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2.
Glob Health Action ; 15(1): 2107203, 2022 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36106597

RESUMO

The Tigray crisis in Ethiopia is a grave humanitarian catastrophe with causes and consequences that resemble the Nigerian Civil War that ended with the defeat of secessionist Biafra five decades ago. As in the Biafra example, an ethnically distinct and embattled enclave is surrounded by hostile forces and cut off from commerce of any kind, producing starvation, forced migrant encampments, and pervasive dependence on externally provided food relief. Relief action strategies developed during the Nigerian Civil War were comprised of operational components that were often insufficiently integrated into a unified system for nutritional screening, referral, acute care, nutritional rehabilitation, and team deployment. This lack of strategic integration for post-conflict relief actions merits review for possible lessons that could avert its recurrence in Tigray. If evidence-based systems for relief organization had been comprehensively applied in Biafra, the pace of post-conflict nutritional recovery could have been accelerated. Although component strategies of the Biafra-Nigeria Relief Action are being replicated by various agencies that are providing humanitarian assistance in Tigray, their collective impact could be enhanced if these strategies were integrated into a unified, evidence-driven systems response to the emergency. The elements of such a systems approach for assisting Tigray are reviewed.


Assuntos
Fome Epidêmica , Guerra , Altruísmo , Etiópia , Humanos , Nigéria , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional
5.
Med Confl Surviv ; 38(3): 167-169, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36129317
7.
Neurosurg Focus ; 53(3): E16, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052624

RESUMO

Operation Desert Storm (ODS) was an astounding success for combat arms and logistical units of the US Military. In contrast, Department of Defense (DOD) medical units struggled to keep pace with combat operations and were fortunate that casualty estimates for a Cold War-era battle failed to materialize. The medical support plan included a large contingent of active-duty and reserve neurosurgeons in anticipation of care requirements for more than 500,000 deploying service members engaged in a large-scale combat operation. Here, the authors review the clinical experience and operational challenges encountered by neurosurgeons deployed in support of this conflict and discuss legacies of ODS for both surgeons and the military medical system.


Assuntos
Medicina Militar , Militares , Guerra do Golfo , Humanos , Neurocirurgiões , Guerra
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078250

RESUMO

Ukrainian Military Hospital retrospective analysis during a decade of conflicts (3995 records) unveils specific mental health ICD-10-CM distribution per rank and the long-lasting impact of active conflict or trench warfare. Most hospitalizations in all years of observation were among soldiers. Anxiety-related disorders have been present since 'peacetime', mainly among professional soldiers and high ranks, pointing to the need for rank-tailored psychological training in skills to reduce the anxiety burden. High frequency of psychoactive substance use emerged with acute conflicts and in nonprofessional soldiers during wartime. This dictates the need to strengthen the selection of military personnel, considering the tendency to addiction. Military operations multiply the hospitalizations in psychiatric hospitals. The data warn about a 'need for free beds effect', which is worse for soldiers. This is relevant to estimating and planning the need for hospital resources for the current situation where the general population has been recruited for defense. In the current war, tightening the rules of sobriety in units and up to a ban on the sale of alcoholic beverages in areas where hostilities are taking place is recommended. The specific impact on nonprofessional soldiers is relevant to the current war, with the general population of Ukraine recruited for defense and combat.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Militares , Humanos , Militares/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ucrânia/epidemiologia , Guerra
9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1145, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2011, a civil war started in Syria, which is on-going and has reached a death toll of over 400,000 people. Humanitarian organizations, including Aid to The Church in Need (ACN), have strived to provide help and medical support to the civilian victims. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of data gathered in ACN projects in Syria in 2019. The datasets included descriptions of diseases, treatments, costs, cities, and hospitals. For each patient, we assigned the following additional categories: type of help (treatment, diagnosis, or nonmedical), type of treatment (medical or surgical), medical specialty, gross anatomic region, and presence of trauma. RESULTS: A total of 3835 patients benefited from ACN support in Syria in 2019. The majority of financial support went towards treatment (78.4%), while other support went towards nonmedical help (15.7%) or providing a diagnosis (5.9%). Among treatments, 66.6% were medical and 33.4% surgical. The most common medical specialty was internal medicine (48.4%), followed by public health (13.7%) and surgery (7.3%). Anatomic region was undefined in 68.3% of cases and, when defined, was most commonly the abdominal cavity and pelvis (13%). The vast majority of cases 95.1%) were not associated with trauma. Procedural costs were highest in the Valley of Christians region, and lowest in Tartous. Network graphs were used to visualize the three most common diagnoses and treatments for each medical specialty. CONCLUSIONS: The present report describes the treatment of war victims in Syria in 2019. The patients lacked the most basic medical or surgical healthcare. Charity organizations, like ACN, constitute a valuable source of information about the healthcare of war victims. Unfortunately, the methods of describing medical treatment provided to civilian victims remain underdeveloped. Future studies will require the cooperation of healthcare providers, humanists, and social workers. The present findings can help to optimize the provision of humanitarian help by charity organizations, by tailoring projects to the specific needs of Syrian war victims.


Assuntos
Instituições de Caridade , Guerra , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síria
11.
12.
Torture ; 32(1,2): 280-290, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35950441

RESUMO

Torture, understood as a relationship of dom-ination in which one person breaks the will and impedes the self-determination of another human being, taking control of all aspects of the victims' life and trying to change the core elements of their identity to the perpetrator's interests (Pérez-Sales, 2017), will increasingly come to be linked to new technologies, arti-ficial intelligence, the use of media and inter-net, and to new forms of lethal and non-lethal weapons. The author reviews the implications of modern technology for the contemporary fight against torture and some of the emerging civil society initiatives that aim to face them.Keywords: Torture, Non-Lethal weapons, Neuro-warfare, Nanotechnologies,Mind control. Surveillance Methods, Neuro-ethics, Cognitive Liberty.


Assuntos
Tortura , Previsões , Humanos , Tortura/psicologia , Guerra
18.
J Spec Oper Med ; 22(3): 104-107, 2022 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35877979

RESUMO

Since 2016, there has been an increase in reported cases of intelligence officers and diplomats hearing pulsing sounds and experiencing neurophysiologic and cognitive symptoms. These varied and often intense symptoms manifest in ways similar to a traumatic brain injury (TBI) but without inciting trauma. Known formerly as "unconventionally acquired brain injury" (UBI), these events are now labeled "anomalous health incidents" (AHIs). Investigations of these incidents suggest reasons to be concerned that a specific type of neuroweapon may be the cause-a directed energy weapon (DEW). Neuroweapons that target the brain to influence cognition and behavior are leading to a new domain of warfare-neurowarfare. The implications and resultant stakes, especially for the Special Operations community, are significant. This article focuses specifically on the implications of DEWs as a neuroweapon causing UBIs/AHIs for military medical practitioners and suggests using a comprehensive strategy, analogous to that of chemical warfare or other weapons of mass destruction (WMD), to improve our preparedness for the medical repercussions of neurowarfare.


Assuntos
Guerra Química , Medicina Militar , Militares , Humanos , Guerra
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