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1.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2022-01-04. (OPS/NMH/RF/21-0036).
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55547

RESUMO

Hasta la fecha, el conjunto de investigaciones sobre los perfiles de nutrientes se ha dedicado principalmente a comparar modelos o a analizar su validez en función del número o del porcentaje de productos que deben restringirse o limitarse, o a construcciones dietéticas teóricas, sin identificar su impacto sobre las metas de ingesta de nutrientes recomendadas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Este estudio tiene como objetivo estimar los efectos del consumo de productos con un exceso de azúcares libres, sodio y grasas totales, saturadas y trans sobre la calidad de la alimentación. A partir de encuestas representativas de ocho países de las Américas y según el modelo de perfil de nutrientes de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud, se tienen en cuenta las metas de ingesta de nutrientes críticos relacionados con las enfermedades no transmisibles.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Alimentos, Dieta e Nutrição , Alimentos e Bebidas , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos , Açúcares , Sódio , Gorduras
2.
Food Chem ; 371: 131177, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563968

RESUMO

Soft and solid fats which were fractionated from Pangasius bocourti oil (PBO), namely, Pangasius bocourti olein (PBOL) and Pangasius bocourti stearin (PBST), respectively, were introduced as new base oils for plastic fats. The physicochemical properties of PBO and its fractions were modified after interesterification. Enzymatic interesterification (EIE) reduced the sn-2 palmitic acid content attributed to the occurrence of acyl migration. The PBO solid fat content (SFC) at 20-40 °C increased after chemical interesterification whereas under similar range of temperature, the SFC of PBST decreased after EIE and a steep melting curve was obtained. The effect of interesterification on the crystal polymorphisms was less prominent whereby the initial and interesterified samples exhibited similar crystal forms. The solid state of PBOL was improved after interesterification but post-hardening was observed. Free fatty acids were produced via partial hydrolysis during EIE which contributed to the reduced oxidative stability in the EIE fats.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Óleos de Peixe , Esterificação , Gorduras , Óleos de Peixe/química , Triglicerídeos
3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 132-138, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The human tongue is important in the oral processing of food and in sensory perception. Tongue topography could influence delicate differences in sensory perception. It is hypothesized that tongue surface roughness could alter oral lubrication status and affect perception of smoothness. Fifteen participants with varying levels of tongue surface roughness were recruited and tested. Participants' in situ oral lubrication status without and after consumption of fluid food (milk with varying fat content and maltodextrin solutions with different shear viscosities) was measured. Participants' smoothness sensory scores were also recorded. RESULTS: The in situ friction coefficient (0.299-1.505) was significantly positively correlated with tongue-surface roughness (54.6-140.0 µm) in all types of test fluid samples across participants. Oral lubrication was significantly decreased when participants consumed the test fluid samples compared with no liquid food consumption, for all test fluid sample types (P < 0.05). No significant differences in in situ friction coefficient were found after participants consumed different test fluid samples, and this was mainly attributed to the limited quantities of fluid residuals in the oral cavity after expectoration. Participants whose tongue surface roughness differed did not exhibit significant differences in smoothness perception with different test fluid samples. CONCLUSION: Tongue surface roughness has a strong impact on in situ oral lubrication, and fluid food intake reduces in situ oral lubrication significantly. Saliva film and tongue surface roughness might play greater roles in oral lubrication and smoothness sensory perception if fluid is expectorated after consumption. The association between oral physiology and texture perception still needs further elucidation. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Percepção Gustatória , Língua/química , Adulto , Animais , Gorduras/química , Gorduras/metabolismo , Feminino , Fricção , Humanos , Lubrificação , Masculino , Leite/química , Leite/metabolismo , Saliva/química , Saliva/fisiologia , Propriedades de Superfície , Língua/fisiologia , Viscosidade , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 603, 2021 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34922450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seeds of Paeonia ostii have been proposed as a source of raw material for the production of edible oil; however, lack of information about the developmental biology of the seeds hampers our ability to use them. Our aim was to investigate development of the seed coat, endosperm and embryo of P. ostii in relation to timing of accumulation of nutrient reserves from pollination to seed maturity. Ovules and developing seeds of P. ostii were collected at various stages of development from zygote to maturity. Seed fresh mass, dry mass, germination, moisture, soluble sugars, starch, protein and oil content were determined. Ontogeny of seeds including embryo, endosperm and seed coat were analyzed histologically. RESULTS: The ovule of P. ostii is anatropous, crassinucellate and bitegmic. The zygote begins to divide at about 5 days after pollination (DAP), and the division is not accompanied by cell wall formation. By 25 DAP, the proembryo begins to cellularize. Thereafter, several embryo primordia appear at the surface of the cellularized proembryo, but only one matures. Endosperm development follows the typical nuclear type. The seed coat is derived from the outer integument. During seed development, soluble sugars, starch and crude fat content increased and then decreased, with maximum contents at 60, 80 and 100 DAP, respectively. Protein content was relatively low compared with soluble sugars and crude fat, but it increased throughout seed development. CONCLUSIONS: During seed development in P. ostii, the seed coat acts as a temporary storage tissue. Embryo development of P. ostii can be divided into two stages: a coenocytic proembryo from zygote (n + n) that degenerates and a somatic embryo from peripheral cells of the proembryo (2n → 2n). This pattern of embryogeny differs from that of all other angiosperms, but it is similar to that of gymnosperms.


Assuntos
Paeonia/embriologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gorduras/metabolismo , Germinação , Paeonia/anatomia & histologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Amido/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo
5.
Life Sci ; 285: 119997, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597608

RESUMO

AIM: Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is a NAD+-dependent deacetylase involved in various biological functions via deacetylation of proteins, including histone protein. Hepatic fat accumulation from aging and excess caloric intake contribute to development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The study aim was to elucidate the role of SIRT2 in lipid metabolism homeostasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SIRT2+/+ (C57BL/6) and SIRT2-/- were randomly assigned to normal diet or high-fat diet (HFD) groups and fed for 6 weeks. Histological features of the livers were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining, and the levels of selected factors were determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. KEY FINDINGS: Although the SIRT2-/- mice were viable, their livers exhibited higher glycogen accumulation, and skeletal muscle showed features of increased metabolic demand. The SIRT2-/- mice attenuated HFD-induced weight gain, visceral adipose tissue formation, and fat accumulation in the liver in which the expressions of genes involved in metabolic substrate transport were modified. Additionally, the hepatocellular senescence and upregulated cell-cycle factors upon HFD intake in SIRT2-/- livers suggested a role of SIRT2 in gene expression during abnormal metabolism. Moreover, the fibrotic phenotype of liver tissue without fat accumulation and the increased expression of genes involved in liver fibrosis in the HFD-fed SIRT2-/- mice indicated that SIRT2 had a role in hepatocyte and hepatic stellate cell activation. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicated that SIRT2 has a critical role in regulating lipid metabolic homeostasis and in sustaining liver integrity by modulating related gene expression.


Assuntos
Gorduras/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Sirtuína 2/fisiologia , Animais , Senescência Celular , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Homeostase , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Sirtuína 2/genética , Ganho de Peso/genética
6.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 88: 103759, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695539

RESUMO

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been marketed as a less lethal substitute for smoking traditional cigarettes. This study aims to investigate the impact of e-cigarettes aerosol exposure on lactating dams and pups, whose dams were exposed. Lactating dams received fresh air (control) or e-cigarettes aerosol during lactation (day 4-21). Maternal exposure to e-cigarettes aerosol during lactation induced significant reduction (P < 0.0001) in the fat content of the milk and serum Leptin level (P < 0.005) compared to control dams. Furthermore, pups whose dams were exposed to e-cigarettes during lactation showed an increased level of glucose, thyroxine and decreased level of insulin. The exposure to e-cigarettes aerosol during lactation altered the composition of milk as well as the hormonal and biochemical profile in dams and pups. This result, if observed in women using e-cigarettes, suggests that e-cigarettes' use during lactation may have consequences on the milk production and hormonal and biochemical profile in breastfeeding mothers and nursing babies.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Lactação , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Administração por Inalação , Aerossóis , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Gorduras/análise , Feminino , Insulina/sangue , Lactação/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Leite/química , Ratos Wistar , Tiroxina/sangue
7.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684311

RESUMO

Infant formulas offer an alternative to breast milk for both normal birth weight (NBW) and immunocompromised intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) infants. Although the lipid fraction in formulas is often derived from vegetable oils, it is unclear if this alters immunological outcomes relative to milk fats or whether these effects differ between IUGR and NBW infants. We hypothesized that replacing vegetable oil with bovine milk fat in infant formula would improve immune development in IUGR and NBW neonates. Two-day old piglets were selected (NBW, n = 18, IUGR, n = 18) and each group of animals were fed formula based on either vegetable oil (VEG) or bovine milk fat (MILK). Animals were reared until day 23/24 and systemic immune parameters were evaluated. Milk-fat feeding decreased blood neutrophil counts and improved neutrophil function while transiently reducing leucocytes' expression of genes related to adaptive and innate immunity as well as energy metabolism, following in vitro stimulation by live Staphylococcus epidermidis (whole blood, 2 h). However, there were only a few interactions between milk-fat type and birthweight status. Thus, piglets fed milk-fat-based formula had improved neutrophil maturation and suppressed pro-inflammatory responses, compared to those fed vegetable-oil-based formula.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Gorduras/química , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/patologia , Sistema Imunitário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fórmulas Infantis , Leite/química , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/genética , Recém-Nascido , Monócitos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
8.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579169

RESUMO

Plant-based cheese is one of the most increasingly consumed dairy alternatives. Evidence is lacking on their nutritional quality. We aimed to evaluate the nutritional composition of the plant-based cheese options available in Spanish supermarkets, and how they compare with dairy cheese. An audit of plant-based cheese alternatives has been conducted in seven of the most common supermarkets. For each product, the nutritional content per 100 g and ingredients were collected. Data on generic dairy cheese were retrieved from the BEDCA website. Descriptive statistics (median, minimum and maximum) were used to characterize the plant-based cheese products, for both all the products and grouped by main ingredients (i.e., coconut oil, cashew nuts and tofu). Mann-Whitney U tests were used for comparisons between dairy and different types of plant-based cheese. The coconut oil-based products (the large majority of plant-based cheese products, n = 34) could not be considered as healthy foods. Their major ingredients were refined coconut oil and starches and were high in saturated fats and salt. The other smaller groups, cashew nut- (n = 4) and tofu-based (n = 2), showed a healthier nutritional profile. Replacing dairy cheese with these groups could be nutritionally beneficial. Future investigations should address the health effects of substituting dairy cheese with these products.


Assuntos
Queijo/normas , Valor Nutritivo , Produtos Vegetais/normas , Carboidratos/análise , Queijo/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Gorduras/análise , Sódio na Dieta/análise , Espanha , Açúcares/análise , Produtos Vegetais/análise
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18573, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535697

RESUMO

"Western diet" containing high concentrations of sugar and fat consumed during pregnancy contributes to development of obesity and diabetes type 2 in offspring. To mimic effects of this diet in animals, a cafeteria (CAF) diet is used. We hypothesized that CAF diet given to rats before, and during pregnancy and lactation differently influences fat content, metabolic and inflammation profiles in offspring. Females were exposed to CAF or control diets before pregnancy, during pregnancy and lactation. At postnatal day 25 (PND 25), body composition, fat contents were measured, and blood was collected for assessment of metabolic and inflammation profiles. We have found that CAF diet lead to sex-specific alterations in offspring. At PND25, CAF offspring had: (1) higher percentage of fat content, and were lighter; (2) sex-specific differences in levels of glucose; (3) higher levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α); (4) sex-specific differences in concentration of IL-6 and TNF-α, with an increase in CAF females; (5) higher level of IL-10 in both sexes, with a more pronounced increase in females. We concluded that maternal CAF diet affects fat content, metabolic profiles, and inflammation parameters in offspring. Above effects are sex-specific, with female offspring being more susceptible to the diet.


Assuntos
Gorduras/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Composição Corporal , Dieta , Gorduras/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Gravidez , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Caracteres Sexuais
10.
Cells ; 10(8)2021 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440862

RESUMO

CEACAM1 regulates endothelial barrier integrity. Because insulin signaling in extrahepatic target tissues is regulated by insulin transport through the endothelium, we aimed at investigating the metabolic role of endothelial CEACAM1. To this end, we generated endothelial cell-specific Ceacam1 null mice (VECadCre+Cc1fl/fl) and carried out their metabolic phenotyping and mechanistic analysis by comparison to littermate controls. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp analysis showed intact insulin sensitivity in VECadCre+Cc1fl/fl mice. This was associated with the absence of visceral obesity and lipolysis and normal levels of circulating non-esterified fatty acids, leptin, and adiponectin. Whereas the loss of endothelial Ceacam1 did not affect insulin-stimulated receptor phosphorylation, it reduced IRS-1/Akt/eNOS activation to lower nitric oxide production resulting from limited SHP2 sequestration. It also reduced Shc sequestration to activate NF-κB and increase the transcription of matrix metalloproteases, ultimately inducing plasma IL-6 and TNFα levels. Loss of endothelial Ceacam1 also induced the expression of the anti-inflammatory CEACAM1-4L variant in M2 macrophages in white adipose tissue. Together, this could cause endothelial barrier dysfunction and facilitate insulin transport, sustaining normal glucose homeostasis and retaining fat accumulation in adipocytes. The data assign a significant role for endothelial cell CEACAM1 in maintaining insulin sensitivity in peripheral extrahepatic target tissues.


Assuntos
Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/genética , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Gorduras/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Inflamação , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Gene ; 802: 145864, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352300

RESUMO

Milk fat is the most important energy substance in milk and contributes to its quality and health benefits. Water buffalo milk is well known for its high milk quality with higher fat contents compared with cattle milk. Dehong buffalo is a unique local swamp breed in Yunnan Province with higher milk fat and excellent milk quality which provides a good model for the investigation of the molecular mechanisms of milk fat deposition. In this study, we used RNA-seq to obtain mammary tissue transcriptomics of buffalo with different milk fat phenotypes including high(H), medium (M)and low (L) fat content groups. Comparative analyses of buffalo among three groups yielded differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Analyzing the number of different genes among H_VS_L, H_VS_M, and M_VS_L showed the same expression pattern between H_VS_M. The increasing expression levels of genes including CSN1S1, BTN1A1, LALBA, ALDH1L2, SCD and MUC15, and down-regulated expression levels of genes containing CCL2, CRABP2, ADTRP, CLU and C4A in H_VS_L and M_VS_L were found. GO and KEGG enriched pathways revealed these DEGs involved in milk protein and fat as well as immune response. The findings would enhance the understanding of the interplay between the milk composition and immune response, which suggests that the immune capacity should be considered when we tried to improve the milk quality.


Assuntos
Búfalos/metabolismo , Gorduras/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Animais , Búfalos/genética , Feminino , RNA-Seq/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Transcriptoma
12.
Eur Heart J ; 42(43): 4493-4495, 2021 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463726
13.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1865(11): 129991, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419510

RESUMO

Mitochondrial-derived peptides (MDPs) are encoded by the mitochondrial genome and hypothesised to form part of a retrograde signalling network that modulates adaptive responses to metabolic stress. To understand how metabolic stress regulates MDPs in humans we assessed the association between circulating MOTS-c and SHLP2 and components of metabolic syndrome (MS), as well as depot-specific fat mass in participants without overt type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular disease. One-hundred and twenty-five Chinese participants (91 male, 34 female) had anthropometry, whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans and fasted blood samples analysed. Chinese female participants and an additional 34 European Caucasian female participants also underwent magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy (MRI/S) for visceral, pancreatic and liver fat quantification. In Chinese participants (age = 41 ± 1 years, BMI = 27.8 ± 3.9 kg/m2), plasma MOTS-c (315 ± 27 pg/ml) and SHLP2 (1393 ± 82 pg/ml) were elevated in those with MS (n = 26). While multiple components of the MS sequelae positively associated with both MOTS-c and SHLP2, including blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and triglycerides, the most significant of these was waist circumference (p < 0.0001). Android fat had a greater effect on increasing plasma MOTS-c (p < 0.004) and SHLP2 (p < 0.009) relative to whole body fat. Associations with MRI/S parameters corrected for total body fat mass revealed that liver fat positively associated with plasma MOTS-c and SHLP2 and visceral fat with SHLP2. Consistent with hepatic stress being a driver of circulating MDP concentrations, plasma MOTS-c and SHLP2 were higher in participants with elevated liver damage markers and in male C57Bl/6j mice fed a diet that induces hepatic lipid accumulation and damage. Our findings provide evidence that in the absence of overt type 2 diabetes, components of the MS positively associated with levels of MOTS-c and SHLP2 and that android fat, in particular liver fat, is a primary driver of these associations. MOTS-c and SHLP2 have previously been shown to have cyto- and metabolo-protective properties, therefore we suggest that liver stress may be a mitochondrial peptide signal, and that mitochondrial peptides are part of a hepatic centric-hormetic response intended to restore metabolic balance.


Assuntos
Gorduras/metabolismo , Metiltestosterona/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Mitocondriais/sangue , Adulto Jovem
14.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110561, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399538

RESUMO

Nucleation and crystal growth of edible fats at the nanoscale have received little attention due to analytical limitations. A key factor to modify the properties of edible fats is nanostructure understanding. Progress within the last years will be presented, including analytical techniques used to investigate fat crystallization. Cocoa butter has been the subject of several works due to its properties and its high impact on chocolate manufacturing. Moreover, this vegetable fat has been used as the solid lipid component in nano delivery systems. Since nanoplatelet is the smallest unit in crystalline fats, and the nanoscale is influenced by supersaturation, temperature, shear fields, and surfactants, nanostructure engineering is possible. On its part, cocoa butter has been included in innovative delivery systems along the last years. This review will highlight main results and challenges on these topics.


Assuntos
Chocolate , Nanoestruturas , Gorduras na Dieta , Gorduras
15.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444773

RESUMO

Structural differences in dietary fatty acids modify their rate of oxidation and effect on satiety, endpoints that may influence the development of obesity. This study tests the hypothesis that meals containing fat sources with elevated unsaturated fats will result in greater postprandial energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and satiety than meals containing fats with greater saturation. In a randomized, 5-way crossover design, healthy men and women (n = 23; age: 25.7 ± 6.6 years; BMI: 27.7 ± 3.8 kg/m2) consumed liquid meals containing 30 g of fat from heavy cream (HC), olive oil (OO), sunflower oil (SFO), flaxseed oil (FSO), and fish oil (FO). Energy expenditure and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) were determined by metabolic rate over a 240 min postprandial period. Serum concentrations of ghrelin, glucose, insulin, and triacylglycerol (TAG) were assessed. DIT induced by SFO was 5% lower than HC and FO (p = 0.04). Energy expenditure and substrate oxidation did not differ between fat sources. Postprandial TAG concentrations were significantly affected by fat source (p = 0.0001). Varying fat sources by the degree of saturation and PUFA type modified DIT but not satiety responses in normal to obese adult men and women.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Saciação/efeitos dos fármacos , Termogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Gorduras/química , Gorduras/metabolismo , Gorduras/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Azeite de Oliva/farmacologia , Oxirredução , Período Pós-Prandial/efeitos dos fármacos , Resposta de Saciedade/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Carbohydr Polym ; 269: 118285, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294311

RESUMO

Plant-based oil inks that imitate the texture and melting behavior of traditional animal fats using 3D printing have been developed. The influence of the incorporation of potato starch and the type of oil on rheology and meltability was investigated. The results showed that the dynamic modulus and hardness of fat analogs increased, whereas fat analog meltability decreased with an increase in potato starch content. Coconut oil and soybean oil-containing fat analogs incorporated with proper potato starch levels exhibited good printability and similar meltability to commercial beef and pork fats. The addition of potato starch suppressed fat analog meltability as it disrupted the inulin matrix. Fat analogs containing coconut oil could be texturized at temperatures lower than those required for their soybean oil counterparts. The fat analogs were solid at room temperature, demonstrated good printability, and imitated the melting behavior of fat contained in real meat throughout the cooking process.


Assuntos
Emulsões/química , Géis/química , Tinta , Inulina/química , Amido/química , Substâncias Viscoelásticas/química , Animais , Bovinos , Óleo de Coco/química , Módulo de Elasticidade , Gorduras/química , Congelamento , Temperatura Alta , Impressão Tridimensional , Reologia , Solanum tuberosum/química , Óleo de Soja/química , Suínos , Viscosidade
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298901

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to determine how the molecular structure of porcine fat-in-water type emulsions stabilised with potato starch affected their rheomechanical properties. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and instrumental analysis of the texture were the method used in experiments. Starch gels with concentrations corresponding to the water starch concentration of the examined emulsions were used as control systems. The analysis of the starch and starch-fat systems showed that the values characterising their rheomechanical and textural properties reflected the spatial reaction of the amylose matrix to dynamic mechanical interactions. Changes in their values resulted from conformational changes in the structure of segments and nodes of the lattice, conditioned by the concentration of starch and the presence of fat. As a result of these changes, starch-fat emulsions are distinguished by greater densities of network segments and nearly two times greater functionalities of nodes than starch gels. The instrumental analysis of the texture showed that the values of the texture parameters in the starch gels were greater than in the starch-fat emulsions. The high values of the correlation coefficients (R~0.9) between the texture determinants and the rheological parameters proved that there was a strong correlation between the textural properties of the tested systems and their rheomechanical properties.


Assuntos
Emulsões/química , Gorduras/química , Solanum tuberosum/química , Amido/química , Água/química , Amilose/química , Animais , Géis/química , Estrutura Molecular , Reologia/métodos , Suínos
18.
Curr Microbiol ; 78(8): 3173-3180, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196771

RESUMO

Polyoxyethylene tallow amine (POEA) is a nonionic surfactant added to insecticide and herbicide formulations. Experimental data have been shown the toxic effects of POEA on aquatic organisms and remain to be a serious concern. In this study, total of thirty-two potential bacteria that were isolated from herbicide-contaminated soil samples showed the ability to use POEA as the sole carbon and energy source. In which, a bacterial strain LA was further investigated based on the efficiency utilization of POEA and classified as Kosakonia oryzae by the 16S rRNA gene. Response surface methodology was successfully applied to understand the interaction of distinct factors on POEA degradation by LA strain. Degradation of POEA was confirmed with UV-Visible spectrophotometric analysis and HPLC analysis. The POEA utilization mechanism was explored by target gene detection and carbon source utilization. The results indicate that strain LA has the potential to serve as an in situ candidate for bioremediation polluted by POEA.


Assuntos
Polietilenoglicóis , Poluentes do Solo , Aminas , Biodegradação Ambiental , Enterobacteriaceae , Gorduras , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(28): 33704-33712, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235926

RESUMO

Lipases comprise one of the major enzyme classes in biotechnology with applications within, e.g., baking, brewing, biocatalysis, and the detergent industry. Understanding the mechanisms of lipase function and regulation is therefore important to facilitate the optimization of their function by protein engineering. Advances in single-molecule studies in model systems have provided deep mechanistic insights on lipase function, such as the existence of functional states, their dependence on regulatory cues, and their correlation to activity. However, it is unclear how these observations translate to enzyme behavior in applied settings. Here, single-molecule tracking of individual Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TLL) enzymes in a detergency application system allowed real-time direct observation of spatiotemporal localization, and thus diffusional behavior, of TLL enzymes on a lard substrate. Parallelized imaging of thousands of individual enzymes allowed us to observe directly the existence and quantify the abundance and interconversion kinetics between three diffusional states that we recently provided evidence to correlate with function. We observe redistribution of the enzyme's diffusional pattern at the lipid-water interface as well as variations in binding efficiency in response to surfactants and calcium, demonstrating that detergency effectors can drive the sampling of lipase functional states. Our single-molecule results combined with ensemble activity assays and enzyme surface binding efficiency readouts allowed us to deconvolute how application conditions can significantly alter protein functional dynamics and/or surface binding, both of which underpin enzyme performance. We anticipate that our results will inspire further efforts to decipher and integrate the dynamic nature of lipases, and other enzymes, in the design of new biotechnological solutions.


Assuntos
Cálcio/química , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/química , Difusão , Eurotiales/enzimologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Tensoativos/química , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/química , Éteres/química , Gorduras/química , Glicóis/química , Cadeias de Markov , Imagem Individual de Molécula , Triglicerídeos/química
20.
Food Chem ; 365: 130458, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218104

RESUMO

Crystallization behavior and nano-micro structure of lauric acid-rich fats were investigated in the absence and presence of corresponding diglycerides (DAGs) with a concentration of 2%. Results showed that the melting point and onset crystallization temperature of fats with DAGs were promoted due to the interaction of DAGs with triglycerides (TAGs). Crystallization kinetics found that the addition of DAGs shortened the fat nucleation time, and slowed down the crystal growth rate. Based on X-ray diffraction results, adding DAGs led to the decrease of the thickness of the crystalline domain and alteration of crystallization pattern. Synchrotron radiation small-angle X-ray scattering measurement further revealed the existence of fat crystal nanoplatelets with a rough surface in all the lauric acid-rich fats. However, larger structures of crystalline nanoplatelets appeared in the fats with 2% DAGs. Furthermore, denser and uniform microstructure networks appeared with more tiny crystals and higher fractal dimensions after the addition of DAGs.


Assuntos
Diglicerídeos , Ácidos Láuricos , Cristalização , Gorduras , Difração de Raios X
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