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1.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 84-95, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650063

RESUMO

This study evaluates the influence on body development of doing rhythmic gymnastics in girls from 10 to 17 years of age, the results of certain strength and flexibility abilities, and the trace element status (Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, and Ni). The subjects were divided into three groups: (a) girls who practiced rhythmic gymnastics at a competition level (competition group); (b) girls who practiced this sport at a non-competitive level (training group); and (c) girls who do not practice any sport and with a low level of physical activity (control or sedentary group). Trace element status was determined in hair and urine samples. Results showed that doing rhythmic gymnastics does not alter the normal physical development of muscle mass, and even leads to a decrease in body fat content. Furthermore, better scores in the strength and flexibility test were obtained by the participants of this sports discipline. Statistically significant differences in urine Fe, Cu, and Mn values (p < 0.05) and in hair Cr, Cu, and Mn values (p < 0.05) were found between the two rhythmic gymnastics groups and the control group, and were higher in the competition and training groups. A principal component analysis model was performed to evaluate the possibility of cluster formation among the girls. The PCA results revealed a separation between the different groups although the separation was not perfect. PLS-DA was attempted in order to verify whether it was possible to discriminate between the groups included in this study. It was clear that the competition and control ones were very well classified (around 95% of correct predictions) but 20% of the girls belonging to the training group were misclassified as belonging to the competition one.


Assuntos
Oligoelementos , Composição Corporal , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Ginástica , Humanos , Desempenho Físico Funcional
2.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579022

RESUMO

Rhythmic gymnasts (RGs) are more likely to be dissatisfied with their body mass and shape compared to untrained controls (UCs). However, due to the lack of information, the aim of this study was to investigate the associations of body image perception (BIP) with body composition, daily energy consumption and different blood biochemical markers in adolescent RGs compared to UCs. Thirty-three highly trained RG girls and 20 UC girls aged 14-18 years participated in this cross-sectional study. Height, body mass, body composition, energy intake, resting energy expenditure, training volume and different blood biochemical markers were measured. The body attitude test (BAT) was used to evaluate the BIP of the participants. There were no differences in the total BAT scores between the groups. In RGs, the BAT score correlated positively with the serum resistin level (r = 0.35; p = 0.047). A stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that 40.8% of the variability in the BAT score was determined by resistin and BMI. The association of BIP with resistin values was observed only in RGs. In conclusion, our findings add to the increasing evidence that resistin may be a link between BIP and body composition, most likely through fat mass, in adolescent female RGs.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Ginástica/psicologia , Resistina/sangue , Adolescente , Metabolismo Basal , Biomarcadores/sangue , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Energia , Estônia , Feminino , Humanos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207239

RESUMO

The aim of this investigation was to determine the relationships of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and content (BMC) with body composition, blood hormone and training load variables in adolescent female athletes with different loading patterns. The participants were 73 healthy adolescent females (14-18 years), who were divided into three groups: rhythmic gymnasts (RG; n = 33), swimmers (SW; n = 20) and untrained controls (UC; n = 20). Bone mineral and body compositional variables were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), estradiol and leptin were analyzed from blood samples. In addition, aerobic performance was assessed by a peak oxygen consumption test. No differences (p > 0.05) in weekly training volume were observed between rhythmic gymnasts (17.6 ± 5.3 h/week) and swimmers (16.1 ± 6.9 h/week). Measured areal bone mineral density and bone mineral content values were higher in rhythmic gymnasts compared with other groups (p < 0.05), while no differences (p > 0.05) in measured bone mineral values were seen between swimmers and untrained control groups. Multiple regression models indicated that IGF-1 alone explained 14% of the total variance (R2 × 100) in lumbar spine aBMD, while appendicular muscle mass and training volume together explained 37% of the total variance in femoral neck BMC in the rhythmic gymnast group only. In swimmers, age at menarche, estradiol and appendicular muscle mass together explained 68% of the total variance in lumbar spine BMC, while appendicular muscle mass was the only predictor and explained 19 to 53% of the total variance in measured bone mineral values in untrained controls. In conclusion, adolescent rhythmic gymnasts with specific weight-bearing athletic activity present higher areal bone mineral values in comparison with swimmers and untrained controls. Specific training volume together with appendicular muscle mass influenced cortical bone development at the femoral neck site of the skeleton in rhythmic gymnasts, while hormonal values influenced trabecular bone development at the lumbar spine site in both athletic groups with different loading patterns.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Ginástica , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Atletas , Densidade Óssea , Feminino , Hormônios , Humanos , Minerais
5.
J Athl Train ; 56(7): 688-694, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280287

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Women's gymnastics athletes in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) constitute a unique population of NCAA athletes given the nature and dynamics of the sport. BACKGROUND: Routine examination of women's gymnastics injuries is important for identifying the evolving burden of injuries in this sport. METHODS: Exposure and injury data collected in the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program during 2014-2015 through 2018-2019 were analyzed. Injury counts, rates, and proportions were used to describe injury characteristics; injury rate ratios were used to examine differential injury rates. RESULTS: The overall injury rate was 8.00 per 1000 athlete-exposures; injury incidence was greater in competitions than in practices (injury rate ratio = 1.84; 95% CI = 1.48, 2.29), though practice injury rates increased during 2015-2016 through 2018-2019. Most injuries were classified as strains (16.5%), sprains (16.4%), and inflammatory conditions (12.3%), with overuse injuries prevalent among practice injuries (22.5%). Concussions (8.4%) were the most commonly reported specific injury. SUMMARY: The increasing trend in practice injury incidence is noteworthy although competition injury rates were higher overall. Findings also suggest that the etiologies of overuse injuries and inflammatory conditions as well as the biomechanical aspects of concussions warrant further attention.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Ginástica/lesões , Adulto , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos em Atletas/classificação , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206499

RESUMO

Sports clubs increasingly are settings for health promotion initiatives. This study explored organizational change processes and perceived facilitators and barriers relevant to implementing a health promotion initiative within gymnastics settings in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. A multiple-case design investigated the experiences of the state association (Gymnastics NSW) and five clubs from one region of NSW in a participatory Health-Promoting Gymnastics Clubs (HPGC) program. The program aimed to build the capacity of Gymnastics NSW to support affiliated clubs to become health-promoting settings. Interviews with organizational representatives explored their experiences of the program and identified factors that enabled or inhibited program adoption, implementation and sustainability. Facilitators and barriers identified included leadership and champions; organizational capacity and culture; priorities and timing; and characteristics of the HPGC framework. This multi-level, organizational change intervention demonstrated potential to create health-promoting gymnastics settings. Tailoring strategies in diverse club contexts required involvement of organizational leaders in program development and action planning. Despite positive impacts, pre-existing organizational culture inhibited integration of health promotion as a core value. Sustained organizational change may result from professional regulatory requirements (e.g., accreditation and affiliation), and policy directives and funding (for organizational change, not program delivery) from relevant government departments.


Assuntos
Ginástica , Saúde Pública , Austrália , Promoção da Saúde , New South Wales , Inovação Organizacional
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209486

RESUMO

Perception-action coupling is fundamental to effective motor behaviour in complex sports such as gymnastics. We examined the gaze and motor behaviours of 10 international level gymnasts when performing two skills on the mini-trampoline that matched the performance demands of elite competition. The presence and absence of a vaulting table in each skill served as a task-constraint factor, while we compared super-elite and elite groups. We measured visual search behaviours and kinematic variables during the approach run phase. The presence of a vaulting table influenced gaze behaviour only in the elite gymnasts, who showed significant differences in the time spent fixating on the mini-trampoline, when compared to super-elite gymnasts. Moreover, different approach run characteristics were apparent across the two different gymnastic tasks, irrespective of the level of expertise, and take-off velocity was influenced by the skill being executed across all gymnasts. Task constraints and complexity influence gaze behaviours differed across varying levels of expertise in gymnastics, even within a sample of international level athletes. It appears that the time spent fixating their gazes on the right areas of interest during the approach run is crucial to higher-level performance and therefore higher scores in competition, particularly on the mini-trampoline with vaulting table.


Assuntos
Atletas , Ginástica , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos
8.
Adv Gerontol ; 34(2): 287-292, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245513

RESUMO

The introduction and scientific substantiation of methods for organizing sports events with optimal motor loads for citizens of middle and senior age groups should be based on two principles: general (pedagogical) principles of physical education and sports training, adapted to the specifics of health-related training; analysis of physiological and psychophysiological effects that are created by physical activity of various types and directions in the human body. The importance of this topic is due to the fact that knee injuries occupy a special place in the sports of veterans, and severe injuries and injuries in this area can restrict an athlete in his professional activities. The problem of rehabilitation of athletes of older age groups with knee injuries is not only a medical problem, but also has an important socio-economic significance. The results obtained in the work will make it possible to more objectively approach the creation and implementation of rehabilitation treatment programs without surgical interventions. Therefore, the assessment of the effectiveness of the complex of medical gymnastics for the rehabilitation and prevention of traumatic injuries of the knee joint (ICD-10: S80.83, M17.23, M94.2) in comparison with the traditionally used exercise therapy exercises for patients of older age groups on the first stage of rehabilitation treatment is an urgent task.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Traumatismos do Joelho , Idoso , Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Ginástica , Humanos , Traumatismos do Joelho/prevenção & controle , Articulação do Joelho
9.
J Sports Sci Med ; 20(3): 466-473, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267586

RESUMO

The purpose of this investigation was to study whether prolonged competitive rhythmic gymnastics training influenced bone mineral accrual in premenarcheal girls. Eighty-nine girls (45 rhythmic gymnasts [RG] and 44 untrained controls [UC]) between 7 and 9 years of age were recruited and measured annually for four years (not all participants were measured at every occasion). Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to assess the development of whole body (WB), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral content (BMC). In addition, body composition, blood adipokine and jumping performance characteristics were obtained. For longitudinal analyses, hierarchical mixed-effects models were constructed to predict differences in the development of WB, FN and LS BMC between RG and UC groups, while accounting for differences in body composition, blood adipokine and jumping performance values. It appeared that from 8 years of age, RG had lower (p < 0.05) fat mass and leptin values, and higher (p < 0.05) jumping performance measures in comparison with UC girls. Hierarchical mixed-effects models demonstrated that RG had 71.9 ± 12.0, 0.23 ± 0.11 and 1.39 ± 0.42 g more (p < 0.05) WB, FN and LS BMC, respectively, in comparison with UC girls. In addition, WB, FN and LS BMC increased more (p < 0.05) between 7 to 12 years of age in RG girls in comparison with UC. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the prolonged exposure to competitive rhythmic gymnastics trainings in premenarcheal girls is associated with greater bone mineral accrual despite lower body fat mass and leptin values.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Ginástica/fisiologia , Menarca/fisiologia , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Colo do Fêmur/fisiologia , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Vértebras Lombares/fisiologia , Exercício Pliométrico
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(28): 1004-1007, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264910

RESUMO

The B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, was identified in India in late 2020 and has subsequently been detected in approximately 60 countries (1). The B.1.617.2 variant has a potentially higher rate of transmission than other variants (2). During May 12-18, 2021, the Oklahoma State Department of Health (OSDH) Acute Disease Service (ADS) was notified by the OSDH Public Health Laboratory (PHL) of 21 SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 specimens temporally and geographically clustered in central Oklahoma. Public health surveillance data indicated that these cases were associated with a local gymnastics facility (facility A). OSDH ADS and local health department staff members reinterviewed persons with B.1.617.2 variant-positive laboratory results and conducted contact tracing. Forty-seven COVID-19 cases (age range = 5-58 years), including 21 laboratory-confirmed B.1.617.2 variant and 26 epidemiologically linked cases, were associated with this outbreak during April 15-May 3, 2021. Cases occurred among 10 of 16 gymnast cohorts* and three staff members; secondary cases occurred in seven (33%) of 26 interviewed households with outbreak-associated cases. The overall facility and household attack rates were 20% and 53%, respectively. Forty (85%) persons with outbreak-associated COVID-19 had never received any COVID-19 vaccine doses (unvaccinated); three (6%) had received 1 dose of Moderna or Pfizer-BioNTech ≥14 days before a positive test result but had not received the second dose (partially vaccinated); four persons (9%) had received 2 doses of Moderna or Pfizer-BioNTech or a single dose of Janssen (Johnson & Johnson) vaccine ≥14 days before a positive test result (fully vaccinated). These findings suggest that the B.1.617.2 variant is highly transmissible in indoor sports settings and within households. Multicomponent prevention strategies including vaccination remain important to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2, including among persons participating in indoor sports† and their contacts.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Ginástica , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Instalações Esportivas e Recreacionais , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/transmissão , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Busca de Comunicante , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oklahoma/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253951, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260617

RESUMO

Biomechanical features of the handstand, one of the most fundamental skills required for artistic gymnastics events, have not been well documented. The purpose of this study was to clarify the kinematics and joint moment profiles during straight arm press to handstand in different highly skilled male gymnasts. Fifty-nine male gymnasts performed a straight arm press to handstand on a force platform and were judged on their performance by experienced certified judges. Subjects were divided into two groups (highly-skilled and less-skilled). Kinematic data were obtained using a video camera synchronized with force platform. Joint moments (wrist, shoulder, hip) during each straight arm press to handstand were calculated using the inverse dynamics solution. Larger shoulder flexion moments were observed in less-skilled compared with highly- skilled performers (at 3-59%, p < 0.001) while larger hip flexion moments were observed in highly- skilled performers at 52% (p = 0.045) and 56% (p = 0.048) and normalized time of straight arm press to handstand. Major differences between highly-skilled and less-skilled performers were observed in hip joint moment production as it shifted from extension to flexion from the leg horizontal position to the handstand position in highly-skilled gymnasts. Successful straight arm press to handstand techniques observed in highly-skilled performers were characterized as a more acute pike position at toe-off as well as hip flexor moments at latter phase of the straight arm press to handstand.


Assuntos
Braço/fisiologia , Ginástica , Articulações/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Gait Posture ; 89: 120-125, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The bulk of relevant studies compare individual or very few sports and on small samples of athletes. This requires extensive analysing postural stability in various sports. RESEARCH QUESTION: The main objective of our study was to identify the features of postural stability in a normal vertical stance in athletes of various kinds. METHODS: This study compares postural stability in a normal bipedal stance with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) conditions among athletes (n = 936, age: 6-47 years) from different sports and performance level. Postural stability was measured through the center of pressure (COP) sway area (AS) and velocity (VCP) while standing quietly in a normal bipedal position with EO and EC on a stabiloplatform (50 Hz). RESULTS: The order of VCP-EO increase in athletes compared to Control was as follows: Shooting (-11.3 %, p < .0001) < Football (-10.4 %, p < .0001) < Boxing (-8.7 %, p < .0001) < Cross-Country Skiing (-7.2 %, p < .0001) < Gymnastics (-7.0 %, p < .0001) < Running (-6.9 %, p < .0001) < Team Games Played with Hands (-6.8 %, p < .0001) < Wrestling (-6.3 %, p < .0001) < Tennis (-5.5 %, p = .0004) < Alpine Skiing (-5.4 %, p = .002) < Rowing (-5.0 %, p = .194) < Speed Skating (-4.7 %, p = .004) < Figure Skating (-3.6 %, p = .034) < Control. SIGNIFICANCE: Practicing any kind of sport was associated with increased postural stability in normal bipedal stance. This is the first study that provides reference values of COP sway and velocity with and without visual control on a stable force platform for different sport groups.


Assuntos
Equilíbrio Postural , Futebol , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas , Criança , Ginástica , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Posição Ortostática , Adulto Jovem
13.
Curr Sports Med Rep ; 20(6): 312-318, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099609

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Ulnar-sided wrist injuries are common in sports that require repeated pronosupination, wrist radial/ulnar deviation, axial loading, and gripping equipment. Common anatomic structures affected include the triangular fibrocartilage complex, extensor carpi ulnaris tendon, distal radioulnar and ulnocarpal joints, and hamate bone. Presenting symptoms include pain with activity, swelling, possible snapping or clicking, and reproduction of symptoms with provocative maneuvers. Imaging may confirm or rule out pathologies, but abnormal findings also may present in asymptomatic athletes. Initial treatment is usually nonoperative with splinting, load management, activity modification, strengthening the components of the kinetic chain of the particular sport, and pain management. Surgery is usually indicated in ulnar-wrist pain pathology such as hook of hamate fractures and required in associated instability. Future research should address specific treatment and rehabilitation protocols, emphasizing the complete kinetic chain along with the injured wrist.


Assuntos
Artralgia , Traumatismos em Atletas , Traumatismos dos Tendões , Ulna , Traumatismos do Punho/complicações , Artralgia/diagnóstico , Artralgia/etiologia , Artralgia/terapia , Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Traumatismos em Atletas/etiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/terapia , Beisebol/lesões , Beisebol/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Golfe/lesões , Golfe/fisiologia , Ginástica/lesões , Ginástica/fisiologia , Hamato/lesões , Hóquei/lesões , Hóquei/fisiologia , Humanos , Traumatismos dos Tendões/diagnóstico , Traumatismos dos Tendões/etiologia , Traumatismos dos Tendões/terapia , Tênis/lesões , Tênis/fisiologia , Fibrocartilagem Triangular/lesões , Traumatismos do Punho/epidemiologia , Articulação do Punho/anatomia & histologia , Articulação do Punho/fisiologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065250

RESUMO

Gymnastics athletes are exposed to a high risk of injury, but also of developing musculoskeletal pain. These data are still little investigated in the available scientific literature. An online survey was distributed to 79 professional athletes who practiced artistic and rhythmic gymnastics. The survey collected demographic and anthropometric data, information about the sport practice, the training sessions, the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain gymnastics-related, and lifestyle habits. Musculoskeletal pain had a high prevalence, involving 65 of 79 athletes (82.3%). A significant correlation was found between musculoskeletal pain and the duration of sports practice, both for general pain (p = 0.041) and for specific districts: right wrist pain (p = 0.031), left wrist pain (p = 0.028), right shoulder (p = 0.039), left hip (p = 0.031), right thigh (p = 0.031), and left knee (p = 0.005). Another statistical association was found between right wrist pain and BMI (p = 0.001), and hip pain and BMI (p = 0.030). Hours spent in a sitting position were also correlated with the incidence of pain (p = 0.045). Wrist pain and right shoulder pain had a statistically significant association with the age of the athletes (right wrist pain: p = 0.038; left wrist pain: p = 0.004; right shoulder pain: p = 0.035). The more the gymnasts practice this sport, the more likely they are to develop musculoskeletal pain. Increased age and a higher BMI, as well as daily prolonged sitting position, seem to be potential risk factors for the onset of musculoskeletal pain. Future studies could plan training strategies aimed at preventing musculoskeletal pain associated with gymnastics, in order to promote its further spread.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Dor Musculoesquelética , Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Ginástica , Humanos , Dor Musculoesquelética/epidemiologia , Dor Musculoesquelética/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13395, 2021 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183711

RESUMO

A further increase in the number of total hip arthroplasty (THA) is predicted, in particular the number of young THA patients has raised and with it their demands. There is no standardized evidence-based rehabilitation program and no reliable guidelines for sports activities after THA. Stretching and strengthening gymnastics are routinely performed in rehabilitation and aerobics as a sport after THA. The aim of the investigation was to determine the in vivo force and moments acting on the hip prosthesis during gymnastics and aerobic exercises to provide a source for evidence-based recommendations. Hip joint loads were measured in six patients with instrumented hip implants. The resulting force FRes, bending moment MBend at the neck and torsional moment MTors at the stem were examined during seven strengthening (with two different resistance bands) and four stretching gymnastic exercises and seven aerobic exercises with and without an aerobic step board compared to the loads during the reference activity walking. The stretching and strengthening gymnastics exercises and the aerobic exercises with and without a board demonstrated in their median peak force and moments mostly lower or similar values compared to walking. Significantly increased loads were recorded for the flexor stretching exercise in monopod stand (Fres and MBend), the strengthening abduction exercise on the chair (MTors) and the strengthening flexion exercise with the stronger resistance band (MTors). We also found a significant increase in median peak values in aerobic exercises with a board for the "Basic Step" (ipsilateral started Fres and MTors; contralateral started MTors), "Kickstep ipsilateral started" (Fres and MTors) and "Over the Top contralateral started" (Fres). The in vivo loads in THA patients during frequently performed stretching, strengthening and aerobic exercises were demonstrated for the first time. It was proved that stretching gymnastic exercises are safe in terms of resulting force, bending and torque moments for THA patients, although an external assistance for stabilization may be considered. Strengthening gymnastics exercises are reliable in terms of Fres, MBend and MTors, but, based on our data, we recommend to adhere to the communicated specific postoperative restrictions and select the resistance bands with lower tension. Aerobic exercises without an aerobic board can be considered as reliable activity in terms of force and moments for THA patients. Aerobic exercises with a board are not recommended for the early postoperative period and in our opinion need to be adapted to the individual muscular and coordinative resources.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Ginástica/fisiologia , Articulação do Quadril/cirurgia , Idoso , Artroplastia de Quadril , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Feminino , Prótese de Quadril , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Torque , Caminhada/fisiologia , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253656, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181683

RESUMO

In contrast to research on team-sports, delayed maturation has been observed in higher-skilled gymnasts, leading to atypical distributions of the relative age effect. Recent studies have reported intra-sport differences in the relative age effect and given the task demands across gymnastics apparatus, we expected to find evidence for the influence of apparatus specialism. We examined the presence of a relative age effects within a sample of elite, international, women's artistic gymnasts (N = 806, Ncountries = 87), and further sampled our data from vault, bars, beam, and floor major competition finalists. Poisson regression analysis indicated no relative age effect in the full sample (p = .55; R2 adj. = .01) but an effect that manifested when analysing apparatus independently. The Index of Discrimination (ID) analysis provided evidence of an inverse relative age effect identified for beam (p = .01; ID = 1.27; R2 adj. = .12), a finding that was corroborated by a marginal effect in our vault finalists (p = .08; ID = 1.21; R2 adj. = .06). These novel findings can be attributed to the integrated influence of self-fulfilling prophecy upon coach and gymnast expectations, as well as the technical mechanisms underpinning skill development involved in the underdog hypothesis.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Ginástica , Modelos Biológicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos
17.
Eat Behav ; 41: 101514, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964708

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Eating disorders are associated with perfectionism in adults, but evidence is lacking in adolescent competitive athletes. This study examined eating disorder symptoms and perfectionism in a sample of 13-15 years old, adolescent rhythmic gymnasts. METHODS: Eighty-nine female rhythmic gymnasts (41 international and 48 recreational level gymnasts), completed the Eating Attitudes Tests 26 (EAT-26), the Sport Perfectionism Questionnaire (SPQ), the Social Desirability Scale (SDS) and provided information on their training. RESULTS: It was found that 41.46% of the international and 14.58% of the recreational level gymnasts scored ≥20 in EAT-26. International level gymnasts also scored higher than recreational in EAT-26 (p = 0.002), and its subscales Dieting (p = 0.012) and Oral Control (p Ë‚ 0.001) and in the Sport Perfectionism Questionnaire (p = 0.005) and the subscales Striving for Perfectionism (p Ë‚ 0.001) and Personal Standards (p Ë‚ 0.001). No differences were found between groups in the subscales Concerns over Mistakes (p = 0.429), and Negative Reactions to Imperfection (p = 0.096). Multiple regression analysis in international level gymnasts, showed that Negative Reactions to Imperfection, body mass index and training experience accounted for 33.2% of the variance in EAT-26 (adjusted R2 = 0.332, F = 6.786, p Ë‚ 0.001). A negative association was observed between training experience and eating disorder symptoms in international level athletes. No association was found between the subscales of perfectionism and EAT-26 in recreational gymnasts (p Ëƒ 0.316). CONCLUSIONS: International level, adolescent rhythmic gymnasts show more eating pathology than recreational. Negative Reactions to Imperfection and BMI seem relevant for gymnasts' dieting behaviour while training experience may help adolescent athletes to cope with disturbed eating behaviours.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Perfeccionismo , Esportes , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas , Comportamento Alimentar , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Feminino , Ginástica , Humanos
18.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 18(1): 29, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849553

RESUMO

PURPOSE/INTRODUCTION: To compare serum levels of bone turnover markers in athletes and non-athletes, and to evaluate the relationship between serum levels of vitamin D metabolites and exercise-induced changes in biomarker levels. METHODS: Sixteen elite male artistic gymnasts (EG; 21.4 ± 0.8 years-old) and 16 physically active men (the control group, PAM; 20.9 ± 1.2 years-old) performed lower and upper body 30-s Wingate anaerobic tests (LBWT and UBWT, respectively). For biomarker analysis, blood samples were collected before, and 5 and 30 min after exercise. Samples for vitamin D levels were collected before exercise. N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP) was analysed as a marker of bone formation. C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) was analysed as a marker of bone resorption. RESULTS: UBWT fitness readings were better in the EG group than in the PAM group, with no difference in LBWT readings between the groups. UBWT mean power was 8.8% higher in subjects with 25(OH)D3 levels over 22.50 ng/ml and in those with 24,25(OH)2D3 levels over 1.27 ng/ml. Serum CTX levels increased after both tests in the PAM group, with no change in the EG group. PINP levels did not change in either group; however, in PAM subjects with 25(OH)D3 levels above the median, they were higher than those in EG subjects. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D metabolites affect the anaerobic performance and bone turnover markers at rest and after exercise. Further, adaptation to physical activity modulates the effect of anaerobic exercise on bone metabolism markers.


Assuntos
Remodelação Óssea , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Ginástica/fisiologia , Osteogênese , Vitamina D/sangue , Adaptação Fisiológica , Biomarcadores/sangue , Colágeno Tipo I/sangue , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Masculino , Peptídeos/sangue , Fosfopeptídeos/sangue , Pró-Colágeno/sangue , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 34(5): 647-658, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33885046

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the impact of the training program on directed physical fitness. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The research involved 35 male cadets of the Polish Air Force Academy in Deblin. The examined persons were on average 19 years old. All the examined persons were divided into 2 groups. Group I (N = 25, the test group) carried out a program on Special Aviation Gymnastic Instruments. Group II (N = 10, the control group) conducted the standard physical military education program. In both groups, the test was performed twice, before (examination I) and after (examination II) the preparatory process, using the following tests: pull-ups, a 16.5-meter race, a 10×10-meter shuttle race, forward bends, and the Aviation Synthetic Efficiency Test (ASET). The findings obtained in these tests were converted into points for the overall evaluation of physical fitness. The training lasted 70 days. RESULTS: In group I, in examination II, there was a statistically significant increase in the results of pull-ups (p < 0.01), the 16.5-meter race (p < 0.01), the 10×10-meter shuttle race (p < 0.05), forward bends for 2 min (p < 0.05) and the overall physical fitness (p < 0.05), compared to examination I. In group II, in examination II, the authors proved an insignificant increase in the findings when contrasted with examination I. The test results between groups I and II did not show any significant differences in the examined efficiency tests. In group I, in examination I, significant correlations were found between the overall physical fitness and pull-ups, the 10×10-meter shuttle race, the 16.5-meter race, forward bends and ASET. Examination II demonstrated significantly stronger correlations between the overall physical fitness and forward bends as well as ASET. In group II, in examination II, a significant correlation was shown between the overall physical fitness and the 16.5-meter race. CONCLUSIONS: A significant correlation between the overall physical fitness and ASET in examination II indicates an impact of the training program on the targeted efficiency of the cadet pilots. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2021;34(5):647-58.


Assuntos
Militares , Pilotos , Adulto , Ginástica , Humanos , Masculino , Exame Físico , Aptidão Física , Adulto Jovem
20.
Rev. andal. med. deporte ; 14(1): 13-16, mar. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-200374

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Identificar las potencialidades físicas, a través de perfiles dermatoglíficos, de niñas gimnastas de competencia comparadas con niñas no gimnastas. MÉTODO: Se midieron niñas no gimnastas (n=50) y niñas gimnastas (n=50) participantes en el Campeonato Regional de bases 2018, Zona 1 Norte de México, de los estados de Sonora, Sinaloa, Baja California, Baja California Sur y Chihuahua. Lo anterior a través del método dermatoglífico informatizado, sobre la base del protocolo propuesto por Cummins y Midlo, que consiste en la toma de las huellas de los 10 dedos de las manos. RESULTADOS: Las gimnastas exhiben mayor coordinación motora, agilidad y resistencia, ya que presentan valores más altos en marcas dactilares como verticilos y delta 10. Absolutamente todas las formulas encontradas en las gimnastas presentan verticilos (coordinación y agilidad), aunque en diferente proporción. Las fórmulas que más se repiten en ambos grupos son presillas>verticilos (gimnastas 48% y no gimnastas 44%) y verticilos> presillas (gimnastas 26% y no gimnasta 16%). Notando que, aunque en las niñas no gimnastas también aparecen dichas formulas, en este grupo tienden a diversificarse de forma clara. CONCLUSIONES: Se logra definir que los verticilos, que correlacionan con coordinación y agilidad, son huellas de suma importancia en la práctica de la gimnasta, que junto con un delta 10 (promedio) de 14 y un alto conteo de líneas en los dedos de la mano izquierda, como elementos indispensables en el perfil dermatoglífico en la gimnasia


OBJECTIVE: To identify the physical potentialities, through dermatoglyphic profiles, of competitive gymnast girls compared to non-gymnast girls. METHOD: Non-gymnast girls (n = 50) and gymnast girls (n = 50) participating in the 2018 Regional Base Championship, Zone 1 North of Mexico, of the states of Sonora, Sinaloa, Baja California, Baja California Sur and Chihuahua The above through the computerized dermatoglyphic method, on the basis of the protocol proposed by Cummins and Midlo, which consists of making the fingerprints of the 10 fingers. RESULTS: Gymnasts exhibit greater motor coordination, agility and endurance, since they have higher values in fingerprints such as whorls and delta 10. Absolutely all the formulas found in gymnasts have whorls (coordination and agility), although in different proportions. The formulas that are repeated in both groups are loops>whorls (gymnasts 48% and not gymnasts 44%) and whorls>loops (gymnasts 26% and non-gymnasts 16%). Noting that, although in non-gymnast girls such formulas also appear, in this group they tend to diversify clearly. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to define that whorls, which correlate with coordination and agility, are traces of the utmost importance in the gymnast's practice, which together with a delta 10 (average) of 14 and a high count of lines on the fingers of the left hand, as essential elements in the dermatoglyphic profile in gymnastics


OBJETIVO: Identificar as potencialidades físicas, por meio de perfis dermatoglíficos, de meninas ginastas de competição em comparação com não ginastas. MÉTODO: Foram medidas meninas não ginastas (n = 50) e meninas ginastas (n = 50) que participam do Campeonato Regional de 2018, Zona 1 ao norte do México, dos estados de Sonora, Sinaloa, Baja California, Baja California Sur e Chihuahua O exposto acima, pelo método dermatoglífico computadorizado, com base no protocolo proposto por Cummins e Midlo, que consiste em fazer as impressões digitais dos 10 dedos. RESULTADOS: As ginastas apresentam maior coordenação motora, agilidade e resistência, pois apresentam valores mais altos nas impressões digitais como espirais e delta 10. Absolutamente todas as fórmulas encontradas nas ginastas possuem vértices (coordenação e agilidade), embora em proporções diferentes. As fórmulas repetidas nos dois grupos são presilha>espirais (ginastas 48% e não ginastas 44%) e espirais>presilha (ginastas 26% e não ginastas 16%). Observando que, embora em meninas sem ginasta, essas fórmulas também apareçam, nesse grupo elas tendem a diversificar claramente. CONCLUSÕES: É possível definir que espirais, que se correlacionam com coordenação e agilidade, são traços de extrema importância na prática da ginasta e que, juntamente com um delta 10 (médio) de 14 e uma contagem alta de linhas nos dedos da mão esquerda, como elementos essenciais no perfil dermatoglyphic na ginástica


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Ginástica/fisiologia , Dermatoglifia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Especialização , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Antropometria , Esportes Juvenis/fisiologia
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