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1.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 59, 2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health is an ongoing study consisting of two birth cohorts of different population sizes: the Sapporo cohort and the Hokkaido cohort. Our primary objectives are to (1) examine the effects that low-level environmental chemical exposures have on birth outcomes, including birth defects and growth retardation; (2) follow the development of allergies, infectious diseases, and neurobehavioral developmental disorders, as well as perform a longitudinal observation of child development; (3) identify high-risk groups based on genetic susceptibility to environmental chemicals; and (4) identify the additive effects of various chemicals, including tobacco. METHODS: The purpose of this report is to provide an update on the progress of the Hokkaido Study, summarize recent results, and suggest future directions. In particular, this report provides the latest details from questionnaire surveys, face-to-face examinations, and a collection of biological specimens from children and measurements of their chemical exposures. RESULTS: The latest findings indicate different risk factors of parental characteristics on birth outcomes and the mediating effect between socioeconomic status and children that are small for the gestational age. Maternal serum folate was not associated with birth defects. Prenatal chemical exposure and smoking were associated with birth size and growth, as well as cord blood biomarkers, such as adiponectin, leptin, thyroid, and reproductive hormones. We also found significant associations between the chemical levels and neuro development, asthma, and allergies. CONCLUSIONS: Chemical exposure to children can occur both before and after birth. Longer follow-up for children is crucial in birth cohort studies to reinforce the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis. In contrast, considering shifts in the exposure levels due to regulation is also essential, which may also change the association to health outcomes. This study found that individual susceptibility to adverse health effects depends on the genotype. Epigenome modification of DNA methylation was also discovered, indicating the necessity of examining molecular biology perspectives. International collaborations can add a new dimension to the current knowledge and provide novel discoveries in the future.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Saúde Ambiental , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Seguimentos , Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Lactente , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etiologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Prevalência
2.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923714

RESUMO

Protein quality and quantity are important factors in determining lean body (muscle) mass (LBM). In phenylketonuria (PKU), protein substitutes provide most of the nitrogen, either as amino acids (AA) or glycomacropeptide with supplementary amino acids (CGMP-AA). Body composition and growth are important indicators of long-term health. In a 3-year prospective study comparing the impact of AA and CGMP-AA on body composition and growth in PKU, 48 children were recruited. N = 19 (median age 11.1 years, range 5-15 years) took AA only, n = 16 (median age 7.3 years, range 5-15 years) took a combination of CGMP-AA and AA, (CGMP50) and 13 children (median age 9.2 years, range 5-16 years) took CGMP-AA only (CGMP100). A dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan at enrolment and 36 months measured LBM, % body fat (%BF) and fat mass (FM). Height was measured at enrolment, 12, 24 and 36 months. No correlation or statistically significant differences (after adjusting for age, gender, puberty and phenylalanine blood concentrations) were found between the three groups for LBM, %BF, FM and height. The change in height z scores, (AA 0, CGMP50 +0.4 and CGMP100 +0.7) showed a trend that children in the CGMP100 group were taller, had improved LBM with decreased FM and % BF but this was not statistically significant. There appeared to be no advantage of CGMP-AA compared to AA on body composition after 3-years of follow-up. Although statistically significant differences were not reached, a trend towards improved body composition was observed with CGMP-AA when it provided the entire protein substitute requirement.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/administração & dosagem , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Caseínas/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Fenilcetonúrias/fisiopatologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Estatura , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fenilalanina/sangue , Fenilcetonúrias/sangue , Fenilcetonúrias/dietoterapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
N Engl J Med ; 384(16): 1517-1528, 2021 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than 30 million children worldwide have moderate acute malnutrition. Current treatments have limited effectiveness, and much remains unknown about the pathogenesis of this condition. Children with moderate acute malnutrition have perturbed development of their gut microbiota. METHODS: In this study, we provided a microbiota-directed complementary food prototype (MDCF-2) or a ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) to 123 slum-dwelling Bangladeshi children with moderate acute malnutrition between the ages of 12 months and 18 months. The supplementation was given twice daily for 3 months, followed by 1 month of monitoring. We obtained weight-for-length, weight-for-age, and length-for-age z scores and mid-upper-arm circumference values at baseline and every 2 weeks during the intervention period and at 4 months. We compared the rate of change of these related phenotypes between baseline and 3 months and between baseline and 4 months. We also measured levels of 4977 proteins in plasma and 209 bacterial taxa in fecal samples. RESULTS: A total of 118 children (59 in each study group) completed the intervention. The rates of change in the weight-for-length and weight-for-age z scores are consistent with a benefit of MDCF-2 on growth over the course of the study, including the 1-month follow-up. Receipt of MDCF-2 was linked to the magnitude of change in levels of 70 plasma proteins and of 21 associated bacterial taxa that were positively correlated with the weight-for-length z score (P<0.001 for comparisons of both protein and bacterial taxa). These proteins included mediators of bone growth and neurodevelopment. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide support for MDCF-2 as a dietary supplement for young children with moderate acute malnutrition and provide insight into mechanisms by which this targeted manipulation of microbiota components may be linked to growth. (Supported by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the National Institutes of Health; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04015999.).


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Alimentos Formulados , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Antropometria , Bangladesh , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Peso Corporal , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Crescimento , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Desnutrição/microbiologia , Proteoma , Ganho de Peso
4.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100962, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652522

RESUMO

Total replacement of dietary inorganic phosphate (Pi) by a novel consensus bacterial 6-phytase variant (PhyG) in phytate-rich diets (>0.3% phytate-P) was investigated in 2 trials using growth performance and bone quality as outcome measures. Both trials utilized a completely randomized design with 5 dietary treatments across 4 phases: starter (0-10 d), grower (10-21 d), finisher 1 (21-35 d), and finisher 2 (35-42 d). Treatments comprised a nutritionally adequate positive control (PC) diet containing monocalcium phosphate and 4 experimental diets (IPF1, IPF2, IPF3, and IPF4), all containing no added Pi and reduced in Ca by 0.2 to 0.3% units vs. PC. IPF1contained PhyG at 1,000 FTU/kg (all phases); IPF2 contained PhyG at 1,000 FTU/kg (all phases) and was additionally reduced in digestible AA, ME, and sodium (-0.2 to -0.4% points, -74 kcal/kg, -0.04% points, respectively, vs. PC); IPF3 contained PhyG at 3,000 FTU/kg in starter, 2,000 FTU/kg in grower, and 1,000 FTU/kg in finisher phases; and IPF4 contained xylanase (2,000 U/kg) and PhyG (2,000 FTU/kg in starter, 1,500 FTU/kg in grower, and 1,000 FTU/kg in finisher phases) and was additionally reduced in ME (-71 kcal/kg vs. PC). Ross 308 broilers were used (trial 1: n = 1,200 mixed sex; 24 birds per pen × 10 replicates; trial 2: n = 1,300 males; 26 birds × 10 replicates). During all phases in both trials, all IPF treatments maintained or improved BW, ADG, ADFI, FCR and BW-corrected FCRc and bone quality parameters vs. PC. vs. PC, treatment IPF3 increased ADG during starter phase (+10.8%) and reduced overall FCRc (-12 points, P < 0.05) in Trial 1, and increased overall ADG (+4.4%), day 35 and day 42 BW (+3.5%, +4.9%), and reduced overall FCRc (-11 points) in Trial 2 (P < 0.05). IPF4 produced equivalent performance to IPF3 (both trials). These are the first data to demonstrate total replacement of Pi by microbial phytase during an entire growth cycle in broiler diets.


Assuntos
6-Fitase , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Osso e Ossos , Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Crescimento , 6-Fitase/farmacologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
5.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100964, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652533

RESUMO

The effects of early heat conditioning on the acute heat stress response in broilers were investigated via the growth performance, dopamine, serotonin, and corticosterone and the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP) and heat shock factors. One-day-old chicks (n = 144) were divided into 3 groups in a 35-d experiment (48 chicks per each group). Group 1 (C) was treated with an optimum temperature, group 2 (CH) was treated with 40°C ± 1°C on day 35 (5 h), and group 3 (HH) was treated with 40°C ± 1°C on day 5 (24 h) and day 35 (5 h). On day 7, the body weight gain was lower (P < 0.05) in HH than in C and CH. On day 35, the heat-treated groups (CH and HH) had lower weight gains than the C group (P < 0.05), whereas the feed conversion ratio was lower in HH (P < 0.05). Serum corticosterone was higher in CH than in C, but HH and C did not differ (P < 0.05). Liver HSP70 protein expression was higher in CH than HH and C (P < 0.05), which did not differ, and HSP40 protein expression was higher in CH than C (P < 0.05). These results suggest that early heat conditioning may reduce acute heat stress on broiler.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Crescimento , Proteínas de Choque Térmico , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Animais , Galinhas/sangue , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Crescimento/fisiologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Temperatura Alta , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia
6.
Poult Sci ; 100(4): 100993, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610891

RESUMO

Broiler growth performance can be influenced by maternal BW, maternal age, and sex. The present study evaluated broiler growth and efficiency in response to increased maternal BW (relaxed level of maternal feed restriction). It was hypothesized that BW and fatness would increase, and efficiency would be reduced as maternal BW increased. Ten BW trajectories were applied to precision-fed Ross 708 female broiler breeders (n = 30) from 2 to 42 wk of age. Trajectories varied in prepubertal and pubertal growth phases from 2.5 to 22.5% above the recommended BW target. Additional unrestricted breeders (n = 6) were not limited to a maximum BW (fed ad libitum). Two 35 d experiments were conducted with precision-fed broilers from these breeders at 35 and 42 wk of age. Two analyses (full and restricted analysis scopes) were performed to evaluate broiler BW, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and carcass traits with maternal BW at photostimulation (22 wk of age) as a continuous effect, and maternal age and sex as discrete effects. The full scope included broilers from all hens (feed restricted and unrestricted). The restricted scope excluded broilers from unrestricted hens. Differences were reported at P ≤ 0.05. For every kilogram increase in maternal BW, cumulative FCR increased by 0.235 and 0.471 g:g for broilers from all and feed restricted hens, respectively. Proportional gut weight of broilers from feed restricted hens decreased by 0.8244% per kilogram increase in maternal BW. Males were heavier than females on day 28 and 35, and broilers from 42-wk-old breeders were heavier than broilers from 35-wk-old breeders on day 0 and 35. Males from all hens were more feed efficient (1.318 g:g) than females (1.335 g:g) from day 29 to 35. Females from all and feed restricted hens had a greater proportional fat pad and breast muscle weight than males, and proportional breast muscle yield of broilers from 42-wk-old breeders was on average 1.04 times greater than that of broilers from 35-wk-old breeders. Maternal BW did not affect offspring BW, reduced cumulative FCR, and reduced gut weight in the restricted analysis scope.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Metabolismo Energético , Métodos de Alimentação , Crescimento , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Crescimento/fisiologia , Masculino
7.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 31(6): 1324-1334, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560529

RESUMO

A better insight into injuries in elite-youth football may inform prevention strategies. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the frequency, incidence, and pattern of time-loss injuries in an elite male football academy, exploring injuries in relation to age and maturation status. Across four consecutive playing seasons, playing exposure and injuries to all academy players (U'9 to U'21) were recorded by club medical staff. Maturation status at the time of injury was also calculated for players competing in U'13 to U'16 aged squads. Time-loss injury occurrence and maturation status at time of injury were the main outcome measures. A total of 603 time-loss injuries were recorded, from 190 different players. Playing exposure was 229 317 hours resulting in an overall injury rate of 2.4 p/1000 h, ranging from 0.7 p/1000 h (U'11) to 4.8 p/1000 h (U'21). Most injuries were traumatic in mechanism (73%). The most common injury location was the thigh (23%), and the most common injury type was muscle injury (29%) combining to provide the most common injury diagnosis; thigh muscle injury (17%). In U'13-U'16 players, a higher number of injuries to early-maturing players were observed in U'13-U'14 players, while more injuries to U'15-U'16 players occurred when classed as "on-time" in maturity status. Maturation status did not statistically relate to injury pattern; however, knee bone (not-fracture) injuries peaked in U'13 players while hip/groin muscle injuries peaked in U'15 players.


Assuntos
Absenteísmo , Futebol/lesões , Esportes Juvenis/lesões , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/epidemiologia , Atletas , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Virilha/lesões , Crescimento/fisiologia , Lesões do Quadril/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Traumatismos do Joelho/epidemiologia , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/lesões , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Ruptura/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Futebol/fisiologia , Futebol/estatística & dados numéricos , Entorses e Distensões/epidemiologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Coxa da Perna/lesões , Fatores de Tempo , Esportes Juvenis/fisiologia , Esportes Juvenis/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Nat Rev Genet ; 22(5): 307-323, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452500

RESUMO

Hundreds of microRNAs (miRNAs) are expressed in distinct spatial and temporal patterns during embryonic and postnatal mouse development. The loss of all miRNAs through the deletion of critical miRNA biogenesis factors results in early lethality. The function of each miRNA stems from their cumulative negative regulation of multiple mRNA targets expressed in a particular cell type. During development, miRNAs often coordinate the timing and direction of cell fate transitions. In adults, miRNAs frequently contribute to organismal fitness through homeostatic roles in physiology. Here, we review how the recent dissection of miRNA-knockout phenotypes in mice as well as advances related to their targets, dosage, and interactions have collectively informed our understanding of the roles of miRNAs in mammalian development and adaptive responses.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Crescimento/genética , MicroRNAs/fisiologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Camundongos
9.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 148: 111962, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412236

RESUMO

Deoxynivalenol (DON) poses a serious health threat to animals and humans consuming DON-contaminated food and feed. Biological means of detoxification of DON are considered as one of the effective strategies. The aim of the work was to study ameliorative effects of Bacillus subtilis ASAG 216 on DON-induced toxicosis in piglets. A decrease in average daily gain and average daily feed intake was observed in piglets fed DON-contaminated feed. In addition, DON exposure increased the serum concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, immunoglobulin A, diamine oxidase, endotoxin, and peptide YY. Moreover, DON exposure caused oxidative stress in the serum, liver and jejunum, induced intestinal inflammation, impaired the intestinal barrier, and disturbed the gut microbiota homeostasis. Supplementation of B. subtilis ASAG 216 effectively attenuated the aforementioned effects of DON on piglets. Moreover, DON and de-epoxy-DON (DOM-1) in the serum, liver and kidney were significantly decreased when B. subtilis ASAG 216 was added to DON-contaminated diet. Our results imply that B. subtilis ASAG 216 can protect against DON-induced toxicosis in piglets, and thus this strain has a potential to be used as an animal feed ingredient to counteract harmful effects of DON in animals.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Crescimento/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Tricotecenos/toxicidade , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Ceco , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/terapia , Enterite/terapia , Feminino , Jejuno , Fígado , Suínos , Tricotecenos/metabolismo
10.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 184(2): 267-276, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434161

RESUMO

Objective: The European Increlex® Growth Forum Database Registry monitors the effectiveness and safety of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-1 (rhIGF1; mecasermin, Increlex®) therapy in patients with severe primary IGF1 deficiency (SPIGFD). We present data from patients with and without a reported genetic diagnosis of Laron syndrome (LS). Design: Ongoing, open-label, observational registry (NCT00903110). Methods: Children and adolescents receiving rhIGF1 therapy from 10 European countries were enrolled in 2008-2017 (n = 242). The treatment-naïve/prepubertal (NPP) cohort (n = 138) was divided into subgroups based on reported genetic diagnosis of LS (n = 21) or non-LS (n = 117). Multivariate analysis of the NPP-non-LS subgroup was conducted to identify factors predictive of growth response (first-year-height standard deviation score (SDS) gain ≥ 0.3). Assessments included change in height and weight over 5 years and adverse events (AEs). Results: Height SDS gain from baseline was greater in the NPP-LS than the NPP-non-LS subgroup after 1 years' treatment (P < 0.05). In the NPP-non-LS subgroup, 56% were responders; young age at baseline was a positive independent predictive factor (P < 0.001). NPP-non-LS-responders and the NPP-LS subgroup had a similar mean age (6.07 years vs 7.00 years) at baseline and height SDS gain in year 1 (0.64 vs 0.70), although NPP-non-LS-responders were taller (P < 0.001) at baseline. BMI SDS changes did not differ across subgroups. Treatment-emergent AEs were experienced by 65.3% of patients; hypoglycaemia was most common. Conclusions: In most NPP children with SPIGFD, with or without LS, rhIGF1 therapy promotes linear growth. The safety profile was consistent with previous studies.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento/tratamento farmacológico , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/deficiência , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Laron/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Estatura , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Feminino , Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/sangue , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome de Laron/genética , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Segurança do Paciente , Puberdade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100971, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516469

RESUMO

Production of crystalline amino acids (AA) through microbial fermentation concomitantly provides an AA-enriched biomass that may serve as a cost-effective supplement for broiler chickens. We investigated the effects of feeding a fermentation biomass product containing approximately 62% Lys on growth performance, organ growth, and clinical outcomes of broilers. Beginning at 2 d post-hatch, a total of 360 Ross 308 chicks were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatments provided to 12 replicate cages of 6 birds. Practical corn-soybean meal-based dietary treatments included: negative control (NC; no supplementation of L-Lys, 1.01 and 0.86% standardized ileal digestible Lys in starter and grower phases, respectively), NC + 0.23% L-Lys HCl (positive control; PC), and NC supplemented with 0.30, 0.90, or 1.50% Lys biomass (LB) in both phases. Feed and water were provided ad libitum throughout the study. Individual bird and feeder weights were recorded on study day 0, 10, 21, and 35. At study conclusion, birds from each treatment were randomly selected to collect blood and tissue samples. The PC and 0.30% LB diets elicited similar overall (day 0-35) body weight gain and birds were heavier (P < 0.001) than the NC and other LB treatments. The PC, 0.30% LB, and 0.90% LB groups had better (P < 0.001) overall feed conversion ratio than NC. Some LB-supplemented treatments elicited increased (P < 0.001) relative spleen and ileum weight compared with NC and PC. Heterophils were increased (P < 0.001) in LB treatments compared with PC and NC. Lymphocytes were decreased (P < 0.001) in LB treatments compared with NC, and 1.50% LB was similar to PC. This resulted in an increased (P < 0.001) heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in some LB treatments, which may have resulted from general AA supplementation or the LB product. Collectively, these results suggest that addition of up to 0.30% LB restored growth performance when added to a Lys-deficient practical diet and elicited results identical to the Lys-adequate PC diet with no negative clinical effects.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Crescimento , Lisina , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Biomassa , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisina/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória
12.
J Sci Med Sport ; 24(3): 218-223, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839106

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to ascertain if there is a defined pattern of injury related to the percentage of attained adult height and classify injuries according to maturity status bands. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: From 1998-2019, 63 elite male soccer players of at least the U12 category from a Spanish LaLiga club's academy were followed until reaching their final height. Medical staff recorded injuries following the FIFA consensus and measured height 2-3 times per season. The percentage of adult height at which each injury occurred was calculated using the player's closest height to the injury and his final adult height. Injuries were classified in maturity bands, pre-peak-height-velocity (PHV) <88%, circa-PHV 88%-96%, and post-PHV >96%. RESULTS: There were 509 injuries among the 63 players. Growth-related injuries occurred at a median (IQR) of 91.2% (86.7%-95.2%) of adult height, predominating in pre-PHV and PHV bands. Muscle injuries predominantly occurred at post-PHV, with 77.78% of those conditions occurring within that time frame and at 98.7% (96%-99.5%) of adult height. Likewise, knee and ankle joint/ligament injuries predominated at post-PHV (87% and 65% of total cases, respectively) occurring at 99.0% (97.9%-99.9%) and 98.4% (89.2%-99.4%) of adult height, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Injuries follow a specific pattern according to the percentage of adult height.


Assuntos
Estatura , Futebol/lesões , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/classificação , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Criança , Crescimento , Humanos , Traumatismos do Joelho/epidemiologia , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/lesões , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Futebol/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Pediatr ; 230: 221-229.e5, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253732

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between body mass index (BMI) at 2-4 years and 5-7 years and age at peak height velocity (APHV), an objective measure of pubertal timing, among boys and girls from predominantly racial minorities in the US that have been historically underrepresented in this research topic. STUDY DESIGN: This study included 1296 mother-child dyads from the Boston Birth Cohort, a predominantly Black and low-income cohort enrolled at birth and followed prospectively during 1998-2018. The exposure was overweight or obesity, based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference standards. The outcome was APHV, derived using a mixed effects growth curve model. Multiple regression was used to estimate the overweight or obesity-APHV association and control for confounders. RESULTS: Obesity at 2-4 years was associated with earlier APHV in boys (B in years, -0.19; 95% CI, -0.35 to -0.03) and girls (B, -0.22; 95% CI, -0.37 to -0.07). Obesity at 5-7 years was associated with earlier APHV in boys (B, -0.18; 95% CI, -0.32 to -0.03), whereas overweight and obesity at 5-7 years were both associated with earlier APHV in girls (overweight: B, -0.24; 95% CI, -0.40 to -0.08; obesity: B, -0.27; 95% CI, -0.40 to -0.13). With BMI trajectory, boys with persistent overweight or obesity and girls with overweight or obesity at 5-7 years, irrespective of overweight or obesity status at 2-4 years, had earlier APHV. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective birth cohort study found that overweight or obesity during 2-7 years was associated with earlier pubertal onset in both boys and girls. The BMI trajectory analyses further suggest that reversal of overweight or obesity may halt the progression toward early puberty.


Assuntos
Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Crescimento , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores de Tempo
14.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 57(3): 388-394, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112481

RESUMO

AIM: This study was designed to determine whether faecal regenerating 1B protein (REG1B) concentration is associated with physical growth among 6-30-month-old children in rural Malawi. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis from a randomised controlled trial in rural Malawi in which we followed-up 790 live-born infants from birth to 30 months of age. We collected anthropometric data at the age of 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 months. We measured faecal REG1B concentration by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique using stool samples collected at 6, 18 and 30 months of age. We assessed the association between faecal REG1B concentration and children's physical growth using linear regression and longitudinal data analysis. RESULTS: Of 790 live-born infants enrolled, 694 (87%) with at least one faecal REG1B concentration measurement were included in the analysis. Faecal REG1B concentration was not associated with the children's concurrent length-for-age z-score (LAZ), weight-for-age z-score (WAZ), weight-for-length z-score (WLZ) and mid-upper arm circumference-for-age z-score (MUACZ) at any time point (P > 0.05), nor with a change in their anthropometric indices in the subsequent 6-month period (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Faecal REG1B concentration is not associated with LAZ, WAZ, WLZ and MUACZ among 6-30-month-old infants and children in rural Malawi.


Assuntos
Estatura , Litostatina , População Rural , Antropometria , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes , Feminino , Crescimento , Humanos , Lactente , Malaui , Masculino , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
15.
J Sports Sci ; 39(4): 380-387, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951530

RESUMO

In an effort to evaluate the mechanisms underpinning performance in alpine ski racing, researchers have focused on the predictive validity of measures derived from fitness assessments. However, a limitation of this literature is the absence of practice time, since prolonged training may naturally develop specific fitness capacities, making some tests of physical ability less predictive of performance. We examine the relationship between fitness tests, practice, and performance using linear regressions with fitness test data, practice history data, and performance results from adolescent alpine ski racers attending professional development academies in the United States (N = 82). Only aerobic capacity (i.e. 20 m shuttle run) was significantly associated with more practice time. After controlling for practice hours, 5.5-6.5% of variance in ski performance was significantly explained by assessments of lower body power (i.e. standing long jump, triple jump), anaerobic capacity (i.e. 60 s box jump), and upper body strength/endurance (i.e. push-ups). Findings highlight the important role of anaerobic power on alpine ski racing performance, which may be developed outside of regular practice, possibly through weight training or physical maturation. The small variance explained by physical/physiological measures suggests that superior ski performance is likely a product of various skills and characteristics (e.g. technical, tactical, perceptual-cognitive, psychosocial).


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Esqui/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Anaerobiose , Desempenho Atlético/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenômenos Biofísicos/fisiologia , Feminino , Crescimento/fisiologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Esqui/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia
16.
J Pediatr ; 229: 199-206.e4, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956698

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the fetal linear growth effects of maternal nutrition supplementation would be maintained through 6 months postnatal age. STUDY DESIGN: The Women First trial was a multicountry, individually randomized clinical trial that compared the impact of maternal nutrition supplementation initiated preconception (Arm 1) vs at ∼11 weeks of gestation (Arm 2), vs no supplement (Arm 3); the intervention was discontinued at delivery. Trial sites were in Democratic Republic of Congo, Guatemala, India, and Pakistan. Analysis includes 2421 infants born to 2408 randomized women. Primary outcome was the trajectory of length-for-age z scores (LAZ) by arm, based on assessments at birth and 1, 3, and 6 months. We fitted longitudinal models on growth from birth to 6 months using generalized estimating equations; maternal intervention effects were evaluated, adjusting for site and baseline maternal covariates. RESULTS: Linear growth for Arms 1 and 2 was statistically greater than for Arm 3 in 3 of the 4 countries, with average pairwise mean differences in LAZ of 0.25 (95% CI 0.15-0.35; P < .001) and 0.19 (95% CI 0.09-0.28; P < .001), respectively. Compared with Arm 3, average overall adjusted relative risks (95% CI) for stunting (LAZ <-2) were lower for Arms 1 and 2: 0.76 (0.66-0.87; P < .001) and 0.77 (0.67-0.88; P < .001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Improved linear growth in early infancy observed for the 2 intervention arms supports the critical importance of maternal nutrition before conception and in the early phase of gestation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01883193.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Crescimento , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Sports Sci ; 39(9): 979-991, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225823

RESUMO

In this paper, we outline a systematic testing programme developed to help identify excellence in youth basketball players. We examine the links between biological maturation and training experience with anthropometry, body composition, physical performance, technical and tactical skills from five age-cohorts, and characterize, in detail, facets of their environment. In total, 238 young basketball players aged 11-15 years, clustered into five age-cohorts (11, 12, 13, 14, 15 years) were recruited. We assessed measures across three domains: (1) biological [anthropometry, body composition, biological maturation and physical performance]; (2) skill/game proficiency [technical skills and tactical skills]; and (3) contextual [family support, coach knowledge and competence and club context]. The data were analysed using one-way ANOVAs and multivariate analysis of covariance adjusting for biological maturation and training experience. We report significant differences favouring older basketball players on most biological and skill/game proficiency variables. However, differences between age-cohorts in physical performance and technical skills were mitigated after controlling for the effects of both covariates. In conclusion, our findings highlight the important role of both biological maturation and training experience on youth basketball players' performance and development. We discuss the implications of these findings for research as well as for athletes, parents, coaches and clubs.


Assuntos
Aptidão/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Basquetebol/fisiologia , Crescimento/fisiologia , Esportes Juvenis/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Análise de Variância , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Basquetebol/psicologia , Composição Corporal , Criança , Família , Características da Família , Humanos , Masculino , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Esportes Juvenis/psicologia
18.
Poult Sci ; 100(1): 138-146, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357676

RESUMO

The effects of the in ovo administration of vitamin D3 (D3) and its metabolite, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3), on the performance, breast meat yield, and inflammatory responses of broilers fed commercial diets were investigated. Live embryonated Ross 708 broiler hatching eggs were randomly assigned to one of the following 5 in ovo injection treatments at 18 d of incubation: 1) noninjected; 2) diluent; diluent containing 3) 2.4-µg D3, 4) 2.4-µg 25OHD3, or 5) 2.4-µg D3 + 2.4-µg 25OHD3. A 50-µL solution volume of each prespecified treatment was injected into each egg using an Inovoject multiegg injector. At hatch, 18 male chicks were randomly assigned to each of 30 floor pens. The BW, BW gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio of the birds were determined in each dietary phase. At 14, 28, and 39 d of posthatch age (doa), plasma α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) levels in 1 bird in each of 6 replicate pens per treatment were determined at 14 and 39 doa. The pectoralis major and minor weights of those same birds were also determined. The remaining birds were processed at 43 doa, and the weights of their processing parts were determined. At 39 doa, the in ovo injection of 25OHD3 alone decreased plasma AGP concentrations in comparison with the noninjected, diluent, and D3-alone treatment groups. In addition, birds that received 25OHD3 alone had a greater BW at 42 doa than birds in the noninjected, diluent, and D3-alone treatment groups. At 39 and 43 doa, breast meat yield was increased in response to the in ovo injection of 25OHD3 alone in comparison to all other treatments. These results indicate that the in ovo injection of 2.4 µg of 25OHD3 resulted in an improvement in the performance and inflammatory responses of broilers. A reduction in the inflammatory response subsequent to the in ovo injection of 2.4 µg of 25OHD3 may have led to an increase in broiler performance.


Assuntos
Calcifediol , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas , Crescimento , Animais , Calcifediol/farmacologia , Embrião de Galinha/efeitos dos fármacos , Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Inflamação/veterinária , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Zigoto/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD012875, 2020 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33305842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is a secosteroid hormone that is important for its role in calcium homeostasis to maintain skeletal health. Linear growth faltering and stunting remain pervasive indicators of poor nutrition status among infants and children under five years of age around the world, and low vitamin D status has been linked to poor growth. However, existing evidence on the effects of vitamin D supplementation on linear growth and other health outcomes among infants and children under five years of age has not been systematically reviewed. OBJECTIVES: To assess effects of oral vitamin D supplementation on linear growth and other health outcomes among infants and children under five years of age. SEARCH METHODS: In December 2019, we searched CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase, 14 other electronic databases, and two trials registries. We also searched the reference lists of relevant publications for any relevant trials, and we contacted key organisations and authors to obtain information on relevant ongoing and unpublished trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs assessing the effects of oral vitamin D supplementation, with or without other micronutrients, compared to no intervention, placebo, a lower dose of vitamin D, or the same micronutrients alone (and not vitamin D) in infants and children under five years of age who lived in any country. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures. MAIN RESULTS: Out of 75 studies (187 reports; 12,122 participants) included in the qualitative analysis, 64 studies (169 reports; 10,854 participants) contributed data on our outcomes of interest for meta-analysis. A majority of included studies were conducted in India, USA, and Canada. Two studies reported for-profit funding, two were categorised as receiving mixed funding (non-profit and for-profit), five reported that they received no funding, 26 did not disclose funding sources, and the remaining studies were funded by non-profit funding. Certainty of evidence varied between high and very low across outcomes (all measured at endpoint) for each comparison. Vitamin D supplementation versus placebo or no intervention (31 studies) Compared to placebo or no intervention, vitamin D supplementation (at doses 200 to 2000 IU daily; or up to 300,000 IU bolus at enrolment) may make little to no difference in linear growth (measured length/height in cm) among children under five years of age (mean difference (MD) 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.37 to 1.68; 3 studies, 240 participants; low-certainty evidence); probably improves length/height-for-age z-score (L/HAZ) (MD 0.11, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.22; 1 study, 1258 participants; moderate-certainty evidence); and probably makes little to no difference in stunting (risk ratio (RR) 0.90, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.01; 1 study, 1247 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). In terms of adverse events, vitamin D supplementation results in little to no difference in developing hypercalciuria compared to placebo (RR 2.03, 95% CI 0.28 to 14.67; 2 studies, 68 participants; high-certainty evidence). It is uncertain whether vitamin D supplementation impacts the development of hypercalcaemia as the certainty of evidence was very low (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.35 to 1.90; 2 studies, 367 participants). Vitamin D supplementation (higher dose) versus vitamin D (lower dose) (34 studies) Compared to a lower dose of vitamin D (100 to 1000 IU daily; or up to 300,000 IU bolus at enrolment), higher-dose vitamin D supplementation (200 to 6000 IU daily; or up to 600,000 IU bolus at enrolment) may have little to no effect on linear growth, but we are uncertain about this result (MD 1.00, 95% CI -2.22 to 0.21; 5 studies, 283 participants), and it may make little to no difference in L/HAZ (MD 0.40, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.86; 2 studies, 105 participants; low-certainty evidence). No studies evaluated stunting. As regards adverse events, higher-dose vitamin D supplementation may make little to no difference in developing hypercalciuria (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.35; 6 studies, 554 participants; low-certainty evidence) or in hypercalcaemia (RR 1.39, 95% CI 0.89 to 2.18; 5 studies, 986 participants; low-certainty evidence) compared to lower-dose vitamin D supplementation. Vitamin D supplementation (higher dose) + micronutrient(s) versus vitamin D (lower dose) + micronutrient(s) (9 studies) Supplementation with a higher dose of vitamin D (400 to 2000 IU daily, or up to 300,000 IU bolus at enrolment) plus micronutrients, compared to a lower dose (200 to 2000 IU daily, or up to 90,000 IU bolus at enrolment) of vitamin D with the same micronutrients, probably makes little to no difference in linear growth (MD 0.60, 95% CI -3.33 to 4.53; 1 study, 25 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). No studies evaluated L/HAZ or stunting. In terms of adverse events, higher-dose vitamin D supplementation with micronutrients, compared to lower-dose vitamin D with the same micronutrients, may make little to no difference in developing hypercalciuria (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.06 to 15.48; 1 study, 86 participants; low-certainty evidence) and probably makes little to no difference in developing hypercalcaemia (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.90, 1.11; 2 studies, 126 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Four studies measured hyperphosphataemia and three studies measured kidney stones, but they reported no occurrences and therefore were not included in the comparison for these outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Evidence suggests that oral vitamin D supplementation may result in little to no difference in linear growth, stunting, hypercalciuria, or hypercalcaemia, compared to placebo or no intervention, but may result in a slight increase in length/height-for-age z-score (L/HAZ). Additionally, evidence suggests that compared to lower doses of vitamin D, with or without micronutrients, vitamin D supplementation may result in little to no difference in linear growth, L/HAZ, stunting, hypercalciuria, or hypercalcaemia. Small sample sizes, substantial heterogeneity in terms of population and intervention parameters, and high risk of bias across many of the included studies limit our ability to confirm with any certainty the effects of vitamin D on our outcomes. Larger, well-designed studies of long duration (several months to years) are recommended to confirm whether or not oral vitamin D supplementation may impact linear growth in children under five years of age, among both those who are healthy and those with underlying infectious or non-communicable health conditions.


Assuntos
Crescimento , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Estatura , Pré-Escolar , Intervalos de Confiança , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipercalcemia/etiologia , Hipercalciúria/etiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vitamina D/efeitos adversos , Vitaminas/efeitos adversos
20.
Mar Drugs ; 18(12)2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333811

RESUMO

High-fat diet (HFD) usually induces oxidative stress and astaxanthin is regarded as an excellent anti-oxidant. An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary astaxanthin supplementation on growth performance, lipid metabolism, antioxidant ability, and immune response of juvenile largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) fed HFD. Four diets were formulated: the control diet (10.87% lipid, C), high-fat diet (18.08% lipid, HF), and HF diet supplemented with 75 and 150 mg kg-1 astaxanthin (HFA1 and HFA2, respectively). Dietary supplementation of astaxanthin improved the growth of fish fed HFD, also decreased hepatosomatic index and intraperitoneal fat ratio of fish fed HFD, while having no effect on body fat. Malondialdehyde content and superoxide dismutase activity were increased in fish fed HFD, astaxanthin supplementation in HFD decreased the oxidative stress of fish. The supplementation of astaxanthin in HFD also reduced the mRNA levels of Caspase 3, Caspase 9, BAD, and IL15. These results suggested that dietary astaxanthin supplementation in HFD improved the growth performance, antioxidant ability and immune response of largemouth bass.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bass , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Suplementos Nutricionais , Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Citocinas/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Xantofilas/química , Xantofilas/farmacologia
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