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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(47)2021 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732584

RESUMO

Widespread human SARS-CoV-2 infections combined with human-wildlife interactions create the potential for reverse zoonosis from humans to wildlife. We targeted white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) for serosurveillance based on evidence these deer have angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors with high affinity for SARS-CoV-2, are permissive to infection, exhibit sustained viral shedding, can transmit to conspecifics, exhibit social behavior, and can be abundant near urban centers. We evaluated 624 prepandemic and postpandemic serum samples from wild deer from four US states for SARS-CoV-2 exposure. Antibodies were detected in 152 samples (40%) from 2021 using a surrogate virus neutralization test. A subset of samples tested with a SARS-CoV-2 virus neutralization test showed high concordance between tests. These data suggest white-tailed deer in the populations assessed have been exposed to SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Cervos/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Animais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/veterinária , Great Lakes Region/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 779: 146284, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744580

RESUMO

Industrial chemical contamination within coastal regions of the Great Lakes can pose serious risks to wetland habitat and offshore fisheries, often resulting in fish consumption advisories that directly affect human and wildlife health. Mercury (Hg) is a contaminant of concern in many of these highly urbanized and industrialized coastal regions, one of which is the Saint Louis River estuary (SLRE), the second largest tributary to Lake Superior. The SLRE has legacy Hg contamination that drives high Hg concentrations within sediments, but it is unclear whether legacy-derived Hg actively cycles within the food web. To understand the relative contributions of legacy versus contemporary Hg sources in coastal zones, Hg, carbon, and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were measured in sediments and food webs of SLRE and the Bad River, an estuarine reference site. Hg stable isotope values revealed that legacy contamination of Hg was widespread and heterogeneously distributed in sediments of SLRE, even in areas lacking industrial Hg sources. Similar isotope values were found in benthic invertebrates, riparian spiders, and prey fish from SLRE, confirming legacy Hg reaches the SLRE food web. Direct comparison of prey fish from SLRE and the Bad River confirmed that Hg isotope differences between the sites were not attributable to fractionation associated with rapid Hg bioaccumulation at estuarine mouths, but due to the presence of industrial Hg within SLRE. The Hg stable isotope values of game fish in both estuaries were dependent on fish migration and diet within the estuaries and extending into Lake Superior. These results indicate that Hg from legacy contamination is actively cycling within the SLRE food web and, through migration, this Hg also extends into Lake Superior via game fish. Understanding sources and the movement of Hg within the estuarine food web better informs restoration strategies for other impaired Great Lakes coastal zones.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários , Peixes , Cadeia Alimentar , Great Lakes Region , Humanos , Lagos , Mercúrio/análise , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(6): 3765-3774, 2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646760

RESUMO

Sport fish fillets and human sera (fish consumers) were collected in the Lake Superior and Lake Michigan basin and screened for novel contaminants using the isotopic profile deconvoluted chromatogram (IPDC) algorithm. The IPDC algorithm was extended beyond traditional Cl/Br filters to detect additional potential bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) such as perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). The IPDC algorithm screened for approximately 13.5 million theoretical molecular formulas. Additional algorithm modules were developed to detect data independent MS/MS fragmentation products and a retention time index calculator using a series of 13C-labeled perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (13C-PFCAs). Ten potential compound classes were isolated including six untargeted PFAS, six homologue groups of polyfluorinated carboxylic acids, polyfluorinated telomer alcohols (PoFTOHs), two hydroxylated polychlorobiphenyls, pesticides, herbicides, antifungals, pharmaceuticals, artificial sweeteners, and personal care products with minimal postprocessing efforts. The algorithm isolated 48 ubiquitous PoFTOHs in both fish fillet and serum of fish consumers suggesting a region wide distribution of this class of compounds. The 3, 4, and 7 fluorine substituted PoFTOH were the most abundant congeners in both biological matrices.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Great Lakes Region , Humanos , Lagos , Michigan , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 778: 146151, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711592

RESUMO

This work presents the first assessment of temporal trends (2005-2016) for perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in top predator fish of the Laurentian Great Lakes except Lake Ontario, for which we provide a post-2008 update. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) or walleye (Sander vitreus; Lake Erie only) collected annually from 2005 to 2016 were analyzed for 12 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 4 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) with carbon chain lengths between 4 and 16 (C4-C16). Individual analyte concentrations generally decreased in fish basin-wide between 2005 and 2016, including Lake Ontario lake trout previously found to lack declining PFAA concentrations up until 2008. Declining fish PFAA burden reflects a positive response to the industrial phase-outs of these chemicals. Notable exceptions to this general decline included most analytes in lake trout collected from Lake Superior near Keweenaw Point and C6 and C8 PFSAs and C9 PFCAs in Lake Erie lake trout and walleye, which exhibited constant or increasing concentrations in recent years. Recent increases in Lake Superior shoreline development and mobilization from increased sediment resuspension and contamination from biosolids-amended agricultural soils in the Lake Erie watershed are plausible explanations for these cases. However, data scarcity prohibits confirmation of these suspected causes. The lingering lack of declining concentrations noted in this study together with the ongoing evolution of the fluorinated chemical industry emphasize the vigilance needed to better understand how past and future emissions will affect the Great Lakes and global ecosystems.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Great Lakes Region , Lagos , Ontário , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
Syst Parasitol ; 98(2): 119-130, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687653

RESUMO

Henneguya Thélohan, 1892 is the second most species rich genus of myxozoans, with reports from freshwater and marine fish worldwide. In the Great Lakes region of North America, muskellunge Esox masquinongy is an important game fish species that serves as an apex predator in the ecosystems of many inland lakes. The myxozoan fauna of esocid fish, especially muskellunge, remains largely understudied. During fish health assessments, muskellunge were examined for parasitic infections and myxozoan pseudocysts were observed on gill clip wet mounts. When ruptured under pressure, the intralamellar pseudocysts released thousands of myxospores consistent with those of the genus Henneguya. The myxospores were 67.3-96.6 (79.1 ± 5.9) µm in total length. The spore body was 18.6-22.6 (20.9 ± 1.0) µm × 5.4-6.9 (6.3 ± 0.4) µm in valvular view and 3.5-4.0 (3.8 ± 0.3) µm wide in sutural view. The two pyriform polar capsules positioned at the anterior of the spore body were 6.4-7.7 (7.0 ± 0.4) µm × 1.8-2.1 (2.0 ± 0.1) µm and each contained a tightly coiled polar filament with 9-10 turns. Two tapering caudal processes extended from the posterior of the spore body and were 47.3-75.6 (58.3 ± 5.8) µm in length. Histologically, large intralamellar polysporic plasmodia were surrounded by plump pillar cells and a distinct layer of plasma. Mild inflammation was present peripherally, with small numbers of necrotic germinative cells and intraplasmodial phagocytes internally. Ribosomal 18S rRNA gene sequence data were obtained from three gill pseudocysts. The three ~2000-bp sequences were identical, but shared no significant similarity with any publicly available sequence data. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated sequence data from this Henneguya fell within a well-supported clade of Henneguya spp. reported from northern pike Esox lucius in Europe. Based on the distinct morphological, histological and molecular data, this species is designated as Henneguya michiganensis n. sp. from muskellunge in Michigan, USA.


Assuntos
Esocidae/parasitologia , Brânquias/parasitologia , Myxozoa/classificação , Animais , Great Lakes Region , Myxozoa/anatomia & histologia , Myxozoa/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
6.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673082

RESUMO

Hepatitis B viruses belong to a family of circular, double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a range of organisms, with host responses that vary from mild infection to chronic infection and cancer. The white sucker hepatitis B virus (WSHBV) was first described in the white sucker (Catostomus commersonii), a freshwater teleost, and belongs to the genus Parahepadnavirus. At present, the host range of WSHBV and its impact on fish health are unknown, and neither genetic diversity nor association with fish health have been studied in any parahepadnavirus. Given the relevance of genomic diversity to disease outcome for the orthohepadnaviruses, we sought to characterize genomic variation in WSHBV and determine how it is structured among watersheds. We identified WSHBV-positive white sucker inhabiting tributaries of Lake Michigan, Lake Superior, Lake Erie (USA), and Lake Athabasca (Canada). Copy number in plasma and in liver tissue was estimated via qPCR. Templates from 27 virus-positive fish were amplified and sequenced using a primer-specific, circular long-range amplification method coupled with amplicon sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq. Phylogenetic analysis of the WSHBV genome identified phylogeographical clustering reminiscent of that observed with human hepatitis B virus genotypes. Notably, most non-synonymous substitutions were found to cluster in the pre-S/spacer overlap region, which is relevant for both viral entry and replication. The observed predominance of p1/s3 mutations in this region is indicative of adaptive change in the polymerase open reading frame (ORF), while, at the same time, the surface ORF is under purifying selection. Although the levels of variation we observed do not meet the criteria used to define sub/genotypes of human and avian hepadnaviruses, we identified geographically associated genome variation in the pre-S and spacer domain sufficient to define five WSHBV haplotypes. This study of WSHBV genetic diversity should facilitate the development of molecular markers for future identification of genotypes and provide evidence in future investigations of possible differential disease outcomes.


Assuntos
Cipriniformes/virologia , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Variação Genética/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Alberta , Animais , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Great Lakes Region , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Internalização do Vírus , Replicação Viral/genética
7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(4): 2411-2421, 2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522786

RESUMO

Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were measured in lake trout and walleye over the period 2004-2018, utilizing isotope dilution techniques with high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry to assess concentrations and toxic equivalence (TEQ). An age-trend model was applied to mitigate the effect of a changing lake trout age structure. Most Great Lakes Fish Monitoring and Surveillance Program sampling sites demonstrated significant half-life and percent decreases for lake trout total PCNs and total TEQ over the 2004-2018 period, the exceptions being Lake Erie lake trout and walleye which illustrated increasing concentrations. Great Lakes total PCN concentrations ranged between 5701 and 100 pg/g ww, whereas total PCN TEQ concentrations ranged between 8.89 and 0.13 pg-TEQ/g ww. Based on the average number of chlorines per naphthalene, we determined that the overall lake trout and walleye PCN congener distribution has significantly shifted to a lower-chlorinated composition in the Great Lakes (5.33 to 4.48 Cl/CN) and has resulted in a substantial 59.1% reduction of the overall total PCN TEQ burden. A prominent PCN concentration trend breakpoint was observed in Lake Ontario lake trout over the 2012-2016 period likely associated with hazardous waste cleanups, channel dredging, and spoils disposal in the Detroit River and western-basin of Lake Erie.


Assuntos
Lagos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Great Lakes Region , Naftalenos/análise , Ontário , Truta , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
Environ Res ; 195: 110800, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529648

RESUMO

Honey from Apis mellifera is a useful and inexpensive biomonitor for mapping metal distributions in urban centers. The sampling resolution of a biomonitoring survey (e.g., city versus global scale) determines which geochemical processes are reflected in the results. This study presents Pb isotopic compositions and metal concentrations in honey from around the world, sampled at varying resolutions: honey from Canada (n = 21), the United States (n = 111), Belgium (n = 25), and New Zealand (n = 10), with additional samples from Afghanistan, Brazil, Cuba, Germany, Liberia, Taiwan, and Turkey. Honey was sampled at high resolution in two uniquely different land-use settings (New York Metro Area and the Hawaiian island of Kaua'i), at regional-scale resolution in eastern North America (including the Great Lakes region), and Pb isotopic compositions of all samples were compared on a global scale. At high sampling resolution, metal concentrations in honey reveal spatially significant concentration gradients: in New York City, metals associated with human activity and city infrastructure (e.g., Pb, Sb, Ti, V) are more concentrated in honey collected within the city compared to honey from upstate New York, and metal concentrations in honey from Kaua'i suggest polluting effects of nearby agricultural operations. At lower resolution (regional and global scales), lead isotopic compositions of honey are more useful than metal concentrations in revealing large-scale Pb processes (e.g., the enduring legacy of global leaded gasoline use throughout the twentieth century) and the continental origin of the honey. Lead isotopic compositions of honey collected from N. America (especially from the eastern USA) are more radiogenic (206Pb/207Pb: 1.132-1.253, 208Pb/206Pb: 2.001-2.129) compared to European honey, and honey from New Zealand, which has the least radiogenic isotopic compositions measured in this study (206Pb/207Pb: 1.077-1.160, 208Pb/206Pb: 2.090-2.187). Thus, biomonitoring using honey at different resolutions reflects differing processes and, to some extent, a honey terroir defined by the Pb isotopic composition. The data presented here provide important (and current) global context for future studies that utilize Pb isotopes in honey. Moreover, this study exhibits community science in action, as most of the honey was collected by collaborators around the world, working directly with local apiarists and hobby beekeepers.


Assuntos
Mel , Animais , Abelhas , Bélgica , Brasil , Canadá , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Alemanha , Great Lakes Region , Mel/análise , Humanos , Isótopos , Chumbo , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Nova Zelândia , Taiwan , Turquia
9.
J Wildl Dis ; 57(1): 19-26, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635967

RESUMO

Bacterial kidney disease, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, threatens salmonids worldwide. Following devastating mortality episodes in Oncorhynchus spp. in Lake Michigan, US, in the 1980s and infection rates >90%, pathogen prevalence has steadily declined to <5% over three decades in the three state-managed stocks. In this study, we sought to determine if the declining infection rates were associated with heightened circulating antibodies in state-managed Oncorhynchus spp. residing in the Lake Michigan watershed. A single-dilution, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was modified to detect circulating antibodies against R. salmoninarum. Baseline values were delineated from naive chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The assay was first used to assess primary antibody production over a 4-wk period in chinook salmon experimentally infected with R. salmoninarum. Mean antibody response was detected as early as 2 wk postinfection and continued to increase to the end of the observation period. The modified ELISA was then used to detect antibodies in serum samples collected from feral adult chinook salmon, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), and steelhead trout (O. mykiss) returning to spawn at Lake Michigan weirs in 2009 and 2013. Results demonstrated that about 80% of feral Oncorhynchus spp. had measurable titers of circulating antibodies to R. salmoninarum. The relative ease and reasonable costs of this modified ELISA makes it a valuable serosurveillance tool for assessing the humoral immune status of feral salmonid populations.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Oncorhynchus , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/sangue , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Great Lakes Region , Lagos , Renibacterium/imunologia
10.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(1)2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435505

RESUMO

Cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom (CyanoHAB) proliferation is a global problem impacting ecosystem and human health. Western Lake Erie (WLE) typically endures two highly toxic CyanoHABs during summer: a Microcystis spp. bloom in Maumee Bay that extends throughout the western basin, and a Planktothrix spp. bloom in Sandusky Bay. Recently, the USA and Canada agreed to a 40% phosphorus (P) load reduction to lessen the severity of the WLE blooms. To investigate phosphorus and nitrogen (N) limitation of biomass and toxin production in WLE CyanoHABs, we conducted in situ nutrient addition and 40% dilution microcosm bioassays in June and August 2019. During the June Sandusky Bay bloom, biomass production as well as hepatotoxic microcystin and neurotoxic anatoxin production were N and P co-limited with microcystin production becoming nutrient deplete under 40% dilution. During August, the Maumee Bay bloom produced microcystin under nutrient repletion with slight induced P limitation under 40% dilution, and the Sandusky Bay bloom produced anatoxin under N limitation in both dilution treatments. The results demonstrate the importance of nutrient limitation effects on microcystin and anatoxin production. To properly combat cyanotoxin and cyanobacterial biomass production in WLE, both N and P reduction efforts should be implemented in its watershed.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/toxicidade , Cianobactérias/fisiologia , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Lagos/microbiologia , Toxinas Bacterianas/química , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Clorofila A/química , Great Lakes Region , Lagos/química
11.
Environ Pollut ; 270: 116073, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33261964

RESUMO

To meet human food and fiber needs in an environmentally and economically sustainable way, we must improve the efficiency of waste, water, and nutrient use by converting vast quantities of agricultural and food waste to renewable bioproducts. This work converts waste cherry pits, an abundant food waste in the Great Lakes region, to biochars and activated biochars via slow pyrolysis. Biochars produced have surface areas between 206 and 274 m2/g and increased bioavailability of Fe, K, Mg, Mn, and P. The biochars can be implemented as soil amendments to reduce nutrient run-off and serve as a valuable carbon sink (biochars contain 74-79% carbon), potentially mitigating harmful algal blooms in the Great Lakes. CO2-activated biochars have surface areas of up to 629 m2/g and exhibit selective metal adsorption for the removal of metals from simulated contaminated drinking water, an environmental problem plaguing this region. Through sustainable waste-to-byproduct valorization we convert this waste food biomass into biochar for use as a soil amendment and into activated biochars to remove metals from drinking water, thus alleviating economic issues associated with cherry pit waste handling and reducing the environmental impact of the cherry processing industry.


Assuntos
Resíduos Industriais , Eliminação de Resíduos , Carvão Vegetal/análise , Alimentos , Great Lakes Region , Humanos , Lagos , Solo , Qualidade da Água
12.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 367(23)2020 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33354724

RESUMO

Many aquatic environments are at risk for oil contamination and alkanes are one of the primary constituents of oil. The alkane hydroxylase (AlkB) is a common enzyme used by microorganisms to initiate the process of alkane-degradation. While many aspects of alkane bioremediation have been studied, the diversity and evolution of genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation from environmental settings is relatively understudied. The majority of work done to-date has focused on the marine environment. Here we sought to better understand the phylogenetic diversity of alkB genes across marine and freshwater settings using culture-independent methods. We hypothesized that there would be distinct phylogenetic diversity of alkB genes in freshwater relative to the marine environment. Our results confirm that alkB has distinct variants based on environment while our diversity analyses demonstrate that freshwater and marine alkB communities have unique responses to oil amendments. Our results also demonstrate that in the marine environment, depth is a key factor impacting diversity of alkB genes.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Citocromo P-450 CYP4A/genética , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Oceano Atlântico , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/enzimologia , Bactérias/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP4A/metabolismo , Great Lakes Region , Petróleo/metabolismo , Salinidade , Microbiologia da Água
13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(23): 15035-15045, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167618

RESUMO

Fish have been used for decades as bioindicators for assessing toxic contaminants in the Great Lakes ecosystem. Routine environmental monitoring programs target predetermined compounds that do not reflect the complete exposure of chemicals to biota and do not provide the complete halogenated fingerprint of the biota. In the current work, a nontargeted screening method was developed using a two-dimensional gas chromatograph coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer and was applied to 149 edible fish fillets from different species in the Great Lakes to characterize a more robust set of halogenated organic compounds across species and among lakes. Lake Ontario had the largest number of novel halogenated organic compounds (NHOCs). Seven NHOCs were observed in species from all lakes, indicating that this regional signature was not species-dependent. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed identical NHOC profiles between bottom dwelling and pelagic species. The NHOCs were grouped into seven clusters with similar structures and potentially similar environmental behaviors. Seven of the 29 NHOCs likely containing methoxy or ethoxy groups on a benzene or benzene-methanol backbone were clustered into one group with similar retention times. Five NHOCs were clustered with legacy contaminants that likely have similar structures or are their degradation products.


Assuntos
Lagos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Great Lakes Region , Ontário , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(22): 14352-14360, 2020 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103889

RESUMO

Legacy halogenated contaminants have been monitored in the Great Lakes for decades, but there are many additional unknown halogenated contaminants potentially affecting the Great Lakes ecosystem. To address this concern, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were collected in 2005/2006 and 2015/2016 from each lake and screened for previously unidentified compounds. The isotopic profile deconvoluted chromatogram algorithm was used to isolate unknown halogenated components using high-resolution mass spectrometry data files generated by an atmospheric pressure gas chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer operated in positive and negative modes. The temporal and spatial differences in the newly detected features were used to isolate new potential contaminants. Decadal differences in the unknown halogenated compounds (or features) were compared with the total polychlorinated biphenyl concentration trends. Greater than 2000 unknown halogenated features were detected. As expected, Lake Superior contained the lowest number of unknown halogenated features, whereas Lake Ontario contained the highest. Unknown features tended to have fewer Cl and/or Br atoms compared to traditional legacy contaminant features typically monitored. Diverse patterns of unknown halogenated compounds between lakes suggested that there continues to be unidentified sources of halogenated contaminants in the Great Lakes missed by current monitoring programs.


Assuntos
Lagos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Great Lakes Region , Ontário , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(43): 26842-26848, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046630

RESUMO

Animal foraging and competition are defined by the partitioning of three primary niche axes: space, time, and resources. Human disturbance is rapidly altering the spatial and temporal niches of animals, but the impact of humans on resource consumption and partitioning-arguably the most important niche axis-is poorly understood. We assessed resource consumption and trophic niche partitioning as a function of human disturbance at the individual, population, and community levels using stable isotope analysis of 684 carnivores from seven communities in North America. We detected significant responses to human disturbance at all three levels of biological organization: individual carnivores consumed more human food subsidies in disturbed landscapes, leading to significant increases in trophic niche width and trophic niche overlap among species ranging from mesocarnivores to apex predators. Trophic niche partitioning is the primary mechanism regulating coexistence in many communities, and our results indicate that humans fundamentally alter resource niches and competitive interactions among terrestrial consumers. Among carnivores, niche overlap can trigger interspecific competition and intraguild predation, while the consumption of human foods significantly increases human-carnivore conflict. Our results suggest that human disturbances, especially in the form of food subsidies, may threaten carnivores by increasing the probability of both interspecific competition and human-carnivore conflict. Ultimately, these findings illustrate a potential decoupling of predator-prey dynamics, with impacts likely cascading to populations, communities, and ecosystems.


Assuntos
Carnívoros/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Cadeia Alimentar , Animais , Great Lakes Region , Humanos
16.
J Environ Qual ; 49(4): 896-908, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016491

RESUMO

Recreational water quality is currently monitored at Sandpoint Beach on Lake St. Clair using culture-based enumeration of Escherichia coli. Using water quality and weather data collected over 4 yr, several multiple linear regression (MLR)-based models were developed for near real-time prediction of E. coli concentration and were tested using independent data from the fifth year. Model performance was assessed by the determination of metrics such as RMSE, accuracy, specificity, sensitivity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Each of the developed MLR models described herein resulted in increased correct responses for both exceedance and non-exceedance of the applicable standard as compared to predictions based on E. coli measurements (persistence models, using the previous day's E. coli concentration), which is the method currently being used. The AUROC values for persistence models are between 0.5 and 0.6, as compared to >0.7 for all the MLR models described herein. Among the MLR models, model performance improved when qualitative sky weather condition, which is commonly reported but was not previously used in similar models, was included. To select the best model, a principal coordinate analysis was used to combine multiple model performance metrics and provide a more sensitive tool for model comparison. Although models developed using 2, 3, and 4 yr of monitoring data provided reasonable performance, the model developed using the most recent 2-yr data was marginally better. Thus, data from the most recent 2 yr are likely sufficient as a training dataset for updating the MLR model for Sandpoint Beach in the future.


Assuntos
Praias , Escherichia coli , Monitoramento Ambiental , Great Lakes Region , Qualidade da Água
17.
J Econ Entomol ; 113(5): 2187-2196, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865199

RESUMO

Fusarium graminearum Schwabe (Hypocreales: Nectriaceae) and Fusarium verticillioides (Saccardo) (Hypocreales: Nectriaceae) Nirenberg infection results in accumulation of deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZON), and fumonisin (FBs) mycotoxins in infected corn, Zea mays L. Lepidopteran insect feeding may exacerbate fungal infection by providing entry points on the ear resulting in increased mycotoxin contamination of grain. The objective of the current study was to simulate different types and severity levels (extent of injury) of lepidopteran injury to corn ears at different stages of ear development and its effect on mycotoxin accumulation in grain corn. Field experiments were conducted under conditions favorable for F. graminearum development where insect injury was simulated to corn ears and inoculated with F. graminearum. All simulated injury treatments resulted in elevated mycotoxin concentration compared with ears without simulated injury; however, the severity of injury within a treatment had little effect. Injury to kernels on the side of the ear resulted in greater DON and ZON concentration than injury to tip kernels, grazing injury applied at physiological maturity, or when no injury was simulated. Greater FBs was measured when tip kernel injury was simulated at the blister stage or when side kernel injury was simulated at milk and dent stages compared with noninjured ears, silk clipping, tip injury at milk and dent stages, or grazing injury at physiological maturity. The current study confirms that the risk of mycotoxin accumulation in the Great Lakes region is greater in the presence of ear-feeding insect pests and may differ depending on the feeding behavior of pest species.


Assuntos
Fusarium , Micotoxinas , Animais , Great Lakes Region , Poaceae , Zea mays
18.
Glob Chang Biol ; 26(11): 6350-6362, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871618

RESUMO

Winter climate warming is rapidly leading to changes in snow depth and soil temperatures across mid- and high-latitude ecosystems, with important implications for survival and distribution of species that overwinter beneath the snow. Amphibians are a particularly vulnerable group to winter climate change because of the tight coupling between their body temperature and metabolic rate. Here, we used a mechanistic microclimate model coupled to an animal biophysics model to predict the spatially explicit effects of future climate change on the wintering energetics of a freeze-tolerant amphibian, the Wood Frog (Lithobates sylvaticus), across its distributional range in the eastern United States. Our below-the-snow microclimate simulations were driven by dynamically downscaled climate projections from a regional climate model coupled to a one-dimensional model of the Laurentian Great Lakes. We found that warming soil temperatures and decreasing winter length have opposing effects on Wood Frog winter energy requirements, leading to geographically heterogeneous implications for Wood Frogs. While energy expenditures and peak body ice content were predicted to decline in Wood Frogs across most of our study region, we identified an area of heightened energetic risk in the northwestern part of the Great Lakes region where energy requirements were predicted to increase. Because Wood Frogs rely on body stores acquired in fall to fuel winter survival and spring breeding, increased winter energy requirements have the potential to impact local survival and reproduction. Given the geographically variable and intertwined drivers of future under-snow conditions (e.g., declining snow depths, rising air temperatures, shortening winters), spatially explicit assessments of species energetics and risk will be important to understanding the vulnerability of subnivium-adapted species.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Neve , Animais , Mudança Climática , Great Lakes Region , Ranidae , Estações do Ano
19.
Environ Manage ; 66(5): 733-741, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964245

RESUMO

Engaging the public in protecting water resources is a critical yet challenging task. A wealth of social science studies has identified psychological predictors for individual pro-environmental behaviors. These predictors can guide communication in public engagement and inform the allocation of engagement efforts. However, a thorny challenge is to select influential factors among many candidates. This paper addresses this challenge by using social science research to guide the development of strategies to motivate the public to protect the North American Great Lakes. We considered a variable selection technique, the LASSO regression, in the post-hoc analysis of the International Joint Commission's 2018 Binational Great Lakes Binational Poll data. The poll surveyed 4250 Canadian and U.S. residents of the Great Lakes basin. We fit LASSO logistic models to predict respondents' intentions to take three public actions to protect the Great Lakes, including contacting public officials, attending public meetings, and engaging in online forums and groups. The models included 41 predictors encompassing demographic characteristics as well as respondents' awareness, beliefs, and values that are pertinent to Great Lakes policy development and management. Results revealed eight variables that consistently predicted the three public actions, including indigenous status, political ideology, impacts of the specific policy issues of nuclear wastes, policy awareness and interests, and the Great Lakes values for personal benefits and wildlife. Based on these findings, we recommend strategies to motivate the public to take public actions to protect the Great Lakes.


Assuntos
Lagos , Formulação de Políticas , Canadá , Great Lakes Region
20.
J Econ Entomol ; 113(5): 2465-2472, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740653

RESUMO

The western bean cutworm (WBC), Striacosta albicosta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), can be a severe pest of transgenic corn in the western Plains and Great Lakes regions of North America, including on hybrids expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1F toxin. The level and geographic distribution of Cry1F resistance are not completely known. Neonate S. albicosta from 10 locations between Nebraska and New York state were subjected to dose-response trypsin-activated native Cry1F toxin overlay bioassays. In 2017, the mean estimated lethal concentration causing 50% larval mortality (LC50) ranged from 15.1 to 18.4 µg Cry1F cm-2, and were not significantly different among locations. In 2018, LC50 estimates at Scottsbluff, NE (22.0 µg Cry1F cm-2) and Watertown, NY (21.7 µg Cry1F cm-2) were significantly higher when compared to locations in Michigan (15.8 µg Cry1F cm-2). Significantly lower 14-day larval weight among survivors was correlated with higher Cry1F dose. Results from this study indicate that S. albicosta survivorship on purified Bt Cry1F toxin shows a relatively even distribution across the native and range expansion areas where seasonal field infestations typically occur.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Mariposas , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Endotoxinas , Great Lakes Region , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Larva , Michigan , Nebraska , New York , América do Norte , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Estados Unidos , Zea mays/genética
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