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4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(4): e2209481119, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36649427

RESUMO

Bioarchaeological evidence of interpersonal violence and early warfare presents important insights into conflict in past societies. This evidence is critical for understanding the motivations for violence and its effects on opposing and competing individuals and groups across time and space. Selecting the Neolithic of northwestern Europe as an area for study, the present paper examines the variation and societal context for the violence recorded in the human skeletal remains from this region as one of the most important elements of human welfare. Compiling data from various sources, it becomes apparent that violence was endemic in Neolithic Europe, sometimes reaching levels of intergroup hostilities that ended in the utter destruction of entire communities. While the precise comparative quantification of healed and unhealed trauma remains a fundamental problem, patterns emerge that see conflict likely fostered by increasing competition between settled and growing communities, e.g., for access to arable land for food production. The further development of contextual information is paramount in order to address hypotheses on the motivations, origins, and evolution of violence as based on the study of human remains, the most direct indicator for actual small- and large-scale violence.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Violência , Humanos , Guerra , Europa (Continente)
5.
Int J Cardiol ; 372: 110-112, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36503672

RESUMO

The Iliad, by the Greek poet Homer, is a precious mine of examples of war traumatology. In the specific case of spear wounds in the chest, the death of the Trojan warrior Alcathous is particularly interesting from the point of view of the history of medicine and the evolution of cardiology and knowledge of the heart at the time of ancient Greece. In particular this paper aims to evidence and reconstruct the main anatomical and physiological knowledge of the heart at that time. Indeed, a historical-linguistic analysis of the Greek text prompts some reflections and thoughts on the heartbeat in pathological conditions and on the function of the heart as a hematopoietic organ. Furthermore, Homer's account is a critical text that highlights the relevance of the use of the senses in the ancient description of nosological pictures and it allows us an interesting and suggestive approach to reconstruction from the historical and historiographical point of view.


Assuntos
Medicina na Literatura , Humanos , História Antiga , Grécia , Frequência Cardíaca , Mundo Grego , Guerra , Grécia Antiga
6.
Rev. med. cine ; 18(4): 365-375, dic. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-213919

RESUMO

Hasta el último hombre (2016) de Mel Gibson representa perfectamente la brutalidad de la guerra y una de sus contradicciones: aquellos que luchan juntos, pero mientras unos van armados y dispuestos a matar, los otros van desarmados y listos para arrebatar víctimas a la propia muerte. Soldados y sanitarios de primera línea no siempre bien avenidos, pero unidos por las circunstancias bélicas.A través de Hasta el último hombre (2016) y más concretamente estudiando su personaje principal, Desmond Doss, queremos analizar el personal de primera línea de la Sanidad Militar de Euzkadi durante la Guerra Civil española. Saber qué tipo de personal sanitario compartió el campo de batalla, cuáles eran sus funciones e identificar en qué categoría del personal sanitario de Euzkadi se encuadraría Desmond Doss. (AU)


War brutality is perfectly represented by Hacksaw Ridge (2016) by Mel Gibson, as well as one of its contradictions: among those men who fight together, there are some who are armed and ready to kill, whereas others are unarmed and ready to snatch casualties from the death itself. Relations between front line soldiers and healthcare workers were not always harmonius, but they were put together under war circumstances.Through «Hacksaw Ridge», and focusing on its main character, who is called Desmond Doos, we intend to analyze the front line personnel of the military health service of Euzkadi during the Spanish Civil War. Also, we want to identify in which healthcare personnel category Desmond Doss would fit within, which his role would have been, as well as with who other type of health workers he would have shared battlefield. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Medicina Militar , Médicos , Filmes Cinematográficos , Conflitos Armados , Guerra
7.
Nurs Outlook ; 70(6S2): S104-S114, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36585057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the conflict in Vietnam (usually referred to as the Vietnam War) ended almost 50 years ago, few research-based publications of nurses' experiences in Vietnam exist. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to expand what is known about the experiences of US military nurses who served in Vietnam. METHODS: This secondary analysis used qualitative description to examine interview data from 15 nurses who served in-country (within Vietnam) and in-theater supporting Vietnam (e.g., Guam, the Philippines) between 1965 and 1972. FINDINGS: We found that nurses' experiences varied based on time deployed and place deployed (land, sea, or air; in-country or in-theater). The influence of time and place on US military nurses' experiences in Vietnam are illustrated through findings pertaining to danger, daily life, and work. The most prominent differences were between nurses assigned in-country and those assigned in-theater. DISCUSSION: The findings illustrate ways research of more recent and future conflicts might be strengthened.


Assuntos
Enfermagem Militar , Militares , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Humanos , Vietnã , Guerra
8.
J Spec Oper Med ; 22(4): 132-135, 2022 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36525026
9.
Bull World Health Organ ; 100(11): 658-659, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36324550

RESUMO

Supported by international partners, Ukraine is building on rehabilitation work initiated by the government prior to the current conflict. Fid Thompson reports.


Assuntos
Medicina , Guerra , Humanos , Ucrânia
12.
Clín. salud ; 33(3): 127-135, nov. 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-212467

RESUMO

Background: Since February 24th, 2022, the beginning of Russia’s aggression against Ukraine, more than 80,000 women were expected to give birth. Therefore, understanding the impact of war on the perinatal health of women is an important requisite to improve perinatal care. This narrative synthesis has two main purposes: on one hand, it aims to summarize the current evidence available based on perinatal health outcomes and care among perinatal women; on the other, it attempts to identify the gaps still present in research in relation to perinatal care. Method: A literature search was completed in diverse databases (e.g., Medline, PsychInfo). Results: Emergent matters related to practice and research in perinatal refugee women have been discussed. Conclusions: In the face of the war in Ukraine, we need to build up further research to provide an evidence-based foundation for preventing and treating the psychological consequences of pregnant women exposed directly to war and those who have been forced into a refugee status during this vulnerable period. Also, it is essential to support not only women transitioning to motherhood, but also supporting midwives and nurses in their work. (AU)


Antecedentes: Desde el 24 de febrero de 2022, el comienzo de la agresión de Rusia contra Ucrania, se esperaba que más de 80,000 mujeres dieran a luz. Por lo tanto, comprender el impacto de la guerra en la salud perinatal de las mujeres es un requisito importante para mejorar la atención perinatal. Esta revisión narrativa tiene dos propósitos principales: por un lado, tiene como objetivo resumir la evidencia actual disponible basada en los resultados de salud perinatal y la atención a las mujeres perinatales y, por otro lado, intenta identificar las brechas aún presentes en la investigación en relación con la atención perinatal. Método: Se completó una búsqueda bibliográfica en diversas bases de datos (p. ej., Medline, PsychInfo). Resultados: Se han discutido temas emergentes relacionados con la práctica y la investigación en mujeres refugiadas perinatales. Conclusiones: Frente a la guerra en Ucrania necesitamos más investigación para construir una base partiendo de la evidencia con el fin de prevenir y tratar las consecuencias psicológicas de las mujeres embarazadas expuestas directamente a la guerra y de aquellas que se han visto obligadas al estatus de refugiadas durante este período vulnerable. Además, es esencial apoyar no solo a las mujeres en transición a la maternidad, sino también a las matronas y enfermeras en su trabajo. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Guerra/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Emigração e Imigração , Ucrânia , Assistência Perinatal , Gravidez/psicologia
13.
Am J Emerg Med ; 62: 96-100, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36279684

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare facilities and medical providers are not immune to aggression and threat from terrorists, criminals and rogue states. The concept of Hybrid Warfare is often described as a mix of conventional warfare, irregular warfare, terrorism, criminality and different types of other hybrid threats such as cyberattacks and drone technology. Healthcare systems can either be primary or secondary targets of hybrid warfare with potentially devastating consequences. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to serve as a primer for clinicians, researchers and emergency managers in understanding the basic aspects of hybrid warfare, how healthcare can be affected, and to provide a framework for mitigation and resilience, especially in an emergency medicine setting. Different hybrid threats and their effect on emergency medicine, and healthcare in general, is discussed. DISCUSSION: Hybrid warfare is an increasing, multimodal, threat for all segments of healthcare, particularly prehospital care and emergency medicine. Disrupting the healthcare system in a country using hybrid warfare has the ultimate aim of destabilizing organizations and society as well as directly reducing the effectiveness and capabilities of healthcare as a key strategic resource. In this aspect prehospital care and emergency medicine are main targets of aggression. CONCLUSION: Clinicians and healthcare managers of all levels should have a basic knowledge of the different components of hybrid warfare so as to mitigate effects of an attack. It is suggested that an emergency department do not aim to create totally new solutions for hybrid threats but use an all hazards approach and the available guidelines for handling generic threats. However, there must be a preparedness for the different ways hybrid warfare can play out, how the threats can be combined in synergistic ways and the potential compounding effects on healthcare and society.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Medicina de Emergência , Terrorismo , Humanos , Guerra , Atenção à Saúde
14.
Psychiatr Danub ; 34(3): 464-474, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36256984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a extremely traumatic experience, captivity may cause other mental disorders in addition to posttraumatic stress disorder, which is highly prevalent among ex-prisoners of war, and which often occurs in comorbidity with at least one other mental disorder. This objective of this study is to identify the incidence of comorbid mental disorders in Homeland war veterans ex-prisoners of war affected by posttraumatic stress disorder, as well as to identify the factors that influenced psychiatric comorbidity. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study sample comprised 264 subjects, all of whom were Croatian Homeland War veterans with combat experience in the defence of the Republic of Croatia, and all of whom fulfilled clinical criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder at the time of the study. The subjects were divided into two groups: the experimental group was composed of ex-prisoners of war, and the control group of veterans who had never been prisoners of war. The methods of sociodemographic questionnaire, posttraumatic stress disorder self-report checklist and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire were used in the study. Psychiatric comorbidity data were retrieved from the subjects' anamnesis and medical records. RESULTS: The results showed that ex-prisoners of war were exposed to a statistically much higher number of traumatic events, and had a significantly higher total number of psychiatric comorbidities (p<0.01) than the control group. The incidence of acute and transient psychotic disorders, generalized anxiety disorders and psychological and behavioural factors associated with disorders or diseases classified elsewhere was significantly higher among ex-prisoners of war. There was no statistically significant difference in overall posttraumatic stress disorder intensity between the two groups (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study confirm our hypothesis that the incidence of psychiatric comorbidity is higher in ex-prisoners of war.


Assuntos
Prisioneiros de Guerra , Prisioneiros , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Veteranos , Humanos , Veteranos/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Prisioneiros de Guerra/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Croácia/epidemiologia , Guerra , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Comorbidade
15.
J Hist Ideas ; 83(4): 601-611, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36189658

RESUMO

The History of Political Thought is a discipline which is very closely aligned with the Anglophone liberal political tradition. It has not, consequently, ever had very much to say about warfare. Richard Tuck's important research marks an exception in this field, but Tuck's work is marked by significant omissions. He defined Catholic scholasticism too narrowly, omitting the Franciscan followers of John Duns Scotus, and excluded Protestant scholasticism (except the work of Hugo Grotius) entirely from consideration. Remedying these omissions leaves us with an early modern theorization of war that appears much less ripe for secularization than scholars have previously supposed.


Assuntos
Catolicismo , Protestantismo , História do Século XX , Guerra
16.
J Hist Ideas ; 83(4): 613-627, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36189659

RESUMO

Early modern efforts to justify warfare entailed serious reflection on the relationship between Christianity and nature or natural law. Those working in a Thomist tradition could draw on a concept of natural law as an ethical system distinct from Christianity; others rejected that concept, working instead to show that warfare could form part of the duties of Christians. All sides recognized the tension between the words of Christ and the demands of human political life, especially when it came to defending military activity. That tension produced creative discussions of natural law, political thought, and theology, in the universities and beyond.


Assuntos
Cristianismo , Teologia , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Guerra
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(41): e2205272119, 2022 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191217

RESUMO

Trade and colonization caused an unprecedented increase in Mediterranean human mobility in the first millennium BCE. Often seen as a dividing force, warfare is in fact another catalyst of culture contact. We provide insight into the demographic dynamics of ancient warfare by reporting genome-wide data from fifth-century soldiers who fought for the army of the Greek Sicilian colony of Himera, along with representatives of the civilian population, nearby indigenous settlements, and 96 present-day individuals from Italy and Greece. Unlike the rest of the sample, many soldiers had ancestral origins in northern Europe, the Steppe, and the Caucasus. Integrating genetic, archaeological, isotopic, and historical data, these results illustrate the significant role mercenaries played in ancient Greek armies and highlight how participation in war contributed to continental-scale human mobility in the Classical world.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Militares , Arqueologia/métodos , Europa (Continente) , Grécia , História Antiga , Humanos , Guerra
20.
Med Confl Surviv ; 38(3): 167-169, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36129317
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