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1.
Nutrients ; 15(4)2023 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36839395

RESUMO

Seasonal rhythms drive metabolic adaptations that influence body weight and adiposity. Adipose tissue is a key regulator of energy homeostasis in the organism, and its healthiness is needed to prevent the major consequences of overweight and obesity. In this context, supplementation with proanthocyanidins has been postulated as a potential strategy to prevent the alterations caused by obesity. Moreover, the effects of these (poly)phenols on metabolism are photoperiod dependent. In order to describe the impact of grape-seed proanthocyanidins extract (GSPE) on important markers of adipose tissue functionality under an obesogenic environment, we exposed Fischer 344 rats to three different photoperiods and fed them a cafeteria diet for five weeks. Afterwards, we supplemented them with 25 mg GSPE/kg/day for four weeks. Our results revealed that GSPE supplementation prevented excessive body weight gain under a long photoperiod, which could be explained by increased lipolysis in the adipose tissue. Moreover, cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) serum concentrations were restored by GSPE under standard photoperiod. GSPE consumption slightly helped combat the obesity-induced hypertrophy in adipocytes, and adiponectin mRNA levels were upregulated under all photoperiods. Overall, the administration of GSPE helped reduce the impact of obesity in the adipose tissue, depending on the photoperiod at which GSPE was consumed and on the type of adipose depots.


Assuntos
Extrato de Sementes de Uva , Proantocianidinas , Vitis , Ratos , Animais , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Fotoperíodo , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Obesidade/metabolismo , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Peso Corporal
2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 2849, 2023 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36807330

RESUMO

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal dysbiosis characterized by a malodorous discharge and irritation. The imbalance of the vaginal microbiota plays a key role in the development of BV. It has been demonstrated that Gardnerella vaginalis (GV), a facultative anaerobic bacillus, is involved in BV. Due to the rising number of antimicrobial-resistant species, recurrence of BV is becoming more frequent in women; thus, alternative treatments to antibiotics are needed. Natural substances have recently shown a great efficacy for the treatment of vaginal dysbiosis. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the beneficial effect of a product containing pea protein (PP), grape seed extract (GS) and lactic acid (LA) in an in vivo model of Gardnerella vaginalis-induced vaginosis by intravaginal administration of GV suspension (1 × 106 CFU/20 µL saline). Our results demonstrated that the product containing PP, GS and LA significantly reduced GV proliferation. More specifically, it significantly preserved tissue architecture and reduced neutrophil infiltration, inflammatory markers and sialidase activity when used both as a pre- or a post-treatment. Moreover, the product displayed strong bioadhesive properties. Therefore, our data suggested that the product containing PP, GS and LA could be used as alternative preventive or curative treatment for the management of BV.


Assuntos
Extrato de Sementes de Uva , Proteínas de Ervilha , Vaginose Bacteriana , Feminino , Humanos , Vaginose Bacteriana/microbiologia , Disbiose , Gardnerella vaginalis , Vagina/microbiologia
3.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 3166, 2023 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36823173

RESUMO

Diabetic wounds are problematic to heal owing to microbial infections as well as decreased proliferation and high concentrations of reactive oxygen species. In this study, a double-layered nanofibrous mat containing grape seed extract (GSE) and silver sulfadiazine (SSD) was fabricated. A synthetic biodegradable polymer, e.g., polycaprolactone (PCL), and a natural material (i.e., collagen) were employed as wound dressing substances. The results showed that GSE possesses antioxidant activity which can be helpful in reducing free radicals. The platform exhibited antibacterial activity against gram-positive and -negative bacteria. The double-layered nanofibrous mat containing GSE and SSD not only was not toxic but also amplified the cell proliferation compared to a pure mat, showing the effect of plant extract. After induction of a round wound, the animals were divided into three groups, namely (1) normal group (receiving + GSE/-GSE nanofiber), (2) diabetic group (receiving + GSE/-GSE nanofiber), and (3) control group (receiving gauze). In vivo evaluation demonstrated no significant differences in the healing process of normal rats. Surprisingly, fully repaired skin was observed on day 14 in the double-layered nanofibrous mat containing GSE in the normal and diabetic groups whereas the wound of diabetic rats treated with pure mat was not completely healed. The macroscopic and microscopic results after 14 days showed the following order in wound repair: Normal/ + GES > Diabetic/ + GSE > Normal/-GES > Diabetic/-GSE > control (with gauze) (p < 0.05). Accordingly, the double-layered nanofibrous mat containing GSE and SSD used in the present study could be considered as a suitable wound dressing in order to shorten healing time and prevent infection during the wound healing process.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Extrato de Sementes de Uva , Nanofibras , Ratos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Nanofibras/ultraestrutura , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Cicatrização , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Sulfadiazina de Prata/farmacologia , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia
4.
Life Sci ; 318: 121492, 2023 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36775115

RESUMO

AIMS: Grape seed procyanidin extract (GSE), and milk thistle silymarin extract (MTE) contain structurally distinct polyphenols, and each agent has been shown to exert antineoplastic effects against lung cancer. We hypothesize that combinations of GSE and MTE will additively enhance their anticancer effects against lung cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The anti-proliferative effects of GSE, MTE and combinations were evaluated in lung neoplastic cell lines. A dose range finding (DRF) study to determine safety, bioavailability and bioactivity, followed by human lung cancer xenograft efficacy studies were conducted in female nude mice with once daily gavage of leucoselect phytosome (LP), a standardized GSE, and/or siliphos, a standardized MTE. The roles of tumor suppressors miR-663a and its predicted target FHIT in mediating the additive, anti-proliferative effecs of GSE/MTE were also assessed. KEY FINDINGS: GSE with MTE additively inhibited lung preneoplastic and cancer cell proliferations. Mice tolerated all dosing regimens in the DRF study without signs of clinical toxicity nor histologic abnormalities in the lungs, livers and kidneys. Eight weeks of LP and siliphos additively inhibited lung tumor xenograft growth. Plasma GSE/metabolites and MTE/metabolites showed that the combinations did not decrease systemic bioavailabilities of each agent. GSE and MTE additively upregulated miR-663a and FHIT in lung cancer cell lines; transfection of antisense-miR-663a significantly abrogated the anti-proliferative effects of GSE/MTE, upregulation of FHIT mRNA and protein. LP and siliphos also additively increased miR-663a and FHIT protein in lung tumor xenografts. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings support clinical translations of combinations of GSE and MTE against lung cancer.


Assuntos
Extrato de Sementes de Uva , Neoplasias Pulmonares , MicroRNAs , Proantocianidinas , Silimarina , Vitis , Humanos , Feminino , Animais , Camundongos , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Vitis/metabolismo , Cardo-Mariano , Camundongos Nus , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo
5.
Nutrients ; 15(3)2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36771413

RESUMO

Seasonal rhythms are emerging as a key factor influencing gut microbiota and bioactive compounds functionality as well as several physiological processes such as inflammation. In this regard, their impact on the modulation of oxylipins (OXLs), which are important lipid mediators of inflammatory processes, has not been investigated yet. Hence, we aimed to investigate the effects of photoperiods on OXLs metabolites in healthy and obesogenic conditions. Moreover, we evaluated if the impact of proanthocyanidins and gut microbiota on OXLs metabolism is influenced by photoperiod in obesity. To this purpose, Fischer 344 rats were housed under different photoperiod conditions (L6: 6 h light, L12: 12 h light or L18:18 h light) and fed either a standard chow diet (STD) or a cafeteria diet (CAF) for 9 weeks. During the last 4 weeks, obese rats were daily administered with an antibiotic cocktail (ABX), an oral dose of a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE), or with their combination. CAF feeding and ABX treatment affected OXLs in a photoperiod dependent-manner. GSPE significantly altered prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels, only under L6 and mitigated ABX-mediated effects only under L18. In conclusion, photoperiods affect OXLs levels influenced by gut microbiota. This is the first time that the effects of photoperiod on OXLs metabolites have been demonstrated.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Extrato de Sementes de Uva , Proantocianidinas , Ratos , Animais , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Fotoperíodo , Oxilipinas , Ratos Wistar , Obesidade/metabolismo , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Ratos Endogâmicos F344
6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 232: 123290, 2023 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36682651

RESUMO

Eco-friendly packaging material with intelligent colorimetric performance has been a requirement for food safety and quality. This work focused on a food packaging material from regenerated cellulose films that added the grape seed extract (GSE) and polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG). FTIR and SEM techniques were employed to prove the compatibility of GSE with cellulose matrix. The composite film showed an enhanced elongation at break (16.61 %) and tensile strength (33.09 MPa). The addition of PEG and GSE also improved the water contact angle of regenerated-cellulose film from 53.8° to 83.8°. Moreover, the composite films exhibited UV-blocking properties while maintaining adequate transparency. The GSE induced the regenerated films with a macroscopic change in color under different pH conditions. Furthermore, the loading of GSE slowed down the decomposition of strawberries and delayed the self-biodegradation compared with the control for more than 3 days and 18 days. The present study showed a regenerated cellulose film with acceptable mechanical and hydrophilia properties, pH-responsiveness, anti-decomposition, and delayed biodegradation performances, indicating a potential color sensor in food packaging.


Assuntos
Extrato de Sementes de Uva , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Celulose/química , Resistência à Tração
7.
Cells ; 12(2)2023 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36672146

RESUMO

Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds are rich in polyphenols including proanthocyanidins, molecules with a variety of biological effects including anticancer action. We have previously reported that the grape seed semi-polar extract of Aglianico cultivar (AGS) was able to induce apoptosis and decrease cancer properties in different mesothelioma cell lines. Concomitantly, this extract resulted in enriched oligomeric proanthocyanidins which might be involved in determining the anticancer activity. Through transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses, we investigated in detail the anticancer pathway induced by AGS. Transcriptomics analysis and functional annotation allowed the identification of the relevant causative genes involved in the apoptotic induction following AGS treatment. Subsequent biological validation strengthened the hypothesis that MDM2 could be the molecular target of AGS and that it could act in both a p53-dependent and independent manner. Finally, AGS significantly inhibited tumor progression in a xenograft mouse model of mesothelioma, confirming also in vivo that MDM2 could act as molecular player responsible for the AGS antitumor effect. Our findings indicated that AGS, exerting a pro-apoptotic effect by hindering MDM2 pathway, could represent a novel source of anticancer molecules.


Assuntos
Extrato de Sementes de Uva , Mesotelioma , Proantocianidinas , Vitis , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Sementes , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2
8.
Curr Nutr Rep ; 12(1): 141-150, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36692807

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Oxidative stress is related to the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases, including inflammatory processes. Free radicals excess increase not only oxidative stress but also genomic instability. Polyphenols are non-enzymatic antioxidants that act as a defense barrier against free radicals and non-radical oxidants. The purpose of this article was to review published articles relating dietary polyphenols contained in grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts with its potential for reversing DNA damage. RECENT FINDINGS: Proanthocyanidin components exert pleiotropic actions having several biological, biochemical, and significant pharmacological effects and showed the ability to reduce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts showed the ability to reduce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity through the comet assay and the micronucleus technique.


Assuntos
Extrato de Sementes de Uva , Neoplasias , Vitis , Humanos , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Radicais Livres , Dano ao DNA , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Inflamação
9.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 13(1): 528, 2022 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36544223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nowadays, diabetes mellitus is known as a silent killer because individual is not aware that he has the disease till the development of its complications. Many researchers have studied the use of stem cells in treatment of both types of diabetes. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold a lot of potential for regenerative therapy. MSCs migrate and home at the damaged site, where they can aid in the repair of damaged tissues and restoring their function. Oxidative stress and inflammation represent a huge obstacle during MSCs transplantation. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the role of grape seed extract (GSE) administration during MSCs transplantation in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type I diabetes. Furthermore, testing some of GSE components [procyanidins(P)-B1 and P-C1] in conjunction with MSCs, in vivo, was performed to determine if one of them was more effective in relieving the measured attributes of diabetes more than the whole GSE. METHODS: Firstly, GSE was prepared from the seeds of Muscat of Alexandria grapes and characterized to identify its phytochemical components. Experimental design was composed of control group I, untreated diabetic group II, GSE (300 mg/kg)-treated diabetic group III, MSCs (2 × 106 cells/rat)-treated diabetic group IV and GSE (300 mg/kg)/MSCs (2 × 106 cells/rat)-treated diabetic group V. Type I diabetes was induced in rats by intravenous injection with 65 mg/kg of STZ. Treatment started when fasting blood glucose (FBG) level was more than 200 mg/dl; GSE oral administration started in the same day after MSCs intravenous injection and continued daily for 30 consecutive days. RESULTS: The results showed that GSE/MSCs therapy in type I-induced diabetic rats has dramatically managed homeostasis of glucose and insulin secretion; together with, improvement in levels of inflammatory markers and oxidative stress. CONCLUSION: Co-treatment with GSE and MSCs in vivo regenerates beta cells in type I-induced diabetic rats.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Extrato de Sementes de Uva , Células Secretoras de Insulina , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Masculino , Ratos , Animais , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/terapia , Pâncreas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Insulina , Glicemia
10.
Molecules ; 27(22)2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36431850

RESUMO

Human noroviruses are the most common pathogens known to cause acute gastroenteritis, a condition that can lead to severe illness among immunocompromised individuals such as organ transplant recipients and the elderly. To date, no safe and effective vaccines or therapeutic agents have been approved for treating norovirus infections. Therefore, we aimed to demonstrate the virucidal activity of grape seed extract (GSE), which contains >83% proanthocyanidins, against murine norovirus (MNV), a surrogate for human norovirus. GSE showed virucidal activity against MNV in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Atomic force microscopic analysis showed viral particle aggregates after treatment of MNV with GSE. MNV treated with 50 µg/mL of GSE for 10 min resulted in the absence of pathogenicity in an animal model of infection, indicating that GSE has irreversible virucidal activity against MNV particles. Thus, GSE may aid in the development of treatments for norovirus infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Extrato de Sementes de Uva , Norovirus , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Idoso , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Fenol , Infecções por Caliciviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Fenóis
11.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277552, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383626

RESUMO

Polyphenol-rich solutions, such as plant extracts and teas, can modify the salivary pellicle and improve the protection against dental erosion. In this study, we further explored how these polyphenol-rich plant extracts solutions behave in the presence of fluoride. We distributed enamel specimens into 9 groups (n = 15): Control_No_F- (Deionized water); Control_F- (500 ppm F-), Grape_Seed_No_F- (Grape seed extract), Grape_Seed_F- (Grape seed extract + 500 ppm F-), Grapefruit_Seed_No_F- (Grapefruit seed extract), Grapefruit_Seed_F- (Grapefruit seed extract + 500 ppm F-), Blueberry_No_F- (Blueberry extract), Blueberry_F- (Blueberry extract + 500 ppm F-), and Sn2+/F-_Rinse (commercial solution containing 800 ppm Sn2+ and 500 ppm F-). The specimens were submitted to 5 cycles (1 cycle per day), and each cycle consisted of: salivary pellicle formation (human saliva, 30 min, 37°C), modification of the pellicle (2 min, 25°C), pellicle formation (60 min, 37°C), and an erosive challenge (1 min, citric acid). Between cycles, the specimens were kept in a humid chamber. Relative surface hardness (rSH), relative surface reflection intensity (rSRI) and calcium released to the acid were analysed, using general linear models, and Kruskal-Wallis with post-hoc Dunn's tests. We observed that the presence of fluoride in synergy with the extract solutions provided better protection than the groups containing extract or fluoride only. For rSH, we observed a significant main effect of extracts (F(4,117) = 9.20; p<0.001) and fluoride (F(1,117) = 511.55; p<0.001), with a significant interaction (F(3,117) = 6.71; p<0.001). Grape_Seed_F- showed the best protection, better than fluoride, and Sn2+/F-_Rinse. Calcium results also showed greater protection for the groups containing fluoride, whereas for rSRI, despite a significant interaction between extract and fluoride (F(3,117) = 226.05; p<0.001), the differences between the groups were not as clearly observed. We conclude that polyphenols from plant extracts, when combined with fluoride, improve the protective effect of salivary pellicles against enamel erosion.


Assuntos
Extrato de Sementes de Uva , Erosão Dentária , Humanos , Fluoretos/farmacologia , Erosão Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoreto de Sódio , Cálcio , Polifenóis , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Esmalte Dentário
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362344

RESUMO

Proanthocyanidins (PACs) are a group of bioactive molecules found in a variety of plants and foods. Their bioavailability depends on their molecular size, with monomers and dimers being more bioavailable than those that have a higher polymerization degree. This study aimed to develop a method to convert high-molecular-weight PACs to low-molecular-weight ones in a grape seed extract (GSE) from Vitis vinifera L. Therefore, GSE was subjected to alkaline treatment (ATGSE), and its difference in chemical composition, compared to GSE, was evaluated using a molecular networking (MN) approach based on results obtained from HPLC-ESI HRMS/MS characterization analysis. The network analysis mainly noted the PAC cluster with about 142 PAC compounds identified. In particular, the obtained results showed a higher content of monomeric and dimeric PACs in ATGSE compared to GSE, with 58% and 49% monomers and 31% and 24% dimers, respectively. Conversely, trimeric (9%), polymeric (4%), and galloylated PACs (14%) were more abundant in GSE than in ATGSE (6%, 1%, and 4%, respectively). Moreover, in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were investigated, showing the high beneficial potential of both extracts. In conclusion, ATGSE could represent an innovative natural matrix rich in bioavailable and bioaccessible PACs for nutraceutical applications with potential beneficial properties.


Assuntos
Extrato de Sementes de Uva , Proantocianidinas , Vitis , Proantocianidinas/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Peso Molecular , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/química , Vitis/química , Sementes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361103

RESUMO

While dietary polyphenols supplements can improve endothelial function and blood flow to exercise, the effects of chronic supplementation with grape seed extract (GSE) containing a high dose of polyphenols on endurance performance are not known. Accordingly, in 12 elite athletes, we compared the effects of both GSE and placebo (PL) on submaximal VO2, time to exhaustion performance, and endothelial function during progressive cycling exercise for 14 days. Endothelial function was evaluated from the brachial artery via flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Compared to PL, GSE decreased submaximal VO2 at 80% and 120% of VO2peak and increased the time to exhaustion (p < 0.05). GSE also resulted in FMD-induced increase in brachial artery diameter (14.4 ± 5.2% vs. 17.6 ± 4.5%, p = 0.035). We demonstrated that chronic supplementation with GSE improved endurance performance and these effects may partially be due to vasodilation in active skeletal muscle mediated by enhanced endothelial function. Thus, our results suggest that GSE appears to be an ergogenic nutraceutical that can improve exercise performance in elite athletes.


Assuntos
Basquetebol , Extrato de Sementes de Uva , Humanos , Antioxidantes , Suplementos Nutricionais , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Polifenóis
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20529, 2022 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36443372

RESUMO

In this study, the multiple toxic effects of potassium bromate were investigated in Allium cepa L., an indicator test material. In addition, the toxicity-reducing effects of grape seed extract (GSE) were tested. The toxicity was investigated by some physiological (germination percentage, root length, weight gain, relative injury rate), cytogenetic [mitotic index (MI), micronucleus (MN), and chromosomal abnormalities (CAs)], biochemical [malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) levels] and anatomical parameters. A. cepa bulbs were divided into 6 groups as control and five treatment groups (Group II: 465 mg/L GSE, Group III: 930 mg/L GSE, Group IV: 100 mg/L potassium bromate, Group V: 100 mg/L potassium bromate + 465 mg/L GSE, Group VI: 100 mg /L potassium bromate + 930 mg/L GSE). The bulbs were germinated for 72 h and at the end of the period the bulbs were subjected to routine preparations and made ready for analysis and measurements. As a result, potassium bromate exposure caused statistically significant (p < 0.05) decreases in all physiological parameter values. Potassium bromate application decreased MI by 41.6%, and increased the MN and CAs frequencies. CAs such as fragment, sticky chromosome, and vagrant chromosome, unequal distribution of chromatin, reverse polarization, nuclear bud and disordered mitosis were induced in root meristem cells. The mechanism of potassium bromate genotoxicity has been associated with DNA-potassium bromate interaction supported by spectral shift. Potassium bromate caused a decrease in GSH levels and an increase in MDA, SOD and CAT levels, thereby disrupting the antioxidant/oxidant balance in root tip cells. GSE administration in two different doses together with potassium bromate reduced the toxic effects and caused improvements in all parameters examined. The most significant reduction in toxicity was in group VI, which received 930 mg/L GSE, and there was an improvement about 18% in MI levels and an improvement about 44% in GSH levels in this group. While GSE application increased physiological parameters and GSH levels, it decreased MDA, SOD, CAT levels, MN and CAs frequencies. As a result, it has been determined that potassium bromate causes multi-directional toxicity at high doses and A. cepa is a very reliable indicator in determining this toxicity. In addition, GSE extract has been found to have a strong role in reducing the toxicity induced by potassium bromate.


Assuntos
Extrato de Sementes de Uva , Bromatos/toxicidade , Núcleo Celular , Superóxido Dismutase , Glutationa
15.
Food Funct ; 13(21): 11353-11368, 2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36260060

RESUMO

In mammals, the liver is involved in nutrient metabolism and in the regulation of lipid and glucose homeostasis. Multiple studies have described improvements in liver disorders after regular consumption of grape seed extract (GSE). GSE prevents or ameliorates hepatic metabolic dysfunction through AMPK activation, which reduces hepatic lipogenesis while enhancing hepatic lipid oxidation. However, the involvement of ChREBPß and PPARß/δ in these effects has not been fully elucidated. We aim to demonstrate that chronic consumption of GSE at low doses (25 mg kg-1 body weight per day) produces beneficial effects on hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism in young lean Wistar rats and that part of these effects involve ChREBPß inactivation and PPARß/δ activation. In our study, increased concentrations of structurally related (-)-(epi)catechin metabolites and 5-carbon ring fission metabolites were found in the serum of GSE-supplemented rats parallel with the reduction in triglycerides and leptin levels, hepatic cholesterol content and visceral adiposity. GSE supplementation inactivates ChREBP and GSK-3ß, which has been linked to improvements in hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism. Furthermore, the consumption of GSE promotes the expression of Pparß/δ, as well as Pgc-1α and Acox-1, which control hepatic lipid oxidation. Interestingly, pharmacological inhibition of PPARß/δ slowed the induction of Pgc-1α and Acox-1, as well as the activation of AMPK triggered by GSE consumption. Our data suggest that PPARß/δ activation is involved in the metabolic reprogramming effects of chronic GSE consumption in young rats, by modulating, at least, part of the transcriptional programs that maintain hepatic and systemic fuel homeostasis.


Assuntos
Extrato de Sementes de Uva , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado , PPAR delta , PPAR beta , Animais , Ratos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glucose/metabolismo , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , PPAR delta/genética , PPAR delta/metabolismo , PPAR beta/genética , PPAR beta/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar
16.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 66(23): e2200443, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36189890

RESUMO

SCOPE: Circadian rhythm is an endogenous and self-sustained timing system, responsible for the coordination of daily processes in 24-h timescale. It is regulated by an endogenous molecular clock, which is sensitive to external cues as light and food. This study has previously shown that grape seed proanthocyanidins extract (GSPE) regulates the hepatic molecular clock. Moreover, GSPE is known to interact with some microRNAs (miRNAs). Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate if the activity of GSPE as modulator of hepatic clock genes can be mediated by miRNAs. METHODS AND RESULTS: 250 mg kg-1 of GSPE is administered to Wistar rats before a 6-h jet lag and sacrificed at different time points. GSPE modulated both expression of Bmal1 and miR-27b-3p in the liver. Cosinor-based analysis reveals that both Bmal1 and miR-27b-3p expression follow a circadian rhythm, a negative interaction between them, and the role of GSPE adjusting the hepatic peripheral clock via miRNA. Additionally, in vitro studies show that Bmal1 is sensitive to GSPE (25 mg L-1 ). However, this effect is independent of miR-27b-3p. CONCLUSION: miRNA regulation of peripheral clocks via GSPE may be part of a complex mechanism that involves the crosstalk with the central system rather than a direct effect.


Assuntos
Extrato de Sementes de Uva , MicroRNAs , Proantocianidinas , Ratos , Animais , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/genética , Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo
17.
Food Funct ; 13(20): 10491-10500, 2022 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36148543

RESUMO

Grape seed derived procyanidins (GSPE) have been shown to effectively prevent intestinal disarrangements induced by a cafeteria diet in young rats. However, little is known about the effects of procyanidins and cafeteria diet on enterohormone secretion in aged rats, as the ageing processes modify these effects. To study these effects in aged rats, we subjected 21-month-old and young 2-month-old female rats to two sub-chronic preventive GSPE treatments. After three months of cafeteria diet administration, we analysed the basal and stimulated secretion and mRNA expression of CCK, PYY and GLP-1, caecal SCFA and intestinal sizes. We found that the effects of a cafeteria diet on the basal duodenal CCK secretion are age dependent. GLP-1 in the ileum was not modified regardless of the rat's age, and GSPE preventive effects differed in the two age groups. GSPE pre-treatment reduced GLP-1, PYY and ChgA in mRNA in aged ileum tissue, while the cafeteria diet increased these in aged colon. The GSPE treatments only modified low-abundance SCFAs. The cafeteria diet in aged rats increases the caecum size differently from that in young rats and GSPE pre-treatment prevents this increase. Therefore, ageing modifies nutrient sensing, and the cafeteria diet acts mainly on the duodenum and colon, while procyanidins have a larger effect on the ileum.


Assuntos
Extrato de Sementes de Uva , Proantocianidinas , Animais , Dieta , Feminino , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 960355, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36059517

RESUMO

Background and purpose: Multiple sclerosis (MS), a multifactorial autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS), is characterized by demyelination and chronic inflammation, as well as axonal and neuronal loss. There is no cure for MS, and despite a significant improvement in the therapeutic management of patients during the last 20 years, some symptoms are still resistant to treatment, and the evolution of the disease to progressive form seems still ineluctable. The etiology of MS is complex and still not fully understood. However, inflammation is a major driver of physiopathology and oxidative stress contributes to CNS lesions and promotes existing inflammatory response. Plant polyphenols are endowed with many therapeutic benefits through alleviating oxidative stress and inflammation, thus providing neuroprotection in MS. We presently evaluated the curative effect of grape seed extract (GSE) in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of MS. Experimental approach: Six-week-old C57Bl/6J females were subjected to the EAE paradigm (using myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide fragment (35-55), complete Freund's adjuvant, and pertussis toxin) and then chronically treated with GSE from day 10 to day 30 post-induction. Clinical score and body weight were monitored daily, while evaluation of sensitive, motor, cognitive, and anxiety-related behaviors was performed weekly. Then, the GSE effect was evaluated on whole brain and spinal cord samples through the evaluation of oxidative stress damage, antioxidant capacities, myelin alteration, astroglial and microglial proliferation, and sirtuin expression. Key results: Grape seed extract curative chronic treatment corrected the clinical course of EAE, as well as the mechanical hypersensitivity, and avoided the development of EAE mouse thermal cold allodynia. The neuropathological evaluation showed that GSE reduced oxidative stress in the brain and spinal cord by decreasing the lipid and protein oxidation through correction of the three main antioxidant enzyme activities, namely, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, as well as restoring normal myelin protein expression and correcting microglial and astroglial protein overexpression and sirtuin downregulation. Conclusion and implications: These data strongly support GSE as an effective therapeutic approach in MS treatment.


Assuntos
Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental , Extrato de Sementes de Uva , Esclerose Múltipla , Sirtuínas , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/uso terapêutico , Hiperalgesia , Inflamação/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
19.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2022: 2579003, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35966334

RESUMO

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a highly disabling disorder for which few effective treatments are available. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) are polyphenolic compounds with various biological activities. In our preliminary experiment, GSP promoted functional recovery in rats with SCI, but the mechanism remains unclear. Therefore, we explored the protective effects of GSP on SCI and its possible underlying mechanisms. We found that GSP promoted locomotor recovery, reduced neuronal apoptosis, increased neuronal preservation, and regulated microglial polarisation in vivo. We also performed in vitro studies to verify the effects of GSP on neuronal protection and microglial polarisation and their potential mechanisms. We found that GSP regulated microglial polarisation and inhibited apoptosis in PC12 cells induced by M1-BV2 cells through the Toll-like receptor 4- (TLR4-) mediated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/serine threonine kinase (PI3K/AKT) signaling pathways. This suggests that GSP regulates microglial polarisation and prevents neuronal apoptosis, possibly by the TLR4-mediated NF-κB and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Animais , Extrato de Sementes de Uva , Microglia/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
20.
Int J Cosmet Sci ; 44(5): 569-587, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35975647

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the development of cosmetic products, sensory evaluation is an important step in determining consumer acceptance before it is released on a market but is often time-consuming and costly. However, correlating sensory characteristics with instrumental parameters using multivariate techniques is a potential way to facilitate the development of cosmetic products. METHODS: Sunscreen formulations varied in the content of grape seed extract (GSE) and ultraviolet (UV) filters, and benchmark products were characterized using sensory descriptive analysis and instrumental analysis. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to the panel's performance data to study how well the panelists performed compared to each other and to find an association between rheological and textural instrumental parameters of cream samples. Further, applying Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression analysis, the association between sensory attributes and instrumental parameters was analyzed. In addition, a preference for the sensory properties of the studied sunscreen products that are important for consumers living in Southeast Asia was assessed by PLS. RESULTS: In this study, both the sensory and instrumental properties of all tested formulations were described well by PCA. The practicality of PLS was confirmed by an established correlation between sensory attributes from the categories of appearance (glossiness), pick-up (integrity of shape, firmness, glossiness, stringiness), and after-feel (glossiness, spreadability, stickiness) with both rheological and textural parameters. Although the instrumental analysis could not completely replace sensory evaluation, a described method applying PLS can be used as an additional cost-effective and time-saving method during the development of cosmetic products. Moreover, PLS revealed that sunscreens with a light texture and glossy appearance providing smooth skin after-feel are likely to be preferred over the thicker formulations having a residual color appearance in Southeast Asia. CONCLUSION: Until a universal model is created, the cosmetics developers and companies can apply a described method of determining sensory properties from the instrumental parameters of their own products. Future studies will be worth exploiting the applicability of the PLS regression model on instrumental datasets predicting sensory characteristics of other sunscreen products.


OBJECTIF: Dans le développement de produits cosmétiques, l'évaluation sensorielle est une étape importante pour déterminer l'acceptation par le consommateur avant la mise sur le marché, mais elle est souvent longue et coûteuse. Cependant, la corrélation des caractéristiques sensorielles avec les paramètres instrumentaux à l'aide de techniques multivariées est un moyen potentiel afin de faciliter le développement des produits cosmétiques. MÉTHODES: Les formulations d'écrans solaires variants en termes de teneur en extrait de pépins de raisin (EPR) et en filtres ultraviolets (UV), et les produits de référence ont été caractérisés à l'aide d'une analyse sensorielle descriptive et d'une analyse instrumentale. L'analyse en composantes principales (ACP) a été appliquée aux données de performance du panel pour étudier la performance des panélistes les uns par rapport aux autres et pour trouver une association entre les paramètres instrumentaux rhéologiques et texturaux des échantillons de crème. En outre, l'association entre les attributs sensoriels et les paramètres instrumentaux a été analysée au moyen d'une analyse de régression PLS (Partial Least Squares). De plus, une préférence pour les propriétés sensorielles des produits de protection solaire étudiés importantes pour les consommateurs vivant en Asie du Sud-Est a été évaluée par PLS. RÉSULTATS: Dans cette étude, les propriétés sensorielles et instrumentales de toutes les formulations testées ont été bien décrites par l'ACP. L'aspect pratique de l'analyse PLS a été confirmé par une corrélation établie entre les attributs sensoriels des catégories de l'apparence (brillance), de la prise (intégrité de la forme, fermeté, brillance, filant) et de l'impression résiduelle (brillance, capacité d'étalement, adhésivité) avec les paramètres rhéologiques et texturaux. Bien que l'analyse instrumentale ne puisse pas remplacer complètement l'évaluation sensorielle, la méthode décrite appliquant la PLS peut être utilisée comme une méthode supplémentaire rentable et permettant de gagner du temps lors du développement de produits cosmétiques. En outre, l'analyse PLS a révélé que les écrans solaires à la texture légère et à l'aspect brillant, qui procurent une sensation de douceur sur la peau, sont susceptibles d'être préférés aux formulations plus épaisses ayant une couleur résiduelle en Asie du Sud-Est. CONCLUSION: En attendant la création d'un modèle universel, les développeurs et les entreprises de cosmétiques peuvent appliquer une méthode décrite pour déterminer les propriétés sensorielles à partir des paramètres instrumentaux de leurs propres produits. Les études futures devront exploiter l'applicabilité du modèle de régression PLS sur des ensembles de données instrumentales prédisant les caractéristiques sensorielles d'autres produits solaires.


Assuntos
Cosméticos , Extrato de Sementes de Uva , Reologia , Pele , Protetores Solares
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