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1.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1954776, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408819

RESUMO

Background: Previous studies indicate that social functioning and resilience can mitigate the adverse psychological effects of interpersonal violence. Unfortunately, the role of these variables has not been studied in survivors of groups, organizations, and communities in which psychological abusive strategies are inflicted to recruit and dominate their members. Objective: To examine the mediating role of social functioning and resilience in the relationship between psychological abuse experienced in the past while in a group and current psychosocial distress and psychopathological symptoms. Method: In this cross-sectional study, an online questionnaire was administered to 794 English-speaking former members of different kinds of groups, such as religious, pseudo therapeutic, pyramid scheme groups, and others. Among them, 499 were victims of group psychological abuse and 295 were non-victims. Results: Victims of group psychological abuse reported lower levels of social functioning and resilience than non-victims, and higher levels of psychosocial difficulties and psychopathological symptoms. Serial mediation analyses revealed that social functioning and resilience mediated part of the impact of group psychological abuse on psychosocial difficulties and psychopathological symptoms. Sex and age joining the group were included as covariates. Participants who had experienced higher levels of group psychological abuse tend to have poorer social functioning, which is related to lower resilience. In turn, lower levels of social functioning and resilience are related with higher distress. Conclusions: This research sheds light on the underlying mechanisms involved in the relationship between group psychological abuse and distress suffered following this kind of traumatic experiences. Findings highlight the protective role of social adjustment, which can help promote and enhance resilience and mitigate psychosocial difficulties and psychopathological symptoms in survivors of group psychological abuse.


Antecedentes: Estudios previos indican que la adaptación social y la resiliencia pueden mitigar los efectos psicológicos adversos de situaciones de violencia interpersonal. Desafortunadamente, no se ha estudiado aún el rol de estas variables en supervivientes de grupos, organizaciones y comunidades en las cuales se aplican estrategias de abuso psicológico para reclutar y dominar a sus miembros.Objetivo: Examinar el rol mediador de la adaptación social y la resiliencia en la relación entre el abuso psicológico experimentado en un grupo en el pasado y el malestar psicosocial y síntomas psicopatológicos sufridos en la actualidad.Método: Se diseñó un estudio transversal y se administró un cuestionario online a 794 personas de habla inglesa exmiembros de grupos de distinta naturaleza, como religiosos, pseudo terapéuticos, de estructura piramidal, u otros. De ellas, 499 fueron víctimas de abuso psicológico en grupo y 295 personas no fueron víctimas.Resultados: Las víctimas de abuso psicológico en grupos reportaron menores niveles de adaptación social y resiliencia que las personas que no fueron víctimas, y mayores niveles de dificultades psicosociales y síntomas psicopatológicos. Los análisis de mediación en serie revelaron que la adaptación social y la resiliencia mediaron parte del impacto del abuso psicológico en las dificultades psicosociales y los síntomas psicopatológicos. El sexo y la edad de entrada al grupo fueron introducidos como covariantes. Los participantes que han experimentado mayores niveles de abuso psicológico en grupos tienden a tener menor funcionamiento social, lo que está relacionado con menor resiliencia. En consecuencia, menores niveles de funcionamiento social y resiliencia se relacionan con mayor malestar.Conclusiones: Este estudio ayuda a comprender los mecanismos subyacentes implicados en la relación del abuso psicológico en grupos y el malestar sufrido después de este tipo de experiencias traumáticas. Los hallazgos resaltan la importancia del rol protector de la adaptación social, el cual puede ayudar a promover y mejorar la resiliencia y a mitigar las dificultades psicosociales y síntomas psicopatológicos en supervivientes de abuso psicológico en grupos.


Assuntos
Abuso Emocional/psicologia , Estrutura de Grupo , Angústia Psicológica , Resiliência Psicológica , Interação Social , Sobreviventes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Am J Primatol ; 83(8): e23295, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34223661

RESUMO

Androgens are important mediators of male-male competition in many primate species. Male gorillas' morphology is consistent with a reproductive strategy that relies heavily on androgen-dependent traits (e.g., extreme size and muscle mass). Despite possessing characteristics typical of species with an exclusively single-male group structure, multimale groups with strong dominance hierarchies are common in mountain gorillas. Theory predicts that androgens should mediate their dominance hierarchies, and potentially vary with the type of group males live in. We validated the use of a testosterone enzyme immunoassay (T-EIA R156/7, CJ Munro, UC-Davis) for use with mountain gorilla fecal material by (1) examining individual-level androgen responses to competitive events, and (2) isolating assay-specific hormone metabolites via high-performance liquid chromatography. Males had large (2.6- and 6.5-fold), temporary increases in fecal androgen metabolite (FAM) after competitive events, and most captured metabolites were testosterone or 5α-dihydrotestosterone-like androgens. We then examined the relationship between males' dominance ranks, group type, and FAM concentrations. Males in single-male groups had higher FAM concentrations than males in multimale groups, and a small pool of samples from solitary males suggested they may have lower FAM than group-living peers. However, data from two different time periods (n = 1610 samples) indicated there was no clear relationship between rank and FAM concentrations, confirming results from the larger of two prior studies that measured urinary androgens. These findings highlight the need for additional research to clarify the surprising lack of a dominance hierarchy/androgen relationship in mountain gorillas.


Assuntos
Androgênios , Gorilla gorilla , Animais , Estrutura de Grupo , Masculino , Reprodução , Predomínio Social
3.
Online braz. j. nurs. (Online) ; 20: e20216448, 05 maio 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1223157

RESUMO

OBJETIVOS: Analisar um grupo de apoio ao autocuidado para pessoas acometidas pela hanseníase sob a ótica de grupos operativos. MÉTODO: Estudo qualitativo do tipo explicativo, realizado em uma unidade de saúde em um município de Pernambuco. Foi realizada a análise de conteúdo, na modalidade análise temática proposta por Bardin. RESULTADOS: Os resultados apontaram características do grupo relacionadas aos seis vetores da teoria de Pichon-Rivière: afiliação e pertença, cooperação, pertinência, comunicação, aprendizagem e tele. DISCUSSÃO: O acompanhamento de um grupo de autocuidado em hanseníase proporciona uma abrangência de significados e reflexões. Estar inserido em um grupo aumenta as oportunidades de reconstrução da autoconfiança, autoestima e inserção na comunidade. CONCLUSÃO: O grupo de apoio ao autocuidado em hanseníase em foco se caracteriza como um grupo operativo. Estudos que investiguem os fatores implícitos dos GACs ainda são necessários, sobretudo no que diz respeito às características dos grupos nas diferentes unidades de saúde.


OBJECTIVES: To analyze a self-care support group for people affected by leprosy from the perspective of operative groups. METHOD: A qualitative study of the explanatory type, carried out in a health unit in a municipality of Pernambuco. Content analysis was carried out, in the thematic analysis proposed by Bardin. RESULTS: The results indicated characteristics of the group related to the six vectors of the Pichon-Rivière theory: affiliation and belonging, cooperation, pertinence, communication, learning and tele. DISCUSSION: The monitoring of a self-care group in leprosy provides a range of meanings and reflections. Being part of a group increases the opportunities for rebuilding self-confidence, self-esteem and insertion in the community. CONCLUSION: The leprosy self-care support group in focus is characterized as an operative group. Studies that investigate the implicit factors of the SCGs are still needed, especially with regard to the characteristics of the groups in the different health units.


OBJETIVO: Analizar un grupo de apoyo para el autocuidado de personas afectadas por la enfermedad de Hansen (lepra) desde la perspectiva de los grupos operativos. MÉTODO: Estudio cualitativo de tipo explicativo, realizado en una unidad de salud de un municipio de Pernambuco. El análisis de contenido se realizó según la modalidad de análisis temático propuesto por Bardin. RESULTADOS: Los resultados indicaron que el grupo tenía características relacionadas con los seis vectores de la teoría de Pichon-Rivière: afiliación y pertenencia, cooperación, pertinencia, comunicación, aprendizaje y telé. DISCUSIÓN: El seguimiento de un grupo para el autocuidado de la enfermedad de Hansen ofrece una cobertura de significados y reflexiones. Formar parte de un grupo aumenta las oportunidades de reconstruir la confianza en uno mismo, la autoestima y la inserción en la comunidad. CONCLUSIÓN: El grupo de apoyo para el autocuidado de la enfermedad de Hansen se caracteriza, principalmente, por ser un grupo operatorio. Aún se necesitan estudios que investiguen los factores implícitos de los GAC, especialmente en lo que respecta a las características de los grupos en las diferentes unidades de salud.


Assuntos
Humanos , Autocuidado , Estrutura de Grupo , Hanseníase/psicologia , Comunicação , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Aprendizagem
4.
Can J Diabetes ; 45(7): 619-628, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648863

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a theory-driven group education intervention designed to reduce fear of hypoglycemia (FoH) as a barrier to physical activity (PA) in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: This study was a single-blinded, pilot randomized controlled trial of adults aged 18 to 65 years and living with T1D in Western Australia. Participants were randomized (1:1) to standard care or intervention with self-management education. Primary outcomes were feasibility and acceptability of the study procedures, and change to barriers to PA and FoH. Secondary outcomes were change to attitudes and intentions toward PA, self-reported participation in PA, self-efficacy, diabetes distress and well-being. To calculate effect sizes, we used a Bayesian comparison of the between-group difference scores (i.e. [scoret2 - scoret1]TREATMENT vs [scoret2 - scoret1]CONTROL). RESULTS: We randomized 117 participants with T1D, 86 (74%) of whom provided baseline data and attended initial workshops. Of these participants, 81% attended the booster workshop 4 weeks later. They were 45±12 years of age, reported high levels of activity and had been living with T1D for 20±14 years. Small-to-moderate effect sizes [ESs] in favour of the intervention were observed at 12 weeks for overall barriers to PA (ES, -0.38; highest density interval, -0.92 to 0.17), self-efficacy for blood glucose management after PA (ES, 0.45; highest density interval, 0 to 0.91), diabetes distress (ES, -0.29; highest density interval, -0.77 to 0.15) and well-being (ES, 0.36; highest density interval, -0.12 to 0.8). CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative findings indicate study procedures were acceptable to participants and feasible to deliver. A future definitive trial is justified to replicate preliminary efficacy and to determine the utility of the intervention for improving PA participation.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Exercício Físico , Medo , Estrutura de Grupo , Hipoglicemia/psicologia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Autogestão/educação , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto
5.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 120(3): 576-600, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816512

RESUMO

Minimal group paradigms tend to involve contrived group distinctions, such as dot estimation tendencies and aesthetic preferences. Researchers assume that these novel category distinctions lack informational value. Our research tests this notion. Specifically, we used the classic overestimator versus underestimator and Klee versus Kandinsky minimal group paradigms to assess how category labels influence minimal group responses. In Study 1, we show that participants represented ingroup faces more favorably than outgroup faces, but also represented overestimator and underestimator category labels differently. In fact, the category label effect was larger than the intergroup effect, even though participants were told that estimation tendencies were unrelated to other cognitive tendencies or personality traits. In Study 2, we demonstrate that Klee and Kandinsky were also represented differently, but in this case, the intergroup effect was stronger than the category label effect. In Studies 3 and 4, we examined effects of category labels on how participants allocate resources to, evaluate, and ascribe traits to ingroup and outgroup members. We found both category label and intergroup effects when participants were assigned to overestimator and underestimator groups. However, we found only the intergroup effect when participants were assigned to Klee and Kandinsky groups. Together, this work advances but does not upend understanding of minimal group effects. We robustly replicate minimal intergroup bias in mental representations of faces, evaluations, trait inferences, and resource allocations. At the same time, we show that seemingly arbitrary category labels can imply characteristics about groups that may influence responses in intergroup contexts. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Discriminação Psicológica , Reconhecimento Facial , Estrutura de Grupo , Personalidade , Psicologia Social/métodos , Percepção Social/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Viés , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
6.
Stat Med ; 40(6): 1498-1518, 2021 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368447

RESUMO

An increasing number of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) summary statistics is made available to the scientific community. Exploiting these results from multiple phenotypes would permit identification of novel pleiotropic associations. In addition, incorporating prior biological information in GWAS such as group structure information (gene or pathway) has shown some success in classical GWAS approaches. However, this has not been widely explored in the context of pleiotropy. We propose a Bayesian meta-analysis approach (termed GCPBayes) that uses summary-level GWAS data across multiple phenotypes to detect pleiotropy at both group-level (gene or pathway) and within group (eg, at the SNP level). We consider both continuous and Dirac spike and slab priors for group selection. We also use a Bayesian sparse group selection approach with hierarchical spike and slab priors that enables us to select important variables both at the group level and within group. GCPBayes uses a Bayesian statistical framework based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Gibbs sampling. It can be applied to multiple types of phenotypes for studies with overlapping or nonoverlapping subjects, and takes into account heterogeneity in the effect size and allows for the opposite direction of the genetic effects across traits. Simulations show that the proposed methods outperform benchmark approaches such as ASSET and CPBayes in the ability to retrieve pleiotropic associations at both SNP and gene-levels. To illustrate the GCPBayes method, we investigate the shared genetic effects between thyroid cancer and breast cancer in candidate pathways.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias , Teorema de Bayes , Genômica , Estrutura de Grupo , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
7.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244188, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370332

RESUMO

A salient objective feature of the social environment in which people find themselves is group size. Knowledge of group size is highly relevant to behavioural scientists given that humans spend considerable time in social settings and the number of others influences much of human behaviour. What size of group do people actually look for and encounter in everyday life? Here we report four survey studies and one experience-sampling study (total N = 4,398) which provide evidence for the predominance of the dyad in daily life. Relative to larger group sizes, dyads are most common across a wide range of activities (e.g., conversations, projects, holidays, movies, sports, bars) obtained from three time moments (past activities, present, and future activities), sampling both mixed-sex and same-sex groups, with three different methodological approaches (retrospective reports, real-time data capture, and preference measures) in the United States and the Netherlands. We offer four mechanisms that may help explain this finding: reciprocity, coordination, social exclusion, and reproduction. The present findings advance our understanding of how individuals organize themselves in everyday life.


Assuntos
Estrutura de Grupo , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Ecol Lett ; 23(10): 1451-1459, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656918

RESUMO

Ecological processes in food webs depend on species interactions. By identifying broad-scaled interaction patterns, important information on species' ecological roles may be revealed. Here, we use the group model to examine how spatial resolution and proximity influence group structure. We examine a data set from the Barents Sea, with food webs described for both the whole region and 25 subregions. We test how the group structure in the networks differ comparing (1) the regional metaweb to subregions and (2) subregion to subregion. We find that more than half the species in the metaweb change groups when compared to subregions. Between subregions, networks with similar group structure are spatially related. Interestingly, although species overlap is important for similarity in group structure, there are notable exceptions. Our results highlight that species ecological roles vary depending on fine-scaled differences in the patterns of interactions, and that local network characteristics are important to consider.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Estrutura de Grupo
9.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 99(10): 1320-1329, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386466

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic pelvic pain in women is a complex condition, and physical therapy is recommended as part of a broader treatment approach. The objective of this study was to compare structured group-based multimodal physical therapy in a hospital setting (intervention group) with primary-care physical therapy (comparator group) for women with chronic pelvic pain. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Women aged 20-65 years with pelvic pain ≥6 months and referred for physical therapy were eligible. The primary outcome measure was change in the mean pelvic pain intensity from baseline to 12 months, measured using the numeric rating scale (0-10). Secondary outcomes were changes in scores of "worst" and "least" pain intensity, health-related quality of life, movement patterns, pain-related fear of movements, anxiety and depression, subjective health complaints, sexual function, incontinence, and obstructed defecation. The differences between the groups regarding change in scores were analyzed using the independent t test and Mann-Whitney U test. Sensitivity analysis of the primary outcome was performed with a linear regression model adjusted for the baseline value. A P value <.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Of the 62 women included, 26 in the intervention group and 25 in the comparator group were available after 12 months for data collection and analysis. The difference between the groups for change in the mean pain intensity score was -1.2 (95% CI -2.3 to -0.2; P = .027), favoring the intervention group. The intervention group showed greater improvements in respiratory patterns (mean difference 0.9; 95% CI 0.2-1.6; P = .015) and pain-related fear of movements (mean difference 2.9; 95% CI -5.5 to -0.3; P = .032), and no significant differences were observed between the groups for the other secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Although the reduction in the mean pelvic pain intensity with group-based multimodal physical therapy was significantly more than with primary-care physical therapy, the difference in the change between the groups was less than expected and the clinical relevance is uncertain.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/terapia , Estrutura de Grupo , Dor Pélvica/terapia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Adulto , Dispareunia/terapia , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Medição da Dor , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Qualidade de Vida
10.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232204, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348329

RESUMO

Communities of practice (COP) are informal (sometimes formal) groupings of professionals with shared interests that form to facilitate the exchange of expertise and shared learning or to function as professional support networks. We analyse a dataset on the size of COPs and show that their distribution has a fractal structure similar to that found in huntergatherer social organisation and the structure of human personal social networks. Small communities up to about 40 in size can be managed democratically, but all larger communities require a leadership team structure. We show that frequency of interaction declines as size increases, as is the case in personal social networks. This suggests that professional work-oriented organisations may be subject to the same kinds of constraint imposed on human social organisation by the social brain. We discuss the implications for business management structure.


Assuntos
Fractais , Estrutura de Grupo , Organizações/estatística & dados numéricos , Comércio/classificação , Comércio/organização & administração , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Liderança , Organizações/classificação , Rede Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 118(2): 283-306, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30855155

RESUMO

This research estimates the points of relative group representation at which members of dominant and nondominant groups declare an organization to be diverse. Across 7 studies, members of dominant groups, relative to members of nondominant groups, reported that diversity was achieved at lower representations of the nondominant group within an organization. This was explained by the dominant group members' relative opposition to using the equal representation of groups as a standard against which to judge diversity. This mediation was also replicated with the antiegalitarian dimension of social dominance orientation, suggesting that the setting of diversity thresholds serves a hierarchy relevant function. Group differences in thresholds of diversity were strongest when people were evaluating whether an organization was sufficiently (vs. descriptively) diverse, when group status was perceived to be threatened, and when the nondominant group was also a numerical minority in the relevant context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Estrutura de Grupo , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Predomínio Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Addict Behav ; 102: 106143, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutual-help alternatives for addiction are numerous, and research attests to the benefits of involvement in such alternatives. Yet, virtually nothing is known about affiliation patterns over time among 12-step alternatives. We investigated the patterns, correlates, and outcomes of transitions in affiliation (including changing groups and dropping out) within alternatives for alcohol problems. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Peer ALternatives for Addiction (PAL) Study, a longitudinal study comparing the nature and effectiveness of 12-step groups, WFS, LifeRing, and SMART (N = 647). First, using all data, we compared affiliation patterns over time across 12-step and 12-step alternative members at baseline. Second, analyzing exclusively 12-step alternative members at baseline, we compared baseline characteristics and 6-month outcomes of those who changed and dropped out of (vs. retained) their primary groups at 6 months. RESULTS: While drop-out rates were low, and similar, across groups, members of the alternatives were more likely (vs. 12-step) to change groups at 6 months, and transitioned predominantly to 12-step. Further, among the 12-step alternatives, both changing groups and dropping out was associated with lower group cohesion and satisfaction. Meanwhile, in multivariate analyses of 6-month outcomes, changing (vs. retaining) groups robustly predicted lower cohesion, higher negative affect, and lower quality of life, whereas dropping out was associated with lower odds of alcohol abstinence. CONCLUSIONS: While dropping out is known to be risky, changing groups is more common among the 12-step alternatives, and connotes risk of future problems that may be partially explained by dissatisfaction with the new group (usually 12-step).


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/reabilitação , Estrutura de Grupo , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Participação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos de Autoajuda , Adulto , Afeto , Abstinência de Álcool/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/psicologia , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Span. j. psychol ; 23: e38.1-e38.14, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-200133

RESUMO

The study aims to test how the association between leader's centrality (outdegree and betweenness) in the group network, considering both workflow and friendship ties between leader and members, and the perception of team performance is mediated by the leader's satisfaction with the team. The research included a total of 74 formal leaders of organizational teams from several organizations. Total, direct and indirect effects were calculated through the estimation of an OLS regression-based mediation model, controlling for team size. Results revealed that only leader's outdegree and betweenness centrality in the team friendship network positively predicted the leader's perception of team performance. In contrast to the predictions, a significant negative indirect effect of outdegree centrality of the leader within the team workflow network on the evaluation of group performance through leader's satisfaction was observed. Also, both leader's outdegree and betweenness centrality levels in the friendship network were shown to have a positive effect on leader's assessment of team performance through leader's satisfaction with the team. Overall, findings point to the negative effects of leader's centrality in the workflow team network and the positive effects of leader's centrality in the friendship team network on his/her attitudes toward the team. The effects of the more or less central position of the leader within each of the group networks are discussed


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Trabalhistas , Liderança , Processos Grupais , Estrutura de Grupo , Satisfação no Emprego , Engajamento no Trabalho , Grupo Associado
14.
Quad. psicol. (Bellaterra, Internet) ; 22(3): e1533-e1533, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-200518

RESUMO

El fútbol espectáculo sigue teniendo entre sus desafíos las violencias tanto en los estadios como fuera de ellos. Este deporte tiene distintos tipos de espectadores aquí nombrados como aficionado, hincha y barrista, yendo desde la aproximación netamente estética hacia el fútbol, pasando por la preferencia de un equipo hasta la participación en grupos de apoyo. En este trabajo, desde el concepto de habitus de Pierre Bourdieu, se pudo identificar, a partir de un análisis del discurso, un habitus aficionado, un habitus hincha y un habitus barrista, todos relacionados de distinta manera con las violencias dentro del campo del fútbol espectáculo. Se concluye que el habitus violento no es una condición individual sino una disposición construida con base en la interacción y producida por la valoración contextual de dichos actos


The soccer as show still has among its challenges the violences both in the stadiums and out-side them. This sport has different types of spectators here named as amateur, fans and sup-porters, ranging from the purely aesthetic approach to soccer, through the preference of a team to participation in support groups. In this work, from Pierre Bourdieu's concept of habitus, it was possible to identify, from an analysis of the discourse, an amateur habitus, a fan habitus and a supporter habitus, all related in different ways to the violence within the field of show soccer. It is concluded that the violent habitus is not an individual condition but a disposition built on interaction and produced by the contextual evaluation of these acts


Assuntos
Humanos , Futebol/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Esportes/psicologia , Percepção Social , Atitude , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Identificação Psicológica , Identificação Social , Estrutura de Grupo
15.
Issues Ment Health Nurs ; 40(12): 993-998, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603718

RESUMO

The recovery-oriented reflective practice group (RORPG) is a staff-directed intervention aimed at achieving the recovery-focused transformation of mental health settings. This discussion paper aims to outline and reflect on the conceptual framework and group structure of recovery-oriented reflective practice groups. RORPGs build on conceptualizations of reflective practice, personal recovery, mental health nursing as a relational and reflective practice, and abductive reasoning. Dewey's phases of reflection, together with an understanding of nursing practice as a dynamic process of care, provide a structure for group sessions in which abductive reasoning can be considered a core activity. This paper outlines a sound theoretical foundation and suggests that RORPGs might prove useful for providing a space for learning in practice, informed by both theoretical and practical knowledge.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Padrões de Prática em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Enfermagem Psiquiátrica/organização & administração , Estrutura de Grupo , Humanos , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica
16.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 85, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576945

RESUMO

Group prenatal care is an alternative model of care during pregnancy, replacing standard individual prenatal care. The model has shown maternal benefits and has been implemented in different contexts. We conducted a narrative review of the literature in relation to its effectiveness, using databases such as PubMed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Wiley Online and Springer for the period 2002 to 2018. In addition, we discussed the challenges and solutions of its implementation based on our experience in Mexico. Group prenatal care may improve prenatal knowledge and use of family planning services in the postpartum period. The model has been implemented in more than 22 countries and there are challenges to its implementation related to both supply and demand. Supply-side challenges include staff, material resources and organizational issues; demand-side challenges include recruitment and retention of participants, adaptation of material, and perceived privacy. We highlight specific solutions that can be applied in diverse health systems.


Assuntos
Estrutura de Grupo , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , México , Modelos Organizacionais , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0216335, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295260

RESUMO

Most aspects of our lives are governed by large, highly developed institutions that integrate several governance tasks under one authority structure. But theorists differ as to the mechanisms that drive the development of such concentrated governance systems from rudimentary beginnings. Is the emergence of integrated governance schemes a symptom of consolidation of authority by small status groups? Or does integration occur because a complex institution has more potential responses to a complex environment? Here we examine the emergence of complex governance regimes in 5,000 sovereign, resource-constrained, self-governing online communities, ranging in scale from one to thousands of users. Each community begins with no community members and no governance infrastructure. As communities grow, they are subject to selection pressures that keep better managed servers better populated. We identify predictors of community success and test the hypothesis that governance complexity can enhance community fitness. We find that what predicts success depends on size: changes in complexity predict increased success with larger population servers. Specifically, governance rules in a large successful community are more numerous and broader in scope. They also tend to rely more on rules that concentrate power in administrators, and on rules that manage bad behavior and limited server resources. Overall, this work is consistent with theories that formal integrated governance systems emerge to organize collective responses to interdependent resource management problems, especially as factors such as population size exacerbate those problems.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade/métodos , Redes Sociais Online , Estrutura de Grupo , Humanos , Internet
18.
Psychol Health ; 34(6): 715-732, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30693798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: How can we distinguish between a collection of individuals exercising alongside one another from group that is exercising 'together'? This question is central to research on the extent that individuals perceive their fitness settings to entail core features of groups. To advance understanding of the nature of groupness and its implications in exercise, the current study (a) evaluated a brief measure of groupness and (b) examined the extent that groupness predicted perceptions of exertion and affect. DESIGN: Participants included 633 exercisers (Mage = 33.92, SD = 11.05, 74% female) who completed surveys after group fitness classes (k = 34). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Groupness, affect, exertion, and group cohesion. RESULTS: Exploratory structural equation modelling provided support for a two-factor solution reflecting entitativity and group structure as subdimensions of groupness. The groupness factors were differentially associated with theoretically relevant aspects of classes (e.g. synchronised movement), the individual (e.g. number of members interacted with), as well as group cohesion. Groupness also predicted perceived exertion and affect. CONCLUSION: Our research provides support for a brief measure of groupness, advances theory related to how individuals perceive exercise groups, and provides evidence regarding how broader experiences during exercise may relate to exercisers' perceptions of groupness.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Estrutura de Grupo , Relações Interpessoais , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 53: 85, jan. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043321

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Group prenatal care is an alternative model of care during pregnancy, replacing standard individual prenatal care. The model has shown maternal benefits and has been implemented in different contexts. We conducted a narrative review of the literature in relation to its effectiveness, using databases such as PubMed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Wiley Online and Springer for the period 2002 to 2018. In addition, we discussed the challenges and solutions of its implementation based on our experience in Mexico. Group prenatal care may improve prenatal knowledge and use of family planning services in the postpartum period. The model has been implemented in more than 22 countries and there are challenges to its implementation related to both supply and demand. Supply-side challenges include staff, material resources and organizational issues; demand-side challenges include recruitment and retention of participants, adaptation of material, and perceived privacy. We highlight specific solutions that can be applied in diverse health systems.


RESUMEN La atención prenatal en grupo es un modelo alternativo de atención durante el embarazo, que sustituye la atención prenatal individual estándar. El modelo ha mostrado beneficios maternos y se ha implementado en diferentes contextos. Llevamos a cabo una revisión narrativa de la literatura en relación a su efectividad, utilizando bases de datos como PubMed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Wiley Online y la editorial Springer, para el periodo 2002 a 2018. Adicionalmente, discutimos los retos y soluciones de su implementación desde nuestra experiencia en México. La atención prenatal en grupo puede mejorar el conocimiento prenatal y el uso de servicios de planificación familiar en el postparto. El modelo se ha implementado en más de 22 países y existen retos de su implementación desde la oferta y la demanda. Los retos desde la oferta incluyen al personal, recursos materiales y cuestiones organizacionales; desde la demanda, el reclutamiento y retención de participantes, adaptación del material y privacidad percibida. Resaltamos soluciones concretas que pueden aplicar a diversos sistemas de salud.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Estrutura de Grupo , Cuidado Pré-Natal/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Modelos Organizacionais , México
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30261654

RESUMO

The Social Network Analysis offers a view of social phenomena based on interactions. The aim of this study is to compare social reality through the cohesion variable and analyse its relationship with the resilience of university students. This information is useful to work with the students academically and to optimise the properties of the network that have an influence in academic performance. This is a descriptive transversal study with 90 students from the first and third year of the Nursing Degree. Cohesion variables from the support and friendship networks and the level of resilience were gathered. The UCINET programme was used for network analysis and the SPSS programme for statistical analysis. The students' friendship and support networks show high intra-classroom cohesion although there are no differences between the support networks and friendship or minimal contact networks in both of the courses used for the study. The network cohesion indicators show less cohesion in the third year. No correlations were found between cohesion and resilience. Resilience does not appear to be an attribute related to cohesion or vice versa.


Assuntos
Estrutura de Grupo , Resiliência Psicológica , Rede Social , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Universidades , Feminino , Amigos , Humanos , Masculino , Apoio Social , Estudantes
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