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1.
Genes (Basel) ; 14(1)2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36672884

RESUMO

Artificial lighting, especially blue light, is becoming a public-health risk. Excessive exposure to blue light at night has been reported to be associated with brain diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying neuropathy induced by blue light remain unclear. An early anatomical tracing study described the projection of the retina to the lateral habenula (LHb), whereas more mechanistic reports are available on multiple brain functions and neuropsychiatric disorders in the LHb, which are rarely seen in epigenetic studies, particularly N6-methyladenosine (m6A). The purpose of our study was to first expose Sprague-Dawley rats to blue light (6.11 ± 0.05 mW/cm2, the same irradiance as 200 lx of white light in the control group) for 4 h, and simultaneously provide white light to the control group for the same time to enter a sleep period. The experiment was conducted over 12 weeks. RNA m6A modifications and different mRNA transcriptome profiles were observed in the LHb. We refer to this experimental group as BLS. High-throughput MeRIP-seq and mRNA-seq were performed, and we used bioinformatics to analyze the data. There were 188 genes in the LHb that overlapped between differentially m6A-modified mRNA and differentially expressed mRNA. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and gene ontology analysis were used to enrich neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, long-term depression, the cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase G (cGMP-PKG) signaling pathway, and circadian entrainment. The m6A methylation level of the target genes in the BLS group was disordered. In conclusion, this study suggests that the mRNA expression and their m6A of the LHb were abnormal after blue light exposure during the sleep period, and the methylation levels of target genes related to synaptic plasticity were disturbed. This study offers a theoretical basis for the scientific use of light.


Assuntos
Habenula , Ratos , Animais , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Habenula/metabolismo , Sono/genética , Metilação
2.
Brain Res ; 1798: 148150, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343725

RESUMO

The lateral habenula (LHb), known as the brain structure of the epithalamic, plays the main role in depression and drug addiction. The glutamatergic system influences morphine reward. The effect of activation/inhibition of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) in the LHb on different phases of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) remains unknown. In this research, the effect of bilateral intra-LHb microinjection of AMPARs agonist and antagonist on the acquisition and expression phases of CPP in male rats has been investigated. Different doses of NBQX, the antagonist of AMPARs, in combination with the effective dose of morphine, increased the CPP score during the acquisition phase. While AMPA, the agonist of AMPARs, significantly reduced the conditioning scores in the acquisition phase. Pretreatment with NBQX (0.5 and 1 µg/rat) reversed the inhibitory effect of AMPA (1 µg/rat) on the acquisition phase of morphine-induced CPP. The antagonist (1 µg/rat) increased the effect of a high dose of agonist (2 µg/rat) on CPP. On the other hand, NBQX significantly increased CPP scores during the expression phase. AMPA did not significantly affect CPP scores in the expression phase, but significantly reduced locomotor activity in the test phase. These results confirmed the importance of AMPARs in the LHb in morphine reward. Our data also suggest that injection of an AMPARs antagonist into the LHb may alter the AMPA-induced morphine response in a dose-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Habenula , Morfina , Masculino , Animais , Ratos , Morfina/farmacologia , Morfina/metabolismo , Receptores de AMPA/metabolismo , Habenula/metabolismo , Ácido alfa-Amino-3-hidroxi-5-metil-4-isoxazol Propiônico , Condicionamento Clássico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(50): e2208867119, 2022 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36469769

RESUMO

As a critical node connecting the forebrain with the midbrain, the lateral habenula (LHb) processes negative feedback in response to aversive events and plays an essential role in value-based decision-making. Compulsive drug use, a hallmark of substance use disorder, is attributed to maladaptive decision-making regarding aversive drug-use-related events and has been associated with dysregulation of various frontal-midbrain circuits. To understand the contributions of frontal-habenula-midbrain circuits in the development of drug dependence, we employed a rat model of methamphetamine self-administration (SA) in the presence of concomitant footshock, which has been proposed to model compulsive drug-taking in humans. In this longitudinal study, functional MRI data were collected at pretraining baseline, after 20 d of long-access SA phase, and after 5 d of concomitant footshock coupled with SA (punishment phase). Individual differences in response to punishment were quantified by a "compulsivity index (CI)," defined as drug infusions at the end of punishment phase, normalized by those at the end of SA phase. Functional connectivity of LHb with the frontal cortices and substantia nigra (SN) after the punishment phase was positively correlated with the CI in rats that maintained drug SA despite receiving increasing-intensity footshock. In contrast, functional connectivity of the same circuits was negatively correlated with CI in rats that significantly reduced SA. These findings suggest that individual differences in compulsive drug-taking are reflected by alterations within frontal-LHb-SN circuits after experiencing the negative consequences from SA, suggesting these circuits may serve as unique biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for individualized treatment of addiction.


Assuntos
Habenula , Metanfetamina , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , Habenula/fisiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Comportamento Compulsivo , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 22044, 2022 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36543829

RESUMO

Environmental cues and internal states such as mood, reward, or aversion directly influence feeding behaviors beyond homeostatic necessity. The hypothalamus has been extensively investigated for its role in homeostatic feeding. However, many of the neural circuits that drive more complex, non-homeostatic feeding that integrate valence and sensory cues (such as taste and smell) remain unknown. Here, we describe a basal forebrain (BF)-to-lateral habenula (LHb) circuit that directly modulates non-homeostatic feeding behavior. Using viral-mediated circuit mapping, we identified a population of glutamatergic neurons within the BF that project to the LHb, which responds to diverse sensory cues, including aversive and food-related odors. Optogenetic activation of BF-to-LHb circuitry drives robust, reflexive-like aversion. Furthermore, activation of this circuitry suppresses the drive to eat in a fasted state. Together, these data reveal a role of basal forebrain glutamatergic neurons in modulating LHb-associated aversion and feeding behaviors by sensing environmental cues.


Assuntos
Prosencéfalo Basal , Habenula , Habenula/fisiologia , Prosencéfalo Basal/fisiologia , Afeto , Hipotálamo/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Vias Neurais/fisiologia
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(46): e2209870119, 2022 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36346845

RESUMO

Hedgehog-interacting protein (HHIP) sequesters Hedgehog ligands to repress Smoothened (SMO)-mediated recruitment of the GLI family of transcription factors. Allelic variation in HHIP confers risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other smoking-related lung diseases, but underlying mechanisms are unclear. Using single-cell and cell-type-specific translational profiling, we show that HHIP expression is highly enriched in medial habenula (MHb) neurons, particularly MHb cholinergic neurons that regulate aversive behavioral responses to nicotine. HHIP deficiency dysregulated the expression of genes involved in cholinergic signaling in the MHb and disrupted the function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) through a PTCH-1/cholesterol-dependent mechanism. Further, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genomic cleavage of the Hhip gene in MHb neurons enhanced the motivational properties of nicotine in mice. These findings suggest that HHIP influences vulnerability to smoking-related lung diseases in part by regulating the actions of nicotine on habenular aversion circuits.


Assuntos
Habenula , Pneumopatias , Receptores Nicotínicos , Camundongos , Animais , Nicotina/farmacologia , Nicotina/metabolismo , Habenula/metabolismo , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Neurônios Colinérgicos/metabolismo , Pneumopatias/metabolismo
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20234, 2022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36424418

RESUMO

The mu opioid receptor (MOR) and the orphan GPR151 receptor are inhibitory G protein coupled receptors that are enriched in the habenula, a small brain region involved in aversion processing, addiction and mood disorders. While MOR expression in the brain is widespread, GPR151 expression is restricted to the habenula. In a previous report, we created conditional ChrnB4-Cre × Oprm1fl/fl (so-called B4MOR) mice, where MORs are deleted specifically in Chrnb4-positive neurons restricted to the habenula, and shown a role for these receptors in naloxone aversion. Here we characterized the implication of habenular MORs in social behaviors. B4MOR-/- mice and B4MOR+/+ mice were compared in several social behavior measures, including the chronic social stress defeat (CSDS) paradigm, the social preference (SP) test and social conditioned place preference (sCPP). In the CSDS, B4MOR-/- mice showed lower preference for the social target (unfamiliar mouse of a different strain) at baseline, providing a first indication of deficient social interactions in mice lacking habenular MORs. In the SP test, B4MOR-/- mice further showed reduced sociability for an unfamiliar conspecific mouse. In the sCPP, B4MOR-/- mice also showed impaired place preference for their previous familiar littermates after social isolation. We next created and tested Gpr151-/- mice in the SP test, and also found reduced social preference compared to Gpr151+/+ mice. Altogether our results support the underexplored notion that the habenula regulates social behaviors. Also, our data suggest that the inhibitory habenular MOR and GPR151 receptors normally promote social reward, possibly by dampening the aversive habenula activity.


Assuntos
Habenula , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G , Receptores Opioides mu , Animais , Camundongos , Habenula/metabolismo , Naloxona/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Receptores Opioides mu/metabolismo , Recompensa , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo
7.
Neuron ; 110(22): 3820-3832.e4, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206758

RESUMO

The habenula (Hb) is central to adaptive reward- and aversion-driven behaviors, comprising a hub for higher-order processing networks involving the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Despite an established role in preclinical models of cocaine addiction, the translational significance of the Hb and its connectivity with the PFC in humans is unclear. Using diffusion tractography, we detailed PFC structural connectivity with the Hb and two control regions, quantifying tract-specific microstructural features in healthy and cocaine-addicted individuals. White matter was uniquely impaired in PFC-Hb projections in both short-term abstainers and current cocaine users. Abnormalities in this tract further generalized to an independent sample of heroin-addicted individuals and were associated, in an exploratory analysis, with earlier onset of drug use across the addiction subgroups, potentially serving as a predisposing marker amenable for early intervention. Importantly, these findings contextualize a plausible PFC-Hb circuit in the human brain, supporting preclinical evidence for its impairment in cocaine addiction.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína , Cocaína , Habenula , Dependência de Heroína , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem
8.
Behav Pharmacol ; 33(7): 452-465, 2022 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36148835

RESUMO

The lateral habenula (LHb) is a critical brain structure involved in the aversive response to drug abuse. It has been determined that the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic system plays the main role in morphine dependency. The role of GABA type A receptors (GABAARs) in LHb on morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) remains unknown. In this study, the effect of bilateral intra-LHb microinjection of GABAAR agonist and antagonist on the acquisition and expression phases of CPP, utilizing a 5-day CPP paradigm in male rats, was evaluated. Subcutaneous administration of different doses of morphine caused a dose-dependent CPP. Intra-LHb microinjection of the GABAAR agonist, muscimol, in combination with morphine (5 mg/kg; subcutaneously) enhanced CPP scores in the acquisition phase of morphine CPP, whereas the GABAAR antagonist, bicuculline, significantly reduced the conditioning scores in the acquisition phase. Furthermore, pretreatment with a high dose of bicuculline reversed the additive effect of muscimol during the acquisition phase, yet the low dose of antagonist had no significant effect on agonist-induced CPP scores. On the other hand, muscimol (3 µg/rat) significantly increased CPP scores in the expression phase but bicuculline did not induce a significant effect on CPP scores. Bicuculline and muscimol microinjections did not affect locomotor activity in the testing sessions. Our results confirm that GABAARs in LHb play an active role in morphine reward. In addition, microinjections of bicuculline/muscimol may alter the morphine response through the GABAergic system.


Assuntos
Habenula , Morfina , Animais , Bicuculina/farmacologia , Condicionamento Operante , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Morfina/farmacologia , Muscimol/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores de GABA , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico
9.
Peptides ; 158: 170882, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36150631

RESUMO

The medial-lateral habenula (LHbM)'s role in anxiety and depression behaviors in female mice remains unclear. Here, we used neonatal maternal deprivation (MD) and post-weaning environmental enrichment (EE) to treat female BALB/c offspring and checked anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors as well as the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), oxytocin receptor (OTR), estrogen receptor-beta (ERß) levels in their LHbM at adulthood. We found that MD enhanced state anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus-maze test, and EE caused trait anxiety-like behaviors in the open field test and depression-like behaviors in the tail suspension test. The immunochemistry showed that MD reduced OT immunoreactive neuron numbers in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus but increased OTR levels in the LHbM; EE increased CRH levels in the LHbM but decreased OTR levels in the LHbM. The additive effects of EE and MD maintained the behavioral parameters, OT-ir neuronal numbers, CRH levels, and OTR levels similar to the additive of non-MD and non-EE. The correlation analysis showed that CRH levels correlated with synaptic connection levels, OTR levels correlated with nucleus densities, and ERß levels correlated with Nissl body levels and body weights in female mice. Neither MD nor EE affected ERß levels in the LHbM. Together, the study revealed the relationships between behaviors and neuroendocrine and neuronal alterations in female LHbM and the effects of experiences including MD and EE on them.


Assuntos
Habenula , Ocitocina , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina , Privação Materna , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/genética , Habenula/metabolismo , Depressão , Receptores de Ocitocina/genética , Ansiedade
10.
Cell ; 185(19): 3568-3587.e27, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113428

RESUMO

Computational analysis of cellular activity has developed largely independently of modern transcriptomic cell typology, but integrating these approaches may be essential for full insight into cellular-level mechanisms underlying brain function and dysfunction. Applying this approach to the habenula (a structure with diverse, intermingled molecular, anatomical, and computational features), we identified encoding of reward-predictive cues and reward outcomes in distinct genetically defined neural populations, including TH+ cells and Tac1+ cells. Data from genetically targeted recordings were used to train an optimized nonlinear dynamical systems model and revealed activity dynamics consistent with a line attractor. High-density, cell-type-specific electrophysiological recordings and optogenetic perturbation provided supporting evidence for this model. Reverse-engineering predicted how Tac1+ cells might integrate reward history, which was complemented by in vivo experimentation. This integrated approach describes a process by which data-driven computational models of population activity can generate and frame actionable hypotheses for cell-type-specific investigation in biological systems.


Assuntos
Habenula , Recompensa , Dinâmica Populacional
11.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 588, 2022 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common cause of disability and morbidity, affecting about 10% of the population worldwide. Subclinical depression (SD) can be understood as a precursor of MDD, and therefore provides an MDD risk indicator. The pathogenesis of MDD and SD in humans is still unclear, and the current diagnosis lacks accurate biomarkers and gold standards. METHODS: A total of 40 MDD, 34 SD, and 40 healthy control (HC) participants matched by age, gender, and education were included in this study. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance images (rs-fMRI) were used to analyze the functional connectivity (FC) of the posterior parietal thalamus (PPtha), which includes the lateral habenula, as the region of interest. Analysis of variance with the post hoc t-test test was performed to find significant differences in FC and clarify the variations in FC among the HC, SD, and MDD groups. RESULTS: Increased FC was observed between PPtha and the left inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) for MDD versus SD, and between PPtha and the right ITG for SD versus HC. Conversely, decreased FC was observed between PPtha and the right middle temporal gyrus (MTG) for MDD versus SD and MDD versus HC. The FC between PPtha and the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) in SD was higher than that in MDD and HC. Compared with the HC group, the FC of PPtha-ITG (left and right) increased in both the SD and MDD groups, PPtha-MTG (right) decreased in both the SD and MDD groups and PPtha-MFG (right) increased in the SD group and decreased in the MDD group. CONCLUSION: Through analysis of FC measured by rs-fMRI, the altered FC between PPtha and several brain regions (right and left ITG, right MTG, and right MFG) has been identified in participants with SD and MDD. Different alterations in FC between PPtha and these regions were identified for patients with depression. These findings might provide insights into the potential pathophysiological mechanisms of SD and MDD, especially related to PPtha and the lateral habenula.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Habenula , Encéfalo , Mapeamento Encefálico , Depressão , Habenula/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
12.
Curr Biol ; 32(20): 4325-4336.e5, 2022 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36049479

RESUMO

Survival requires both the ability to persistently pursue goals and the ability to determine when it is time to stop, an adaptive balance of perseverance and disengagement. Neural activity in the lateral habenula (LHb) has been linked to negative valence, but its role in regulating the balance between engaged reward seeking and disengaged behavioral states remains unclear. Here, we show that LHb neural activity is tonically elevated during minutes-long periods of disengagement from reward-seeking behavior, both when due to repeated reward omission (negative valence) and when sufficient reward has been consumed (positive valence). Furthermore, we show that LHb inhibition extends ongoing reward-seeking behavioral states but does not prompt task re-engagement. We find no evidence for similar tonic activity changes in ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons. Our findings support a framework in which tonic activity in LHb neurons suppresses engagement in reward-seeking behavior in response to both negatively and positively valenced factors.


Assuntos
Habenula , Habenula/fisiologia , Recompensa , Área Tegmentar Ventral/fisiologia , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/fisiologia , Estimulação Elétrica , Vias Neurais/fisiologia
13.
Eur J Neurosci ; 56(8): 5154-5176, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35993349

RESUMO

Upon stress exposure, a broad network of structures comes into play in order to provide adequate responses and restore homeostasis. It has been known for decades that the main structures engaged during the stress response are the medial prefrontal cortex, the amygdala, the hippocampus, the hypothalamus, the monoaminergic systems (noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin) and the periaqueductal gray. The lateral habenula (LHb) is an epithalamic structure directly connected to prefrontal cortical areas and to the amygdala, whereas it functionally interacts with the hippocampus. Also, it is a main modulator of monoaminergic systems. The LHb is activated upon exposure to basically all types of stressors, suggesting it is also involved in the stress response. However, it remains unknown if and how the LHb functionally interacts with the broad stress response network. In the current study we performed in rats a restraint stress procedure followed by immunohistochemical staining of the c-Fos protein throughout the brain. Using graph theory-based functional connectivity analyses, we confirm the principal hubs of the stress network (e.g., prefrontal cortex, amygdala and periventricular hypothalamus) and show that the LHb is engaged during stress exposure in close interaction with the medial prefrontal cortex, the lateral septum and the medial habenula. In addition, we performed DREADD-induced LHb inactivation during the same restraint paradigm in order to explore its consequences on the stress response network. This last experiment gave contrasting results as the DREADD ligand alone, clozapine-N-oxide, was able to modify the network.


Assuntos
Clozapina , Habenula , Animais , Dopamina/metabolismo , Habenula/fisiologia , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Ligantes , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Óxidos/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Ratos , Serotonina/metabolismo
14.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4039, 2022 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35864121

RESUMO

The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is known to control aggressive behavior in mice. Here, we found that glutamatergic projections from the lateral habenula (LHb) to the DRN were activated in male mice that experienced pre-exposure to a rival male mouse ("social instigation") resulting in heightened intermale aggression. Both chemogenetic and optogenetic suppression of the LHb-DRN projection blocked heightened aggression after social instigation in male mice. In contrast, inhibition of this pathway did not affect basal levels of aggressive behavior, suggesting that the activity of the LHb-DRN projection is not necessary for the expression of species-typical aggressive behavior, but required for the increase of aggressive behavior resulting from social instigation. Anatomical analysis showed that LHb neurons synapse on non-serotonergic DRN neurons that project to the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and optogenetic activation of the DRN-VTA projection increased aggressive behaviors. Our results demonstrate that the LHb glutamatergic inputs to the DRN promote aggressive arousal induced by social instigation, which contributes to aggressive behavior by activating VTA-projecting non-serotonergic DRN neurons as one of its potential targets.


Assuntos
Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe , Habenula , Agressão/fisiologia , Animais , Nível de Alerta , Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe/fisiologia , Habenula/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Neurônios/metabolismo
15.
Cell Rep ; 40(1): 111029, 2022 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793630

RESUMO

The habenula plays a key role in various motivated and pathological behaviors and is composed of molecularly distinct neuron subtypes. Despite progress in identifying mature habenula neuron subtypes, how these subtypes develop and organize into functional brain circuits remains largely unknown. Here, we performed single-cell transcriptional profiling of mouse habenular neurons at critical developmental stages, instructed by detailed three-dimensional anatomical data. Our data reveal cellular and molecular trajectories during embryonic and postnatal development, leading to different habenular subtypes. Further, based on this analysis, our work establishes the distinctive functional properties and projection target of a subtype of Cartpt+ habenula neurons. Finally, we show how comparison of single-cell transcriptional profiles and GWAS data links specific developing habenular subtypes to psychiatric disease. Together, our study begins to dissect the mechanisms underlying habenula neuron subtype-specific development and creates a framework for further interrogation of habenular development in normal and disease states.


Assuntos
Habenula , Animais , Habenula/fisiologia , Camundongos , Neurogênese/genética , Neurônios
16.
Cell Rep ; 40(1): 111036, 2022 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793636

RESUMO

Recent developments in intersectional strategies have greatly advanced our ability to precisely target brain cell types based on unique co-expression patterns. To accelerate the application of intersectional genetics, we perform a brain-wide characterization of 13 Flp and tTA mouse driver lines and selected seven for further analysis based on expression of vesicular neurotransmitter transporters. Using selective Cre driver lines, we created more than 10 Cre/tTA combinational lines for cell type targeting and circuit analysis. We then used VGLUT-Cre/VGAT-Flp combinational lines to identify and map 30 brain regions containing neurons that co-express vesicular glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporters, followed by tracing their projections with intersectional viral vectors. Focusing on the lateral habenula (LHb) as a target, we identified glutamatergic, GABAergic, or co-glutamatergic/GABAergic innervations from ∼40 brain regions. These data provide an important resource for the future application of intersectional strategies and expand our understanding of the neuronal subtypes in the brain.


Assuntos
Habenula , Neurônios , Animais , Habenula/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Proteínas Vesiculares de Transporte de Glutamato/metabolismo
17.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271295, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35819957

RESUMO

Pain and depression are complex disorders that frequently co-occur, resulting in diminished quality of life. The habenula is an epithalamic structure considered to play a pivotal role in the neurocircuitry of both pain and depression. The habenula can be divided into two major areas, the lateral and medial habenula, that can be further subdivided, resulting in 6 main subregions. Here, we investigated habenula activation patterns in a rat model of neuropathic pain with accompanying depressive-like behaviour. Wistar rats received active surgery for the development of neuropathic pain (chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve; CCI), sham surgery (surgical control), or no surgery (behavioural control). All animals were evaluated for mechanical nociceptive threshold using the paw pressure test and depressive-like behaviour using the forced swimming test, followed by evaluation of the immunoreactivity to cFos-a marker of neuronal activity-in the habenula and subregions. The Open Field Test was used to evaluate locomotor activity. Animals with peripheral neuropathy (CCI) showed decreased mechanical nociceptive threshold and increased depressive-like behaviour compared to control groups. The CCI group presented decreased cFos immunoreactivity in the total habenula, total lateral habenula and lateral habenula subregions, compared to controls. No difference was found in cFos immunoreactivity in the total medial habenula, however when evaluating the subregions of the medial habenula, we observed distinct activation patterns, with increase cFos immunoreactivity in the superior subregion and decrease in the central subregion. Taken together, our data suggest an involvement of the habenula in neuropathic pain and accompanying depressive-like behaviour.


Assuntos
Habenula , Neuralgia , Animais , Neuralgia/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Nervo Isquiático/lesões
19.
Dev Dyn ; 251(11): 1834-1847, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35727300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The fasciculus retroflexus is the prominent efferent pathway from the habenular complex. Medial habenular axons form a core packet whereas lateral habenular axons course in a surrounding shell. Both groups of fibers share the same initial pathway but differ in the final segment of the tract, supposedly regulated by surface molecules. The gene Amigo2 codes for a membrane adhesion molecule with an immunoglobulin-like domain 2 and is selectively expressed in the medial habenula. We present it as a candidate for controlling the fasciculation behavior of medial habenula axons. RESULTS: First, we studied the development of the habenular efferents in an Amigo2 lack of function mouse model. The fasciculus retroflexus showed a variable defasciculation phenotype. Gain of function experiments allowed us to generate a more condensed tract and rescued the Amigo2 knock-out phenotype. Changes in Amigo2 function did not alter the course of habenular fibers. CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated that Amigo2 plays a subtle role in the fasciculation of the fasciculus retroflexus.


Assuntos
Fasciculação , Habenula , Camundongos , Animais , Mesencéfalo , Axônios , Proteínas de Membrana , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética
20.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 47(12): 2123-2131, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35717465

RESUMO

The lateral habenula (LHb) is an epithalamic nuclei that has been shown to signal the aversive properties of ethanol. The present study tested the hypothesis that activity of the LHb is required for the acquisition and/or expression of dependence-induced escalation of ethanol drinking and somatic withdrawal symptoms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats completed 4 weeks of baseline drinking under a standard intermittent access two-bottle choice (2BC) paradigm before undergoing 2 weeks of daily chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) via vapor inhalation. Following this CIE exposure period, rats resumed 2BC drinking to assess dependence-induced changes in voluntary ethanol consumption. CIE exposed rats exhibited a significant increase in ethanol drinking that was associated with high levels of blood alcohol and a reduction in somatic symptoms of ethanol withdrawal. However, despite robust cFos activation in the LHb during ethanol withdrawal, chemogenetic inhibition of the LHb did not alter either ethanol consumption or somatic signs of ethanol withdrawal. Consistent with this observation, ablating LHb outputs via electrolytic lesions of the fasciculus retroflexus (FR) did not alter the acquisition of somatic withdrawal symptoms or escalation of ethanol drinking in CIE-exposed rats. The LHb controls activity of the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), a midbrain nucleus activated by aversive experiences including ethanol withdrawal. During ethanol withdrawal, both FR lesioned and sham control rats exhibited similar cFos activation in the RMTg, suggesting that RMTg activation during ethanol withdrawal does not require LHb input. These data suggest that, at least in male rats, the LHb is not necessary for the acquisition or expression of escalation of ethanol consumption or expression of somatic symptoms of ethanol withdrawal. Overall, our findings provide evidence that the LHb is dispensable for some of the negative consequences of ethanol withdrawal.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Habenula , Sintomas Inexplicáveis , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Alcoolismo/metabolismo , Animais , Etanol , Habenula/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/metabolismo
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