly toxic pesticides not used in this crop during bloom (or other times of the season) including the insecticides chlorpyrifos, clothianidin, avermectin, thiamethoxam, and imidacloprid. Using LD50 values for contact and oral exposure to honey bees and bumble bees, we calculated the Risk Quotient (RQ) for each individual pesticide and the average sample RQ for each farm. RQ values were considered in relation to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency acute contact level of concern (LOC, 0.4), the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) acute contact LOC (0.2) and the EFSA chronic oral LOC (0.03). Pollen samples were most likely to exceed LOC values, with the percent of samples above EFSA's chronic oral LOC being 0% for flowers, 3.4% for whole honey bees, 0% for whole bumble bees, 72.4% for honey bee pollen in 2018, 45.4% of honey bee pollen in 2019, 46.7% of bumble bee pollen in 2019, and 3.5% of honey bee wax samples. Average pollen sample RQ values were above the EFSA chronic LOC in 92.9% of farms in 2018 and 42.9% of farms in 2019 for honey bee collected pollen, and 46.7% of farms for bumble bee collected pollen in 2019. Landscape analyses indicated that sample RQ was positively correlated with the abundance of apple and cherry orchards located within the flight range of the bees, though this varied between bee species and landscape scale. There was no correlation with abundance of blueberry production. Our results highlight the need to mitigate pesticide risk to bees across agricultural landscapes, in addition to focusing on the impact of applications on the farms where they are applied.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Praguicidas , Animais , Abelhas , Fazendas , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Pólen/química , Polinização , Estados Unidos
5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(8): 4849-4858, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35363471

RESUMO

California's dairy sector accounts for ∼50% of anthropogenic CH4 emissions in the state's greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventory. Although California dairy facilities' location and herd size vary over time, atmospheric inverse modeling studies rely on decade-old facility-scale geospatial information. For the first time, we apply artificial intelligence (AI) to aerial imagery to estimate dairy CH4 emissions from California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV), a region with ∼90% of the state's dairy population. Using an AI method, we process 316,882 images to estimate the facility-scale herd size across the SJV. The AI approach predicts herd size that strongly (>95%) correlates with that made by human visual inspection, providing a low-cost alternative to the labor-intensive inventory development process. We estimate SJV's dairy enteric and manure CH4 emissions for 2018 to be 496-763 Gg/yr (mean = 624; 95% confidence) using the predicted herd size. We also apply our AI approach to estimate CH4 emission reduction from anaerobic digester deployment. We identify 162 large (90th percentile) farms and estimate a CH4 reduction potential of 83 Gg CH4/yr for these large facilities from anaerobic digester adoption. The results indicate that our AI approach can be applied to characterize the manure system (e.g., use of an anaerobic lagoon) and estimate GHG emissions for other sectors.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Inteligência Artificial , Fazendas , Humanos , Esterco , Metano/análise
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(5): 341, 2022 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35389127

RESUMO

A comprehensive investigation has been carried out into the concentrations of a range of REEs (neodymium Nd, cerium Ce, lanthanum La, yttrium Y, scandium Sc) in soils of vineyards belonging to the protected denomination of origin (PDO) Valdepeñas (Central Spain). The mean concentrations (expressed in mg kg-1) are Ce 70.6, Nd 32.9, La 36.2, Y 21.6, and Sc 13.7 in surface horizons (Ap), while in subsurface horizons (Bt or Bw and some Ck), the values are Ce 67.6, Nd 31.8, La 34.4, Y 19.6, and Sc 13.9. The relative abundance in these soils is Ce > La > Nd > Y > Sc in both the surface and subsurface horizons. These values are close to, or slightly higher than, the regional levels but similar to national and global averages, although relatively high values have been detected at certain sampling points. Another aim was to explain the spatial variations in these elements within the territory under study. It was found that the spatial variations are due to the nature of the parent materials and the pedogenetic processes, although the sparse spatial distribution patterns with prominent anomalies are interpreted arising from anthropogenic sources (fertilization). However, these anomalies did not present any environmental risk in the studied zone.


Assuntos
Cério , Metais Terras Raras , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fazendas , Metais Terras Raras/análise , Solo
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6276, 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35428771

RESUMO

Optimisation of models applied in sheet erosion equations could facilitate effective management of sheet erosion in the field, and sustainable agricultural production. To optimise the characterisation of sheet erosion on slope farmland in South China, the present study conducted field simulation rainfall experiments with vegetated and fallow soils. According to the results, sheet erosion rate first increased with an increase in rainfall duration and then stabilised. Exclusive P. vulgaris planting and P. vulgaris in combination with earthworms could reduce sheet erosion by 10-60%, and the combined method could better control sheet erosion. There were significant differences in erosion rate between mild and steep slopes, and light and heavy rain conditions. The influence of rain intensity on sheet erosion was greater than that of slope. Soil organic matter (SOM), rain intensity, and slope can be used to optimise sheet erosion equations of exposed slopes, and SOM and hydraulic parameters can be used to optimise sheet erosion equations in vegetated slopes. The results of the present study could facilitate the reduction of the time and space variability errors in the establishment of sheet erosion models for vegetated slopes.


Assuntos
Chuva , Solo , Agricultura , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Fazendas , Movimentos da Água
8.
Environ Pollut ; 304: 119234, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35367285

RESUMO

In recent years, the naturally high background value region of Cd derived from the weathering of carbonate has received wide attention. Due to the significant difference in soil Cd content and bioavailability among different parent materials, the previous land classification scheme based on total soil Cd content as the classification standard, has certain shortcomings. This study aims to explore the factors influencing soil Cd bioavailability in typical karst areas of Guilin and to suggest a scientific and effective farmland use management plan based on the prediction model. A total of 9393 and 8883 topsoil samples were collected from karst and non-karst areas, respectively. Meanwhile, 149 and 145 rice samples were collected together with rhizosphere soil in karst and non-karst areas, respectively. The results showed that the higher CaO level in the karst area was a key factor leading to elevated soil pH value. Although Cd was highly enriched in karst soils, the higher pH value and adsorption of Mn oxidation inhibited Cd mobility in soils. Conversely, the Cd content in non-karst soils was lower, whereas the Cd level in rice grains was higher. To select the optimal prediction model based on the correlation between Cd bioaccumulation factors and geochemical parameters of soil, artificial neural network (ANN) and linear regression prediction models were established in this study. The ANN prediction model was more accurate than the traditional linear regression model according to the evaluation parameters of the test set. Furthermore, a new land classification scheme based on an ANN prediction model and soil Cd concentration is proposed in this study, making full use of the spatial resources of farmland to ensure safe rice consumption.


Assuntos
Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , China , Fazendas , Redes Neurais de Computação , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
9.
Microbiologyopen ; 11(2): e1269, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35478290

RESUMO

This study compared the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among commensal Escherichia coli in the fecal microbiota of young calves raised on organic and on conventional dairy farms in Switzerland. Further, fecal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae was assessed for calves from both farming systems. Where possible, data on antimicrobial usage (AMU) were obtained. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on a total of 71 isolates using the disk diffusion method. ESBL producers were characterized by polymerase chain reaction-based multilocus sequence typing and sequencing of the blaESBL genes. Organically raised calves were significantly more likely to harbor E. coli that showed AMR to ampicillin (odds ratio [OR]: 2.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-7.61, p = 0.046), streptomycin (OR: 3.22, 95% CI: 1.17-8.92, p = 0.046), kanamycin (OR: 11.3, 95% CI: 2.94-43.50, p < 0.001), and tetracycline (OR: 3.25, 95% CI: 1.13-9.31, p = 0.028). Calves with reported AMU were significantly more likely to harbor E. coli with resistance to ampicillin (OR: 3.91, 95% CI: 1.03-14.85, p = 0.045), streptomycin (OR: 4.35, 95% CI: 1.13-16.7, p = 0.045), and kanamycin (OR: 8.69, 95% CI: 2.01-37.7, p = 0.004). ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (18 E. coli and 3 Citrobacter braakii) were detected exclusively among samples from conventionally farmed calves (OR: infinity [∞], 95% CI: 2.3-∞, p < 0.0013). The observations from this study suggest that AMR is highly prevalent among commensal E. coli in young dairy calves, irrespective of the farm management system, with proportions of certain resistance phenotypes higher among organic calves. By contrast, the occurrence of ESBL producers among young dairy calves may be linked to factors associated with conventional farming.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Ampicilina , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bovinos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterobacteriaceae , Escherichia coli , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Fazendas , Canamicina , Prevalência , Estreptomicina , Suíça/epidemiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética
10.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 158, 2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35488335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Central Dry Zone (CDZ) of Myanmar is a critical region of livestock production. This region supports 10 million people whose livelihoods depend on small-scale, dry-land agriculture, but it is also one of the poorest regions of Myanmar. Little is known about the constraints to animal health in multi-species livestock farms in this region or the relationships between husbandry practices and measures of the success of livestock rearing such as income, and successful health management. RESULTS: In this study, we describe associations between husbandry practices and animal health problems affecting different body systems. We also develop a biosecurity and livestock disease prevention index by taking account of different activities (i.e. treatment, vaccination, reducing disease transmission practice, sanitation) that can be compared between livestock species, estimate the income generated from livestock production, and identify factors influencing these parameters. Cross-sectional study was used to collect data on livestock production and health from cattle (N = 382), sheep, goat (N = 303) and village chicken (N = 327) farmers in 40 villages of the CDZ. Survey-design based techniques and F-statistics, ordinal, and binomial regression were used for data analysis. Our results indicate that a significant proportion of farmers' income in the CDZ comes from crop production (43.2%) and livestock production (23.1%) and the rest of the farmers' income is derived from trading, supported by other relatives and employment. Our results indicate that animal health management practices, herd/flock size, and experience of farmers contributed significantly to the presence of animal health problems, in particular related to the physical, respiratory and digestive systems. Animal health management was usually conducted in traditional ways. Among different livestock species farms, cattle farms (cattle median BDPI: 45; IQR: 35-55) practised better biosecurity than other livestock species farms (i.e. small ruminant and village chicken farms) (small ruminant and village chicken BDPI: 10; IQR: 0-20). Interestingly, the ownership groups (i.e. rearing singly or multispecies) did not show any impact on biosecurity and disease prevention index of the farms. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified good practice households and these findings will be useful for designing intervention trials to improve the production and health outcomes evaluated in this study.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Gado , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas , Estudos Transversais , Fazendeiros , Fazendas , Humanos , Ovinos
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(8)2022 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458807

RESUMO

In recent years, with the development of wind energy, the number and scale of wind farms have been developing rapidly. Since offshore wind farms have the advantages of stable wind speed, being clean, renewable, non-polluting, and the non-occupation of cultivated land, they have gradually become a new trend in the wind power industry all over the world. The operation and maintenance of offshore wind power has been developing in the direction of digitization and intelligence. It is of great significance to carry out research on the monitoring, operation, and maintenance of offshore wind farms, which will be of benefit for the reduction of the operation and maintenance costs, the improvement of the power generation efficiency, improvement of the stability of offshore wind farm systems, and the building of smart offshore wind farms. This paper will mainly summarize the monitoring, operation, and maintenance of offshore wind farms, with particular focus on the following points: monitoring of "offshore wind power engineering and biological and environment", the monitoring of power equipment, and the operation and maintenance of smart offshore wind farms. Finally, the future research challenges in relation to the monitoring, operation, and maintenance of smart offshore wind farms are proposed, and the future research directions in this field are explored, especially in marine environment monitoring, weather and climate prediction, intelligent monitoring of power equipment, and digital platforms.


Assuntos
Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Vento , Clima , Fazendas , Tempo (Meteorologia)
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(8)2022 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458808

RESUMO

Nowadays, conventional agriculture farms lack high-level automated management due to the limited number of installed sensor nodes and measuring devices. Recent progress of the Internet of Things (IoT) technologies will play an essential role in future smart farming by enabling automated operations with minimum human intervention. The main objective of this work is to design and implement a flexible IoT-based platform for remote monitoring of agriculture farms of different scales, enabling continuous data collection from various IoT devices (sensors, actuators, meteorological masts, and drones). Such data will be available for end-users to improve decision-making and for training and validating advanced prediction algorithms. Unlike related works that concentrate on specific applications or evaluate technical aspects of specific layers of the IoT stack, this work considers a versatile approach and technical aspects at four layers: farm perception layer, sensors and actuators layer, communication layer, and application layer. The proposed solutions have been designed, implemented, and assessed for remote monitoring of plants, soil, and environmental conditions based on LoRaWAN technology. Results collected through both simulation and experimental validation show that the platform can be used to obtain valuable analytics of real-time monitoring that enable decisions and actions such as, for example, controlling the irrigation system or generating alarms. The contribution of this article relies on proposing a flexible hardware and software platform oriented on monitoring agriculture farms of different scales, based on LoRaWAN technology. Even though previous work can be found using similar technologies, they focus on specific applications or evaluate technical aspects of specific layers of the IoT stack.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Comunicação , Agricultura/métodos , Chile , Fazendas , Humanos , Software
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(15): e2113884119, 2022 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35377808

RESUMO

SignificanceThe food system's negative impact on biodiversity is increasing over time. Conserving biodiversity requires immediate and widespread action to reduce the biodiversity footprint of food consumption, but biodiversity has historically been neglected in sustainability assessments. We combine high-resolution estimates of the biodiversity footprint with food system scenario modeling to predict the consequences of two key food system sustainability actions in the United States: diet shifts and food waste reduction. Taking these actions may benefit biodiversity in some places and harm it in others. The results of this study can help decision makers understand the trade-offs we must navigate to balance human health, economics, and environmental sustainability and help consumers understand how their diets and food waste behaviors influence global biodiversity.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Dieta , Fazendas , Humanos , Estados Unidos
15.
Anim Sci J ; 93(1): e13713, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35417067

RESUMO

In Japan, many pig producers buy antimicrobials using veterinarians' prescriptions. Even if veterinarians prescribe antimicrobials for treatments and metaphylaxis, producers may be using them for prophylaxis on farms with a high incidence of chronic diseases. To reduce the frequency of antimicrobial use, we applied the concept of medication adherence and launched an intervention in eight farrow-to-finish farms. For the intervention farms, we attempted to implement measures for preventing the repeated onset of chronic infections that interfered with adherence, confirmed the need to continue medications, and discontinued medications if possible. For each farm, these interventions began at different time points after 2017 and continued until 2020. We evaluated the effectiveness of this intervention based on the amount of active ingredients/population correction unit and the total number of defined daily doses for the weight group/slaughter pig. The ratio of antimicrobial use for both indicators in the year 2020 compared with the start of the intervention decreased on all farms. Among the eight non-intervention farms, six showed an increase in both indicators. These results suggest that interventions for chronic diseases administered by producers and veterinarians lead to high adherence to prescriptions and responsible and prudent use of antimicrobials on pig farms.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Fazendas , Adesão à Medicação , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle
16.
Vet Rec ; 190(8): 308, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35420197
17.
Acta Vet Scand ; 64(1): 9, 2022 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35379275

RESUMO

On farm mortality is an increasing problem in cattle production systems in the Nordic countries. It represents an economic loss to the farmer and raises questions of sustainability, food waste and animal welfare. On-farm emergency slaughter (OFES) represents, in some situations, an opportunity for a farmer to salvage some of the economic value from an animal that cannot be transported to a slaughterhouse. The basis of the regulation of OFES in the Nordic countries originates largely from legislation from the European Union. However, this review has found that the availability and practice of OFES in the Nordic countries differs considerably. For example, in Norway 4.2% of all cattle slaughter is OFES, whilst in Iceland OFES has never been recorded. National food safety authorities have issued differing regulations and guidelines regarding the suitability of sick and injured animals for OFES. This review shows there is a paucity of data regarding the incidence and reasons for the use of OFES of cattle in the Nordic countries and points out the need for more investigation into this area to improve veterinary education, consumer protection and animal welfare.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Matadouros , Animais , Bovinos , Fazendas , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35380531

RESUMO

Here we present the description of a novel Pseudomonas species, designated Pseudomonas rustica sp. nov., which was isolated from raw milk samples obtained from Germany. Results of initial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis assigned the strain into the genus Pseudomonas and showed Pseudomonas helmanticensis, Pseudomonas neuropathica and Pseudomonas atagonensis to be its closest relatives. Further studies including sequence analysis of the rpoB gene, multi-gene phylogenetic tree reconstruction, whole-genome sequence comparisons, cellular fatty acid analysis and chemotaxonomic characterization showed a clear separation from the known Pseudomonas species. Isolate MBT-4T was closely related to Pseudomonas helmanticensis, 'Pseudomonas crudilactis' and Pseudomonas neuropathica with average nucleotide identities based on blast values of 88.8, 88.8 and 88.6%, respectively. Therefore, the strain can be classified into the Pseudomonas koreensis subgroup of the Pseudomonas fluorescens group. The G+C content of strain MBT-4T was 58.9 mol%. The strain was catalase- and oxidase-positive, while the ß-galactosidase reaction was negative. Growth occurred between 4 and 30 °C and at pH values from pH 6.0 to 8.0. In conclusion, strain MBT-4T belongs to a novel species, for which the name Pseudomonas rustica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MBT-4T (=DSM 112348T=LMG 32241T) and strain MBT-17 is also a representative of this species.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Leite , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Fazendas , Ácidos Graxos/química , Genes Bacterianos , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Filogenia , Pseudomonas , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(5): 265, 2022 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35435503

RESUMO

A catalase and oxidase-positive strain BA0156T was isolated from a cyanobacterial mat collected from the farmland mud cultivated with sugarcane from Ahmednagar, India. The 16S rRNA gene of strain BA0156T showed the highest percent sequence similarity with Hydrogenophaga borbori LMG 30805T (98.5%), followed by H. flava DSM 619T (98.3%) and H. intermedia DSM 5680T (98.2%). The strain BA0156T contained the major fatty acids, C16:0 (25.1%) and C17:0 cyclo (3.9%), whereas phosphatidylethanolamine and diphosphatidylglycerol were the major polar lipids. The OrthoANI and dDDH values between strain BA0156T and its closest relative H. borbori LMG 30805T were 84.6% and 28.3%, respectively. The DNA G+C content of strain BA0156T was 69.4 mol %. Furthermore, the biochemical and physiological features of strain BA0156T showed a distinct pattern from their closest phylogenetic neighbours. The phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics indicated that the strain BA0156T represents a new species for which the name Hydrogenophaga crocea (type strain BA0156T = MCC 3062T = KCTC 72452T = JCM 34507T) is proposed.


Assuntos
Comamonadaceae , Cianobactérias , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Cianobactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Fazendas , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 30: 100710, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35431068

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide parasitic zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Pigs can become infected by consuming water or food contaminated with sporulated oocysts, or by carnivorism (like the consumption of infected rodents). In pigs most infections are asymptomatic. In certain countries, pig meat containing tissue cysts is a major source of infection for human beings. The aims of this study were to estimate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and to identify which factors were related with the increase of the risk of infection in Argentina. The seroprevalence of T. gondii was determined in 240 pigs from 27 farms in the central-western area of Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Serum samples were analyzed using indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques. Prevalence determined was 53.33% and 32.08% by IFAT and ELISA, respectively. Results showed that 81.5% (22/27) of the farms were seropositive to T. gondii. Seropositivity for T. gondii was related with the following risk factors (p value ≤0.05): presence of felids and rodents in the farms, feeding with waste of human food and storage of food outdoors with free access to felids and to the reservoirs when applying both serological techniques. Our results strongly suggest that the risk of infection with T. gondii in pigs is related to the outdoor/extensive type of production system with low infrastructure conditions, which allows both felids and rodents to have free access to pigs and stored food. Also, the high seroprevalence detected in the present study could indicate a potential role of pork in human infections in the region.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Suínos , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Argentina/epidemiologia , Fazendas , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
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