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1.
J Sch Psychol ; 93: 41-62, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934450

RESUMO

School-based assessments of students' self-reported social-emotional competencies (SECs) are an essential part of social and emotional learning (SEL) initiatives. Few studies, however, have investigated whether such assessments align with the frameworks that inform SEL practices, especially for diverse populations. In the present study we investigated the dimensional structure of the 40-item Washoe County School District Social-Emotional Competency Assessment (WCSD-SECA), which was designed to measure the five domains of SECs defined by the widely used Collaborative for Academic Social and Emotional Learning framework (CASEL 5). Findings showed that a subset of 21 items fit a 3-factor solution that reflected Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, and Emotion-Focused competencies, a structure consistent with previous theorizing of broad SEC constructs. This 3-dimensional structure was partially invariant, with differences especially evident in item thresholds across subpopulations (defined by the intersection of grade level, gender, and race/ethnicity). Accounting for differences in item thresholds increased mean differences among subpopulations in the three domains. Across subpopulations, Intrapersonal scores were positively associated with students' standardized test scores and GPAs, and negatively related to the number of days they were absent from school, in multilevel models that adjusted for school-level clustering and included all three SEC scores and student demographic controls. Interpersonal scores were associated with fewer suspensions. Interpersonal and Emotion-Focused scores demonstrated unexpectedly negative associations with some outcomes in these models. Findings contribute to an emerging body of research that aims to deepen understandings of the content and structure of students' SECs as well as the factors that contribute to growth in these competencies.


Assuntos
Instituições Acadêmicas , Aprendizado Social , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Habilidades Sociais , Estudantes/psicologia
2.
Semin Speech Lang ; 43(4): 255-276, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35896405

RESUMO

Social skills interventions (SSIs) are commonly used to improve social functioning in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which is a condition characterized by differences in social cognition and social communication. Although more traditional SSIs have used knowledge-based, didactic instruction, recent research has explored the utility of performance-based SSIs, which use various activities to support implicit learning of social skills in supportive, enriched environments. This article reviews the extant literature evaluating the effectiveness or efficacy of five performance-based SSIs using theater-based approaches on social cognition and social communication. Overall, this body of literature suggests social communication gains that include increased peer interactions, peer liking, and reciprocal friendships, as well as social cognitive gains in theory of mind and affect recognition. This review also discusses theoretical models that may help explain the emerging strengths of performance- and theater-based SSIs with underlying hypotheses related to the social communication and social cognitive differences in ASD. Limitations of performance-based SSIs in the evidence-base include several approaches in initial stages of research with small sample sizes and limited maintenance of effects. Future research should aim to bridge the research-to-practice gap and use more rigorous designs and more diverse samples, including those with cooccurring intellectual disability.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Cognição , Comunicação , Humanos , Cognição Social , Habilidades Sociais
3.
Occup Ther Int ; 2022: 6124778, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35854942

RESUMO

Objective: As a type of music therapy, multipart chorus does not have high requirements for participants, and the basic level can be high or low. For college students, it is more likely to participate. Exploring the effect of multivoice chorus intervention on college students' mental health can provide reference for school psychological correction work. This study uses multivoice chorus as a means, combined with certain group psychological counseling techniques, to try to explore a new model for improving the mental health of college students. Method: Fifty college students in prison were selected as subjects and randomly divided into the control group and experimental group. The multivoice chorus method was used to conduct an intervention test on the mental health of the college students in the experimental group, and the observation was carried out for 3 months. Before and after the intervention, the anxiety self-rating scale, the trust scale, the social avoidance and distress scale, the shyness scale, the UCLA loneliness scale, and the college student psychological test personality subtest were used for psychological testing and evaluation. Results/Discussion. College students can actively recognize and reflect on their own behavior, and objectively evaluate others. Through the cognition and management of emotions, college students can handle personal emotions well in interpersonal communication. In the later stage of multivoice chorus, they can help each other, establish a mutual assistance system, help each other, and discuss and learn interpersonal communication skills together, so that college students can learn good interpersonal communication experience and skills from others in various interactions, achieve self-help, and promote college students to work together. In the process of interfering with interpersonal communication disorder, simple psychological counseling has also improved the phenomenon of interpersonal communication disorder, but the experimental effect is far from the effect of the combination of music education and psychological counseling, and it is relatively unstable in the stability test. In the specific operation, in the purely psychological counseling process, college students with interpersonal barriers do not actively cooperate with the intervention, the operating atmosphere is relatively dull, and the teachers are time-consuming and labor-intensive during the psychological counseling process, but the results are minimal. The only effect is also worn out within a few weeks, and the stability is poor. It can be seen that music education has played a pivotal role as a medium in the intervention of interpersonal communication disorders, which can make the intervention process easier, more effective, and more stable.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Comunicação , Terapia Ocupacional , Comunicação , Humanos , Habilidades Sociais , Estudantes/psicologia
4.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0268544, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35834530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improvement in practitioners' consultation skills (CSs) can be driven by patient feedback, however, to date, no study has been conducted with reference to pharmacy consultations. The Interpersonal Skills Questionnaire (ISQ) is potentially appropriate for collecting patient feedback on pharmacists' CSs. This study aims to explore the feasibility of collecting patient feedback on hospital pharmacists' CSs using the ISQ, to identify the acceptability of the feedback process, and to identify methods to enhance the process in the future. METHODS: The study was conducted in a teaching hospital, United Kingdom, between 2018 and 2019. A diverse sample of pharmacists with patient-facing roles was purposively selected. The study comprised three phases. Pharmacists collected feedback from patients following their consultation using the ISQ utilising a third person whenever possible (phase-1). Data analysis and individual report writing was conducted by a private company. Interviewing a sample of patient participants by telephone (phase-2), and interviewing pharmacists face-to-face after receiving feedback reports (phase-3). All interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. The study received approval by the NHS Health Research Authority. RESULTS: Six pharmacists were included. Of the 119 distributed ISQs, 111 were returned (response rate 93%). Patients were mostly recruited by their consulting pharmacists (72%, n = 80). All pharmacists and 14 patients were interviewed. Participants were positive about patient feedback and its role in enhancing CSs. Most did not encounter any problem with the process, however, some pharmacists struggled to find a third person. The ISQ was mostly viewed suitable to assessing pharmacy consultations. Some reports highlighted areas to improve (e.g. protecting patient's privacy). CONCLUSIONS: Collecting feedback is feasible, acceptable and may enhance CSs, however, the process was associated with challenges such as finding a third person. Several measures should be considered to make the process more feasible within the hospital pharmacy setting.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Farmacêuticos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos de Viabilidade , Retroalimentação , Hospitais , Humanos , Papel Profissional , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Habilidades Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 90(7): 545-558, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35901367

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Almost no studies identify mediators of psychosocial interventions for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-largely due to design limitations. Understanding mediators can promote streamlined interventions in usual care (UC) settings. When individual studies are insufficient to pursue complex questions, integrative data analysis (IDA) allows researchers to pool raw data from multiple studies to produce cumulative scientific knowledge. METHOD: We leveraged IDA to pool and harmonize data from four randomized controlled trials of ADHD psychosocial treatment (N = 854) with three time points. Linear growth curve analyses examined the impact of four psychosocial treatment conditions on ADHD symptom outcomes and five candidate mediators (compared to no treatment). To test mediation, we examined whether treatment condition predicted linear growth in the mediator at posttreatment, and if the mediator predicted linear growth in the outcome at follow-up. RESULTS: Compared to no treatment, engagement-focused parent-teen treatment (d = .43-.72; Supporting Teens' Autonomy Daily [STAND]) and community-based usual care (d = .54-.99) led to greatest reductions in parent-rated ADHD symptoms, followed by the Summer Treatment Program-Adolescent (d = .29-.30; STP-A) and standard behavioral parent training + organization skills training (d = .26-.31; BPT/OST). Improvements in organization, time management, and planning skills mediated outcome for all treatments. BPT/OST and STP-A prevented deterioration of social skills, in turn mitigating escalation of ADHD symptoms. Improvements in parent-teen communication skills mediated outcome for STAND, BPT/OST, and the STP-A. Parent contingency management and disruptive classroom behavior were not treatment mediators. CONCLUSIONS: Psychosocial treatments for adolescent ADHD primarily improve ADHD symptoms through development of teen organization, time management (OTP), and parent-teen communication skills, as well as slowing deterioration of social skills. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Terapia Comportamental , Humanos , Pais/psicologia , Habilidades Sociais
6.
Mol Autism ; 13(1): 33, 2022 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35850696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biological motion imparts rich information related to the movement, actions, intentions and affective state of others, which can provide foundational support for various aspects of social cognition and behavior. Given that atypical social communication and cognition are hallmark symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), many have theorized that a potential source of this deficit may lie in dysfunctional neural mechanisms of biological motion processing. Synthesis of existing literature provides some support for biological motion processing deficits in autism spectrum disorder, although high study heterogeneity and inconsistent findings complicate interpretation. Here, we attempted to reconcile some of this residual controversy by investigating a possible modulating role for attention in biological motion processing in ASD. METHODS: We employed high-density electroencephalographic recordings while participants observed point-light displays of upright, inverted and scrambled biological motion under two task conditions to explore spatiotemporal dynamics of intentional and unintentional biological motion processing in children and adolescents with ASD (n = 27), comparing them to a control cohort of neurotypical (NT) participants (n = 35). RESULTS: Behaviorally, ASD participants were able to discriminate biological motion with similar accuracy to NT controls. However, electrophysiologic investigation revealed reduced automatic selective processing of upright biologic versus scrambled motion stimuli in ASD relative to NT individuals, which was ameliorated when task demands required explicit attention to biological motion. Additionally, we observed distinctive patterns of covariance between visual potentials evoked by biological motion and functional social ability, such that Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-Socialization domain scores were differentially associated with biological motion processing in the N1 period in the ASD but not the NT group. LIMITATIONS: The cross-sectional design of this study does not allow us to definitively answer the question of whether developmental differences in attention to biological motion cause disruption in social communication, and the sample was limited to children with average or above cognitive ability. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these data suggest that individuals with ASD are able to discriminate, with explicit attention, biological from non-biological motion but demonstrate diminished automatic neural specificity for biological motion processing, which may have cascading implications for the development of higher-order social cognition.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Habilidades Sociais
7.
J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol ; 29(2): e1-e10, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35848191

RESUMO

AIM: Evidence-based intervention is an effective method for improving autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children on socialization, behavior, and communication and may have an impact on brain activity. The aim of this study is to find the effectiveness of picture exchange communication system (PECS) and parent-implemented intervention (PII) among ASD children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty ASD children who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were selected and assigned into control (n=30) and experimental (n=30) groups. The experimental group received evidence-based intervention with PECS and PII for 6 months, whereas the control group received routine care. The children were assessed for social relationship and reciprocity (SRR) and speech language communication (SLC) before and after the intervention. For the experimental group, a 3-month post-intervention was also assessed. Parametric and nonparametric statistical methods were used. RESULTS: The data showed that male nuclear family and birth order above 1 was more among ASD. Two-way RM ANOVA showed a significant difference among the groups and tests (P < 0.001) and interaction of groups with tests (P < 0.001). Experimental post-test-2, that is, after 6 months, showed significant improvement in SRR and SLC compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: The present study shows that the PECS and PII as a nursing strategy can improve ASD children socialization and communication.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Criança , Comunicação , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Habilidades Sociais
8.
Psychiatr Danub ; 34(2): 288-295, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35772139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) mainly manifests as learning difficulties, emotional impulsiveness, excessive activities, and attention deficit disorder. Given that it can influence social communication abilities, as well as physical and psychological health and viability, ADHD rehabilitation has attracted close attention. This study aims to discuss the influences of musicotherapy combined with cognitive behavioral intervention on the cognitive ability of children with ADHD and provide some references for ADHD rehabilitation. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 120 children with ADHD in the Cooperative Hospital of Guangzhou University from June 2018 to May 2021 were chosen as the research objects. They were divided randomly into the control and observation groups with 60 cases in each group via the observing random digital method. The control group was the blank control and did not receive any intervention. The observation group received 16 weeks of musicotherapy combined with cognitive behavioral intervention. Symptoms and the results of the numerical cross-attention test, the Wisconsin card sorting test, the combined Raven's test (CRT), the Wechsler intelligence scale for children test, and Conner's child behavioral scale for parents of the two groups before and after the intervention were compared. RESULTS: The relevant indexes of the control group did not show any significant changes after the intervention (P>0.05). In the intervention group, the accurately crossed number and net scores increased significantly, whereas the wrongly crossed number and missed crossed number scores and error; attention deficit; hyperactivity-impulsiveness; and ADHD-RS-Ⅳ total scores declined dramatically after intervention relative to those before the intervention. Moreover, the above indexes of the observation group showed more significant improvements than those of the control group (P<0.05). In the observation group, the conceptual level percentage and the number of completed classes had significantly increased and the number of discontinuous errors and number of continuous errors after the intervention had dropped sharply compared with those before. The above indexes of the observation group had improved significantly compared with those of the control group (P<0.05). Moreover, in both groups, the concentration/attention factor and CRT scores increased dramatically and the scores of Conner's child behavior scale after the intervention had dropped significantly compared with those before. After intervention, the above indexes of the observation group showed greater improvements than those of the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The musicotherapy combined with cognitive behavioral intervention can improve the cognitive functions of children with ADHD and has clinical application values.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Criança , Cognição , Humanos , Habilidades Sociais , Escalas de Wechsler
9.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269996, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35749356

RESUMO

Social-emotional learning (SEL) is an educational model for improving social-emotional competences of all students and a long-term education program connecting school, home, and community. Although there has been active research to establish evidence-based practice (EBP) of SEL programs worldwide, the quality of SEL intervention studies which is an integral part of evaluating EBP was rarely investigated. In addition, prior meta-analytic studies focused only on the effectiveness of SEL programs conducted in Western society. In this sense, in order to contribute to establishing EBP of SEL programs, the current research sought to analyze both quality and effectiveness of SEL intervention studies conducted in Korea where SEL has been investigated and applied in classroom since 2010. To conduct this study, we selected 22 peer-reviewed articles (about 23 SEL programs) and analyzed their quality by Evidence-Based Intervention (EBI) indicators and calculated effect sizes using a meta-analysis. The results of the quality analysis revealed that SEL intervention studies had some limitations with a statistical analysis, use of measurement, a control group design, intervention fidelity, and external validity. The global effect size of SEL programs was 0.27, and the results from the effect size analyses by controlling variables showed that group compositions, the number of sessions, and session length were accountable for the variability of effect sizes. Based on these findings, we discussed the directions for future research and practice on the EBP of SEL programs that can be appreciated by researchers worldwide.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Social , Emoções , Humanos , República da Coreia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Habilidades Sociais
10.
Res Dev Disabil ; 128: 104287, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35772303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autistic young adults are at elevated risk for poor employment/internship outcomes, despite having many strengths relevant to the workplace. Currently, very few employment interventions for this population comprehensively promote skills development and success across the various stages of employment. AIMS: To address this gap, the current study aimed to test the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of a novel college to career intervention program, PEERS® for Careers. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Twelve autistic young adults (19-30 years old) were enrolled and matched to a career coach. The pilot program consisted of 90-minute sessions delivered twice per week, for 10 weeks, covering content relevant to obtaining, maintaining, and thriving in employment/internship settings. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: Results indicated that young adults showed a significant improvement in employment-related social skills knowledge, p < .001. Participants also reported significant improvements in their feelings of preparedness for employment over the course of the study, p = .009, with all young adults self-identifying as "somewhat prepared" or "very prepared" post-intervention. Additionally, in only a brief 10-week intervention, a slight increase in participants who secured or maintained internship/employment-related activities was observed. Overall, lesson content and coaching were perceived as helpful. No significant changes were observed in self-reported autism symptomatology. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: In sum, the PEERS® for Careers program shows promise as a college to career intervention program for autistic young adults. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: There is a dearth of evidence-based interventions for autistic young adults, despite significant need for supports to bolster vocational and relational success. This paper is the first to evaluate the PEERS® for Careers intervention in a pilot study by exploring feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of this novel college to career intervention program, which teaches ecologically valid employment-related skills using a strengths-based approach. Results suggest PEERS® for Careers shows significant potential as a comprehensive intervention to address the multi-faceted needs of autistic individuals in the workplace through didactic lessons, behavioral rehearsals to practice skills, and out of group assignments. Autistic young adult participants reported a high level of satisfaction with the program and lessons surrounding employment-related social skills. They also endorsed increased feelings of internship/employment readiness and increased knowledge of workplace etiquette, with most participants maintaining or securing employment. This study supports PEERS® for Careers as a feasible intervention that likely benefits autistic individuals' vocational outcomes, which emerge as a strong correlate of well-being in adulthood. This work is essential to furthering the development and provision of effective services to meet needs of the autism community.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Adulto , Emprego , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Projetos Piloto , Habilidades Sociais , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Trials ; 23(1): 542, 2022 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35773714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substance use is highly prevalent among children and adolescents in Chile, and it is known how it impacts their health and social adjustment. The call for effective prevention of substance use among children adolescents has resulted in numerous school-based programs, and particularly, the Social Competence Promotion Program among Young Adolescents (SCPP-YA) has been proved to be successful for promoting social and problem-solving skills in addition to preventing substance abuse in the US population. The purpose of this study is to test the effectiveness of the Social Competence Promotion Program among Young Adolescents (SCPP-YA) in Chile ("Mi Mejor Plan"). METHODS: This is a cluster randomized controlled trial, parallel-group type, where "Mi Mejor Plan" is compared to standard school preventive curricula in control schools. A total of 10 schools and 600 adolescents are expected to be recruited and randomized with 1:1 allocation. During formative work, the SCPP-YA program was culturally adapted to Chile. The effectiveness of this program will be assessed using the European Drug Addiction Prevention Trial Questionnaire (EU-Dap), measuring substance use prevalence and risk and protective factors in baseline, post-intervention, and 4 months after the end of the intervention. DISCUSSION: The proposed study will be the first to test the effectiveness of the Social Competence Promotion Program among Young Adolescents (SCPP-YA) in Chile in a cluster randomized control trial and also the first study evaluating this program in Spanish-speaking Latin America. SCPP-YA has been implemented successfully in the USA. Thus, if the effects of the program are positive, wide implementation in Chile and Latin American countries is possible soon. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials NCT04236947 . Registered on January 22, 2020.


Assuntos
Habilidades Sociais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Criança , Chile , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Instituições Acadêmicas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 393, 2022 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35698058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of clinically heterogenic neurodevelopmental disorders, with intellectual disability being one of its common comorbidities. No large-sample, multicenter study has focused on the neurodevelopmental aspect of preschoolers with ASD. This study investigated the neurodevelopmental characteristics of preschoolers with ASD in China and explored the association between them and the core symptoms. METHODS: We enrolled 1019 ASD preschoolers aged 2-7 years old from 13 cities around China between May 2018 and December 2019, and used the revised Children Neuropsychological and Behavior Scale (CNBS-R2016) to assess their neurodevelopment. Their autistic core behaviors were evaluated based on their Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC), Child Autism Rating Scale (CARS), and communication warning behavior (CWB) scores in the CNBS-R2016. RESULTS: Based on general developmental quotient (GQ) < 70, 68.4% of the preschoolers with ASD had a developmental delay (DD), rated mild in 32.7% of them. The highest DD rate (> 70%) was found in language and personal-social skills, followed by fine motor skills (68.9%). Gross motor skills had the lowest DD rate (34.0%). We found that fine motor, language, and personal-social developmental quotients (DQs) were significantly lower than gross motor skills in no DD (GQ > 70), mild DD (GQ 55-69), and moderate and below DD groups (GQ ≤ 54). Furthermore, the DQs for language and personal-social skills were significantly lower than for gross and fine motor skills in both DD groups. The ABC, SRS, CARS, and CWB scores in the no DD group were the lowest, moderate in the mild DD group, and highest in the moderate and below DD group. Besides, negative correlations were found between the DQs of the four domains and the ABC, SRS, CARS, and CWB scores, of which the language and personal-social skills DQs had the strongest correlations. CONCLUSIONS: Preschoolers with ASD had unbalanced neurodevelopment domain patterns and their neurodevelopmental levels were negatively correlated with the autism core symptoms. Hence, pediatricians should actively evaluate the neurodevelopment of children with ASD and conduct long-term follow-up during their early childhood to promote early diagnosis and develop personalized intervention plans. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR2000031194 , registered on 03/23/2020.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Deficiência Intelectual , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtorno Autístico/complicações , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comunicação , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Habilidades Sociais
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682092

RESUMO

Children born preterm (<37 weeks' gestation) show a specific vulnerability for socio-emotional difficulties, which may lead to an increased likelihood of developing behavioral and psychiatric problems in adolescence and adulthood. The accurate decoding of emotional signals from faces represents a fundamental prerequisite for early social interactions, allowing children to derive information about others' feelings and intentions. The present study aims to explore possible differences between preterm and full-term children in the ability to detect emotional expressions, as well as possible relationships between this ability and socio-emotional skills and problem behaviors during everyday activities. We assessed 55 school-age children (n = 34 preterm and n = 21 full-term) with a cognitive battery that ensured comparable cognitive abilities between the two groups. Moreover, children were asked to identify emotional expressions from pictures of peers' faces (Emotion Recognition Task). Finally, children's emotional, social and behavioral outcomes were assessed with parent-reported questionnaires. The results revealed that preterm children were less accurate than full-term children in detecting positive emotional expressions and they showed poorer social and behavioral outcomes. Notably, correlational analyses showed a relationship between the ability to recognize emotional expressions and socio-emotional functioning. The present study highlights that early difficulties in decoding emotional signals from faces may be critically linked to emotional and behavioral regulation problems, with important implications for the development of social skills and effective interpersonal interactions.


Assuntos
Cognição , Emoções , Adulto , Criança , Emoções/fisiologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Relações Interpessoais , Habilidades Sociais
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682245

RESUMO

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has become more prevalent globally. The disorder is predominantly characterised by low social skills noted explicitly in people with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HFASD). The individuals usually possess a normal or superior intelligence quotient (IQ) but the disability impedes the achievement of their actual high potential, hence compromising their quality of life (QoL). Managing adversities encountered by children with HFASD often compromises the QoL of the entire family. Thus, this study aimed to identify specific domains of QoL among mothers of high-functioning autistic adolescents. The study assessed seven mothers of adolescents with HFASD using a semi-structured interview format. A thematic qualitative analysis was conducted to analyse the data. The results suggested that mothers perceived their QoL based on physical and emotional well-being, material well-being, interpersonal relationship, and environmental well-being. Intervention for HFASD is multidisciplinary, which targets a broad spectrum of symptoms and skills deficits and customises the programme to meet each individual's different needs. Nonetheless, intervention facilities in Malaysia are seriously limited, particularly in supporting QoL for children with HFASD. Therefore, by identifying the domains of QoL would improve the mothers' resilience in raising their children with HFASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Mães , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Habilidades Sociais
15.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268325, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated whether the timing of birth of the younger siblings was associated with the risk of the older siblings' developmental vulnerability in early childhood. METHODS: Linkage of population-level birth registration, hospital, and perinatal datasets to Australian Early Development Census (AEDC) records (2009-2015), enabled follow-up of a cohort of 32,324 Western Australia born singletons. Children with scores <10th percentile on an individual AEDC domain (Physical Health and Wellbeing; Social Competence; Emotional Maturity; Language and Cognitive Skills (school-based); and Communication Skills and General Knowledge) were classified as developmentally vulnerable. Modified Poisson Regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) for associations between post-birth interpregnancy intervals (IPIs) and developmental vulnerability. RESULTS: Relative to post-birth IPIs of 18-23 months, post-birth IPIs of <6 and 6-11 months were associated with an increased risk of children being classified as DV1 (aRR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.11-1.31) and DV2 (aRR 1.31, 95% CI: 1.15-1.49); and DV1 (aRR 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03-1.17) and DV2 (aRR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.09-1.34), respectively. Post-birth IPIs of <6 months were associated with an increased risk on four of the five AEDC domains. Post-birth IPIs of 48-60 months were associated with an increased risk of developmental vulnerability; however, the risk was statistically significant for DV1, DV2 and the domains of Emotional Maturity and Language and Cognitive Skills (school-based). CONCLUSIONS: Developmental vulnerability was associated with having a closely spaced younger sibling (<12 months post-birth IPIs). Optimising birth spacing should be further investigated as a potential means for improving child development outcomes.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Irmãos , Austrália , Intervalo entre Nascimentos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Habilidades Sociais
16.
Trials ; 23(1): 439, 2022 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35610658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serious mental illness (SMI) affects 4.6% of the American population. While treatments are available, adherence to specific regimens is often suboptimal. Multiple organizations, such as the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), have called for more options that improve accessibility and engagement to treatment among individuals with SMI. This study protocol answers such calls by testing the effectiveness of peer specialists-individuals with SMI trained to use their experience to help others with SMI-in delivering social skills training (SST) and cognitive behavioral social skills training (CBSST), evidence-based treatments effective at engaging individuals with SMI to make behavioral and cognitive changes. Peer specialists have been shown to be adept at engaging those with SMI in treatment; however, their ability to deliver these structured treatments is unknown. METHODS: This study is a randomized, hybrid 1, research assistant-blinded, superiority trial. A total of 252 veterans with SMI will be recruited and randomized to one of three arms: CBSST-Peer vs. SST-Peer vs. treatment as usual. Participants randomized to CBSST-Peer or SST-Peer will participate in a 20-week group-based intervention that meets weekly for a 60-min class. All participants will complete 4 study assessments at baseline, 10 weeks, 20 weeks, and 32 weeks. A multidimensional battery of functional outcomes will be used with the Independent Living Skills Survey (ILSS) as the primary outcome measure. Post-study completion, veterans who participated in the CBSST-Peer or SST-Peer arms will randomly be invited to participate in focus groups, and peer specialists will complete interviews to further assess the effectiveness of each intervention. DISCUSSION: Improving care and outcomes for individuals with SMI is a national priority. To improve care, it is imperative to think about new ways to improve engagement and accessibility to care. This study provides an innovative solution to this problem by evaluating how two different types of treatment, delivered by peer specialists, compare to usual care. The results of the study will allow for the expansion of treatment options that improve access and engagement among veterans with SMI.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Veteranos , Cognição , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Grupo Associado , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Habilidades Sociais
17.
Psychol Bull ; 148(3-4): 273-300, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511567

RESUMO

Gross motor ability is associated with profound differences in how children experience and interact with their social world. A rapidly growing literature on motor development in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) indicates that autistic individuals exhibit impairment in gross motor skills. However, due to substantial heterogeneity across studies, it remains unclear which gross motor skills are impaired in ASD, when and for whom these differences emerge, and whether motor and social impairments are related. The present article addressed these questions by synthesizing research on gross motor skills in ASD in two separate meta-analyses. The first examined gross motor deficits in ASD compared to neurotypical (NT) controls, aggregating data from 114 studies representing 6,423 autistic and 2,941 NT individuals. Results demonstrated a significant overall deficit in gross motor skills in ASD (Hedges' g = -1.04) that was robust to methodological and phenotypic variation and was significant at every level of the tested moderators. However, moderation analyses revealed that this deficit was most pronounced for object control skills (i.e., ball skills), clinical assessment measures, and movements of the upper extremities or the whole body. The second meta-analysis investigated whether gross motor and social skills are related in ASD, synthesizing data from 21 studies representing 654 autistic individuals. Findings revealed a modest but significant overall correlation between gross motor and social skills in ASD (r = 0.27). Collectively, results support the conclusion that motor deficits are tied to the core symptoms of ASD. Further research is needed to test the causality and directionality of this relationship. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Transtornos Motores , Criança , Humanos , Destreza Motora , Habilidades Sociais
18.
Trends Neurosci Educ ; 27: 100175, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501027

RESUMO

This study assessed the effectiveness of an executive function training programme aiming at reducing the behavioural and emotional problems of 87 minors, aged between 8 and 17, in residential care within the Spanish foster care system. Participants' executive functions were assessed with the Spanish adaptation of the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF®2). For the assessment of their emotional and behavioural problems, the Spanish adaptation of the Assessment System for Children and Adolescents (SENA) was used. The results revealed an improvement in initiative and task supervision. After the intervention, the minors reported having fewer problems with their classmates and fewer symptoms related to traumatic events. According to the educators, those minors also presented better integration and social skills, a greater willingness to study, less isolation, less symptoms of depression, fewer emotional problems and a higher level and variety of personal resources.


Assuntos
Emoções , Função Executiva , Adolescente , Criança , Cuidados no Lar de Adoção , Humanos , Habilidades Sociais , Espanha
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35627742

RESUMO

This exploratory cross-sectional study attempts to understand the mechanisms underlying the role of parental mentalizing in a child's psychological functioning during middle childhood by using Parental Reflective Functioning (PRF) and Parental Insightfulness (PI) constructs. The main aims are to examine the role of PI and PRF as processes capable of influencing a child's psychological functioning in terms of emotional-behavioral difficulties and social-emotional competencies. Eighty-six community parents (48 mothers, 38 fathers) and their 50 children in middle childhood (Mage = 10.10, SD = 1.13) participated in this study, recruited through a non-probabilistic sampling. The following measures were used to assess the aims of this study: Insightfulness Assessment, Parental Reflective Functioning Questionnaire, Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Devereux Student Strengths Assessment (DESSA) questionnaires. Results showed that parental mentalizing was found to be significantly associated with both child's internalizing and externalizing symptoms and social-emotional competencies as reported by parents through the CBCL and DESSA questionnaires. This study may offer a contribution to the study of parental mentalizing during middle childhood, supporting the hypothesis that both parents' ability to understand their child's mental states could affect the child's psychological functioning. Clinical and theoretical implications are geared toward a family-based view with a specific focus on the importance of fostering in both parents a positive attitude toward mentalizing processes.


Assuntos
Mentalização , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Mães/psicologia , Habilidades Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35627807

RESUMO

Deficits in cognition, physical, and social functions in adults with schizophrenia may become salient with aging. While animal-assisted therapy (AAT) can benefit physical function in older adults and improve symptoms of psychotic disorders, the effect of AAT on middle-aged patients with schizophrenia is unclear. The current randomized controlled trial aimed to explore the efficacy of AAT for middle-aged patients with schizophrenia. Forty participants were randomly assigned to either the AAT or control group. The AAT group participated in one-hour sessions with dog-assisted group activities once a week for 12 weeks. The controls participated in dose-matched, non-animal-related recreational activities. Both groups remained on their usual psychotropic medication during the trial. Evaluations included the Chair Stand Test (CST), Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) test, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), 5-Meter walk test (5MWT), and Assessment of Communication and Interaction Skills (ACIS). The increases in CST repetitions and ACIS scores were larger in the AAT group than in the controls. The two groups did not differ significantly in MoCA scores, TUG performance, or the 5MWT. The AAT group showed a greater increase in lower extremity strength and social skills, but no improvement in cognitive function, agility, or mobility. Further research with more sensitive evaluations and longer follow-up is needed.


Assuntos
Terapia Assistida com Animais , Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Idoso , Animais , Cães , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Ajustamento Social , Habilidades Sociais
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