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1.
Mar Environ Res ; 199: 106630, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38964247

RESUMO

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) of Alexandrium pacificum have affected the Marlborough Sounds in New Zealand since 2010, posing a threat to green-lipped mussel (GLM, Perna canaliculus) farming. Previous studies have shown A. pacificum has negative effects GLM embryos and larvae. To further investigate these toxic mechanisms, in vitro bioassays were conducted on GLM spermatozoa, hemocytes, and the diatom, Chaetoceros muelleri. The three cell types were exposed to several treatments of A. pacificum for 2 h and responses were measured using flow cytometry and pulse amplitude-modulated fluorometry. Significant spermatozoa mortality was recorded in treatments containing A. pacificum cells or fragments, while hemocyte and C. muelleri mortality was recorded in cell-free treatments of A. pacificum which contained paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). Variation in sensitivity between cell types as well as the sublethal effects observed, emphasise the diverse toxic mechanisms of A. pacificum on co-occurring species in the environment.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Dinoflagellida , Hemócitos , Espermatozoides , Animais , Dinoflagellida/fisiologia , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Diatomáceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Perna (Organismo)/fisiologia , Perna (Organismo)/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Nova Zelândia , Toxinas Marinhas/toxicidade
2.
Science ; 385(6706): 247, 2024 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39024429

RESUMO

The toxic organisms, which cause paralytic shellfish poisoning, are moving northward with climate change.


Assuntos
Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar , Animais , Mudança Climática , Água do Mar , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/prevenção & controle , Oceano Pacífico , Regiões Árticas
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 16298, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39009635

RESUMO

Harmful algae blooms are a rare phenomenon in rivers but seem to increase with climate change and river regulation. To understand the controlling factors of cyanobacteria blooms that occurred between 2017 and 2020 over long stretches (> 250 km) of the regulated Moselle River in Western Europe, we measured physico-chemical and biological variables and compared those with a long-term dataset (1997-2016). Cyanobacteria (Microcystis) dominated the phytoplankton community in the late summers of 2017-2020 (cyano-period) with up to 110 µg Chlorophyll-a/L, but had not been observed in the river in the previous 20 years. From June to September, the average discharge in the Moselle was reduced to 69-76% and water temperature was 0.9-1.8 °C higher compared to the reference period. Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and silica (Si) declined since 1997, albeit total nutrient concentrations remained above limiting conditions in the study period. Cyanobacterial blooms correlated best with low discharge, high water temperature and low nitrate. We conclude that the recent cyanobacteria blooms have been caused by dry and warm weather resulting in low flow conditions and warm water temperature in the regulated Moselle. Under current climate projections, the Moselle may serve as an example for the future of regulated temperate rivers.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Cianobactérias , Rios , Rios/microbiologia , Cianobactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Temperatura , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano , Fósforo/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Clorofila A/análise , Clorofila/análise , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Plâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eutrofização , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 16445, 2024 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39014022

RESUMO

Climate change elevates the threat of compound heat and drought events, with their ecological and socioeconomic impacts exacerbated by human ecosystem alterations such as eutrophication, salinization, and river engineering. Here, we study how multiple stressors produced an environmental disaster in a large European river, the Oder River, where a toxic bloom of the brackish-water planktonic haptophyte Prymnesium parvum (the "golden algae") killed approximately 1000 metric tons of fish and most mussels and snails. We uncovered the complexity of this event using hydroclimatic data, remote sensing, cell counts, hydrochemical and toxin analyses, and genetics. After incubation in impounded upstream channels with drastically elevated concentrations of salts and nutrients, only a critical combination of chronic salt and nutrient pollution, acute high water temperatures, and low river discharge during a heatwave enabled the riverine mass proliferation of B-type P. parvum along a 500 km river section. The dramatic losses of large filter feeders and the spreading of vegetative cells and resting stages make the system more susceptible to new harmful algal blooms. Our findings show that global warming, water use intensification, and chronic ecosystem pollution could increase likelihood and severity of such compound ecoclimatic events, necessitating consideration in future impact models.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Rios , Humanos , Haptófitas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Eutrofização , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Aquecimento Global
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 946: 174352, 2024 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38969108

RESUMO

Marine plastic debris (MPD) is a potential threat to marine ecosystems, but its function as a vector for the transportation of harmful microalgae and its impact on the habitats of other marine organisms are uncertain. To address this gap in knowledge, we performed month-long experiments in 30 L microcosms that contained plates made of six different plastic polymers (polypropylene [PP], low-density polyethylene [LDPE], high-density polyethylene [HDPE], polyvinyl chloride [PVC], polyethylene terephthalate [PET], and polystyrene [PS]), and examined the time course of changes in planktonic and periphytic microalgae. There were no significant differences in the composition of periphytic microalgae or biomass among the different plastic polymers (p > 0.05). Nutrient depletion decreased the abundance of planktonic microalgae, but increased the biomass of attached periphytic microalgae (p < 0.05). In particular, analysis of the plastic plates showed that the abundance of benthic species that are responsible for harmful algal blooms (HABs), such as Amphidinium operculatum and Coolia monotis, significantly increased over time (days 21-28; p < 0.05). Our findings demonstrated that periphyton species, including benthic microalgae that cause HABs, can easily attach to different types of plastic and potentially spread to different regions and negatively impact these ecosystems. These observations have important implications for understanding the potential role of MPD in the spread of microalgae, including HABs, which pose a significant threat to marine ecosystems.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Microalgas , Plásticos , Plásticos/análise , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Nutrientes/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ecossistema
6.
Harmful Algae ; 137: 102645, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39003019

RESUMO

Dinoflagellates within the genus Karenia are well known for their potential to cause harmful algal blooms and induce detrimental ecological consequences. In this study, five Karenia species, Karenia longicanalis, Karenia papilionacea, Karenia mikimotoi, Karenia selliformis, and a new species, Karenia hui sp. nov., were isolated from Chinese coastal waters. The new species exhibits the typical characteristics of the genus Karenia, including a linear apical groove and butanoyl-oxyfucoxanthin as the major accessory pigment. It is distinguished from the other Karenia species by a wide-open sulcal intrusion onto the epicone, a conical epicone with an apical crest formed by the rim of the apical groove, and a hunchbacked hypocone. It is most closely related to Karenia cristata, with a genetic divergence of 3.16 % (22 bp out of 883 bp of LSU rDNA). Acute toxicity tests indicated that the five Karenia species from China are all toxic to marine medaka Oryzias melastigma. Karenia selliformis and K. hui were very toxic to O. melastigma, resulting in 100 % mortality within 4 h and 24 h, respectively. Further analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that four species, K. selliformis, K. longicanalis, K. papilionacea and K. mikimotoi were capable of producing Gymnodimine-A (GYM-A). The highest GYM-A content was in K. selliformis (strain HK-43), in which the value was 889 fg/cell. No GYM-A was detected in the new species K. hui, however and its toxin remains unknown. Below we provide a comprehensive report of the morphology, phylogeny, pigment composition, and toxicity profiles of Karenia species along the Chinese coast. These findings contribute new insights for monitoring of Karenia species, with important toxicological and ecological implications.


Assuntos
Dinoflagellida , Filogenia , Animais , China , Dinoflagellida/classificação , Dinoflagellida/genética , Dinoflagellida/fisiologia , Proliferação Nociva de Algas
7.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0306108, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39012861

RESUMO

Interactions between bacterial microbiota and epibenthic species of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum may define the onset and persistence of benthic harmful algal blooms (bHABs). Chemical ecological interactions within the dinoflagellate phycosphere potentially involve a complex variety of organic molecules, metabolites, and toxins, including undefined bioactive compounds. In this study, the bacterial diversity and core members of the dinoflagellate-associated microbiota were defined from 11 strains of three epibenthic Prorocentrum species, representing three geographically disjunct locations within Mexican coastal waters. Microbiota profiles in stable monoclonal Prorocentrum cultures were obtained by sequencing amplicons of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Thirteen classes of bacteria were identified among dinoflagellate clones, where Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidia were consistently dominant. The bacterial community structure exhibited significantly different grouping by the location of origin of dinoflagellate clones. No significant diversity difference was found among free-living or unattached bacteria in the dinoflagellate culture medium (M) compared with those in closer association with the dinoflagellate host cells (H). Twelve taxa were defined as core members of the bacterial assemblage, representing the genera Algiphilus, Cohaesibacter, Labrenzia, Mameliella, Marinobacter, Marivita, Massilia, Muricauda, Roseitalea, and an unclassified member of the Rhodobacteraceae. The core members are inferred to significantly contribute to primary and secondary metabolic functions, but no direct correlation with dinoflagellate toxigenicity was apparent. Overall the bacterial profile and implied gene functionality indicated a suite of positive interactions, suggesting either mutualism or commensalism with the dinoflagellate. The further characterization and interpretation of specific gene functions and interactions between bacteria and dinoflagellates, such as epibenthic members of genus Prorocentrum, are key to understanding their role in toxigenesis and bHAB development.


Assuntos
Dinoflagellida , Microbiota , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Dinoflagellida/genética , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Filogenia , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Biodiversidade
8.
Harmful Algae ; 137: 102681, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39003025

RESUMO

In May-June 2019, the microalga Chrysochromulina leadbeateri caused a massive fish-killing event in several fjords in Northern Norway, resulting in the largest direct impact ever on aquaculture in northern Europe due to toxic algae. Motivated by the fact that no algal toxins have previously been described from C. leadbeateri, we set out to investigate the chemical nature and toxicity of secondary metabolites in extracts of two strains (UIO 393, UIO 394) isolated from the 2019 bloom, as well as one older strain (UIO 035) isolated during a bloom in Northern Norway in 1991. Initial LC-DAD-MS/MS-based molecular networking analysis of the crude MeOH extracts of the cultivated strains showed that their profiles of small organic molecules, including a large number of known lipids, were very similar, suggesting that the same class of toxin(s) were likely the causative agents of the two harmful algal bloom (HAB) events. Next, bioassay-guided fractionation using the RTgill-W1 cell line and metabolomics analysis pointed to a major compound affording [M + H]+ ions at m/z 1399.8333 as a possible toxin, corresponding to a compound with the formula C67H127ClO27. Moreover, our study unveiled a series of minor analogues exhibiting distinct patterns of chlorination and sulfation, together defining a new family of compounds, which we propose to name leadbeaterins. Remarkably, these suspected toxins were detected in situ in samples collected during the 2019 bloom close to Tromsø, thereby consistent with a role in fish kills. The elemental compositions of the putative C. leadbeateri ichthyotoxins strongly indicate them to be long linear polyhydroxylated polyketides, structurally similar to sterolysins reported from a number of dinoflagellates.


Assuntos
Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Toxinas Marinhas , Noruega , Toxinas Marinhas/toxicidade , Toxinas Marinhas/química , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Estuários , Animais , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Haptófitas/química
9.
Harmful Algae ; 137: 102667, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39003027

RESUMO

Clay-algae flocculation is a promising method to remove harmful algal blooms (HABs) in aquatic ecosystems. Many HAB-generating species, such as Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa), a common species in lakes, produce toxins and harm the environment, human health, and the economy. Natural clays, such as bentonite and kaolinite, and modification of these clays have been applied to mitigate HABs by forming large aggregates and settling down. In this study, we aim to examine the impact of laponite, a commercially available smectite clay that is synthetic, transparent, compatible with human tissues, and degradable, on removing HABs. We compare the cell removal efficiencies (RE) of laponite, two natural clays, and their polyaluminum chloride (PAC)-modified versions through clay-algae flocculation experiments. Our results show that the optimum concentrations of laponite, bentonite, kaolinite, PAC-modified bentonite, and PAC-modified kaolinite to remove 80 % of the M. aeruginosa cells from the water column are 0.05 g/L, 2 g/L, 4 g/L, 2 g/L and 0.3 g/L respectively. Therefore, to achieve the same cell removal efficiency, the amount of laponite needed is 40 to 80 times less than bentonite and kaolinite, and 6 times less than PAC-modified kaolinite. We demonstrate that the superior performance of laponite clay is because of its smaller particle size, which increases the encounter rate between cells and clay particles. Furthermore, experiments using water samples from Powderhorn Lake confirmed laponite's effectiveness in mitigating HABs. Our price analysis also suggests that this commercially-available clay, laponite, can be used in the field at a relatively low cost.


Assuntos
Argila , Floculação , Microcystis , Argila/química , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Silicatos/química , Silicatos de Alumínio/química , Caulim/química , Bentonita/química , Hidróxido de Alumínio/química
10.
Harmful Algae ; 137: 102677, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39003028

RESUMO

The Okavango Delta region in Botswana experienced exceptionally intense landscape-wide cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) in 2020. In this study, the drivers behind CyanoHABs were determined from thirteen independent environmental variables, including vegetation indices, climate and meteorological parameters, and landscape variables. Annual Land Use Land Cover (LULC) maps were created from 2017 to 2020, with ∼89% accuracy to compute landscape variables such as LULC change. Generalized Additive Models (GAM) and Structural Equation Models (SEM) were used to determine the most important drivers behind the CyanoHABs. Normalized Difference Chlorophyll Index (NDCI) and Green Line Height (GLH) algorithms served as proxies for chlorophyll-a (green algae) and phycocyanin (cyanobacteria) concentrations. GAM models showed that seven out of the thirteen variables explained 89.9% of the variance for GLH. The models showcased that climate variables, including monthly precipitation (8.8%) and Palmer Severity Drought Index- PDSI (3.2%), along with landscape variables such as changes in Wetlands area (7.5%), and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) (5.4%) were the determining drivers behind the increased cyanobacterial activity within the Delta. Both PDSI and NDVI showed negative correlations with GLH, indicating that increased drought conditions could have led to large increases in toxic CyanoHAB activity within the region. This study provides new information about environmental drivers which can help monitor and predict regions at risk of future severe CyanoHABs outbreaks in the Okavango Delta, Botswana, and other similar data-scarce and ecologically sensitive areas in Africa. Plain Language Summary: The waters of the Okavango Delta in Northern Botswana experienced an exceptional increase in toxic cyanobacterial activity in recent years. Cyanobacterial blooms have been shown to affect local communities and wildlife in the past. To determine the drivers behind this increased bloom activity, we analyzed the effects of thirteen independent environmental variables using two different statistical models. Within this research, we focused on vegetation indices, meteorological, and landscape variables, as previous studies have shown their effect on cyanobacterial activity in other parts of the world. While driver determination for cyanobacteria has been done before, the environmental conditions most important for cyanobacterial growth can be specific to the geographic setting of a study site. The statistical analysis indicated that the increases in cyanobacterial bloom activity within the region were mainly driven by persistent drier conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first study to determine the driving factors behind cyanobacterial activity in this region of the world. Our findings will help to predict and monitor areas at risk of future severe cyanobacterial blooms in the Okavango Delta and other similar African ecosystems.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Botsuana , Cianobactérias/fisiologia , Cianobactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monitoramento Ambiental , Clorofila A/análise
11.
Harmful Algae ; 137: 102679, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39003024

RESUMO

Algal blooms can threaten human health if cyanotoxins such as microcystin are produced by cyanobacteria. Regularly monitoring microcystin concentrations in recreational waters to inform management action is a tool for protecting public health; however, monitoring cyanotoxins is resource- and time-intensive. Statistical models that identify waterbodies likely to produce microcystin can help guide monitoring efforts, but variability in bloom severity and cyanotoxin production among lakes and years makes prediction challenging. We evaluated the skill of a statistical classification model developed from water quality surveys in one season with low temporal replication but broad spatial coverage to predict if microcystin is likely to be detected in a lake in subsequent years. We used summertime monitoring data from 128 lakes in Iowa (USA) sampled between 2017 and 2021 to build and evaluate a predictive model of microcystin detection as a function of lake physical and chemical attributes, watershed characteristics, zooplankton abundance, and weather. The model built from 2017 data identified pH, total nutrient concentrations, and ecogeographic variables as the best predictors of microcystin detection in this population of lakes. We then applied the 2017 classification model to data collected in subsequent years and found that model skill declined but remained effective at predicting microcystin detection (area under the curve, AUC ≥ 0.7). We assessed if classification skill could be improved by assimilating the previous years' monitoring data into the model, but model skill was only minimally enhanced. Overall, the classification model remained reliable under varying climatic conditions. Finally, we tested if early season observations could be combined with a trained model to provide early warning for late summer microcystin detection, but model skill was low in all years and below the AUC threshold for two years. The results of these modeling exercises support the application of correlative analyses built on single-season sampling data to monitoring decision-making, but similar investigations are needed in other regions to build further evidence for this approach in management application.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Lagos , Microcistinas , Modelos Estatísticos , Microcistinas/análise , Lagos/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Iowa , Cianobactérias , Clima , Estações do Ano , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Qualidade da Água
12.
Mar Drugs ; 22(6)2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38921590

RESUMO

Ichthyotoxic red tide is a problem that the world is facing and needs to solve. The use of antialgal compounds from marine macroalgae to suppress ichthyotoxic red tide is considered a promising biological control method. Antialgal substances were screened and isolated from Bangia fusco-purpurea, Gelidium amansii, Gloiopeltis furcate, Hizikia fusifarme, Laminaria japonica, Palmaria palmata, and Sargassum sp. to obtain new materials for the development of algaecides against ichthyotoxic red tide microalgae using bioactivity-guided isolation methods. The fractions of seven macroalgae exhibited selective inhibitory activities against Amphidinium carterae and Karenia mikimotoi, of which the ethyl acetate fractions had the strongest and broadest antialgal activities for the two tested red tide microalgae. Their inhibitory effects on A. carterae and K. mikimotoi were even stronger than that of potassium dichromate, such as ethyl acetate fractions of B. purpurea, H. fusifarme, and Sargassum sp. Thin-layer chromatography and ultraviolet spectroscopy were further carried out to screen the ethyl acetate fraction of Sargassum sp. Finally, a new glycolipid derivative, 2-O-eicosanoyl-3-O-(6-amino-6-deoxy)-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-glycerol, was isolated and identified from Sargassum sp., and it was isolated for the first time from marine macroalgae. The significant antialgal effects of 2-O-eicosanoyl-3-O-(6-amino-6-deoxy)-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-glycerol on A. carterae and K. mikimotoi were determined.


Assuntos
Glicolipídeos , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Microalgas , Alga Marinha , Alga Marinha/química , Glicolipídeos/farmacologia , Glicolipídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glicolipídeos/química , Proliferação Nociva de Algas/efeitos dos fármacos , Microalgas/química , Dinoflagellida/química
13.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1315: 342797, 2024 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38879209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Harmful algal blooms (HABs), caused by the rapid proliferation or aggregation of microorganisms, are catastrophic for the environment. The Prymnesium parvum is a haptophyte algal species that is found worldwide and is responsible for extensive blooms and death of larval amphibians and bivalves, causing serious negative impacts on the ecological environment. For the prevention and management of environmental pollution, it is crucial to explore and develop early detection strategies for HABs on-site using simple methods. The major challenge related to early detection is the accurate and sensitive detection of algae present in low abundance. RESULTS: Herein, recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) was combined with clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and Cas12a protein (CRISPR-LbaCas12a) systems, and the lateral flow dipstick (LFD) was used for the first time for early detection of P. parvum. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of P. parvum was selected as the target sequence, and the concentration of single-strand DNA reporters, buffer liquid system, reaction time, and amount of gold particles were optimized. The RPA-CRISPR-LbaCas12a-LFD approach demonstrated highly specificity during experimental testing, with no cross-reaction against different microalgae used as controls. In addition, the lowest detection limit was 10,000 times better than the lowest detection limit of the standalone RPA approach. The feasibility and robustness of this approach were further verified by using the different environmental samples. It also observed that P. parvum are widely distributed in Chinese Sea, but the cell density of P. parvum is relatively low (<0.1 cells/mL). SIGNIFICANCE: The developed approach has an excellent specificity and offers 10,000 times better sensitivity than the standalone RPA approach. These advantages make this approach suitable for early warning detection and prevention of HAB events in environmental water. Also, the outcomes of this study could promote a shift from traditional laboratory-based detection to on-site monitoring, facilitating early warning against HABs.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Limite de Detecção , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Recombinases/metabolismo , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Ouro/química , Proteínas Associadas a CRISPR/genética , Endodesoxirribonucleases/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética
14.
J Environ Manage ; 364: 121433, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38878574

RESUMO

Lake eutrophication caused by nitrogen and phosphorus has led to frequent harmful algal blooms (HABs), especially under the unknown challenges of climate change, which have seriously damaged human life and property. In this study, a coupled SWAT-Bayesian Network (SWAT-BN) model framework was constructed to elucidate the mechanisms between non-point source nitrogen pollution in agricultural lake watersheds and algal activities. A typical agricultural shallow lake basin, the Taihu Basin (TB), China, was chosen in this study, aiming to investigate the effectiveness of best management practices (BMPs) in controlling HABs risks in TB. By modeling total nitrogen concentration of Taihu Lake from 2007 to 2022 with four BMPs (filter strips, grassed waterway, fertilizer application reduction and no-till agriculture), the results indicated that fertilizer application reduction proved to be the most effective BMP with 0.130 of Harmful Algal Blooms Probability Reduction (HABs-PR) when reducing 40% of fertilizer, followed by filter strips with 0.01 of HABs-PR when 4815ha of filter strips were conducted, while grassed waterway and no-till agriculture showed no significant effect on preventing HABs. Furthermore, the combined practice between 40% fertilizer application reduction and 4815ha filter strips construction showed synergistic effects with HABs-PR increasing to 0.171. Precipitation and temperature data were distorted to model scenarios of extreme events. As a result, the combined approach outperformed any single BMP in terms of robustness under extreme climates. This research provides a watershed-level perspective on HABs risks mitigation and highlights the strategies to address HABs under the influence of climate change.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Teorema de Bayes , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Lagos , Agricultura/métodos , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , China , Mudança Climática , Fósforo/análise , Eutrofização , Modelos Teóricos
15.
J Environ Manage ; 364: 121463, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38878579

RESUMO

Frequent coastal harmful algal blooms (HABs) threaten the ecological environment and human health. Biscayne Bay in southeastern Florida also faces algal bloom issues; however, the mechanisms driving these blooms are not fully understood, emphasizing the importance of HAB prediction for effective environmental management. The overarching goal of this study is to offer a robust HAB predictive framework and try to enhance the understanding of HAB dynamics. This study established three scenarios to predict chlorophyll-a concentrations, a recognized representative of HABs: Scenario 1 (S1) using single nonlinear machine learning (ML) algorithms, hybrid Scenario 2 (S2) combining linear models and nonlinear ML algorithms, and hybrid Scenario 3 (S3) combining temporal decomposition and ML (TD-ML) algorithms. The novel-developed S3 TD-ML hybrid models demonstrated superior predictive capabilities, achieving all R2 values above 0.9 and MAPE under 30% in tests, significantly outperforming the S1 with an average R2 of 0.16 and the S2 with an R2 of -0.06. S3 models effectively captured the algal dynamics, successfully predicting complex time series with extremes and noise. In addition, we unveiled the relationship between environmental variables and chlorophyll-a through correlation analysis and found that climate change might intensify the HABs in Biscayne Bay. This research developed a precise predictive framework for early warning and proactive management of HABs, offering potential global applicability and improved prediction accuracy to address HAB challenges.


Assuntos
Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Florida , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Algoritmos , Mudança Climática , Clorofila A/análise , Aprendizado de Máquina , Clorofila/análise
16.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0301343, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833478

RESUMO

The dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella is a well-known paralytic shellfish toxin producer that forms harmful algal blooms, repeatedly causing damage to Chilean coastal waters. The causes and behavior of algal blooms are complex and vary across different regions. As bacterial interactions with algal species are increasingly recognized as a key factor driving algal blooms, the present study identifies several bacterial candidates potentially associated with Chilean Alexandrium catenella. This research narrowed down the selection of bacteria from the Chilean A. catenella culture using antibiotic treatment and 16S rRNA metabarcoding analysis. Subsequently, seawater from two Chilean coastal stations, Isla Julia and Isla San Pedro, was monitored for two years to detect Alexandrium species and the selected bacteria, utilizing 16S and 18S rRNA gene metabarcoding analyses. The results suggested a potential association between Alexandrium species and Spongiibacteraceae at both stations. The proposed candidate bacteria within the Spongiibacteraceae family, potentially engaging in mutualistic relationships with Alexandrium species, included the genus of BD1-7 clade, Spongiibbacter, and Zhongshania.


Assuntos
Dinoflagellida , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Simbiose , Dinoflagellida/genética , Dinoflagellida/fisiologia , Chile , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 945: 173913, 2024 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38880157

RESUMO

The globally distributed harmful algal blooms (HAB) species, Heterosigma akashiwo, has been found to exhibit ichthyotoxicity. Previous studies have shown that H. akashiwo achieves a competitive edge during bloom occurrences by inhibiting the growth of a coexisting diatom, Skeletonema costatum, through allelopathy. However, the specific allelopathic mechanisms underlying the allelopathic effects of H. akashiwo on S. costatum remain unknown. To bridge this gap, our study utilized a combination of quantitative real-time PCR and metabolomics to examine the allelopathic processes of H. akashiwo on S. costatum. Our results demonstrate that the growth of S. costatum is hindered when co-cultured with H. akashiwo (initial cell concentration, 2 × 104 cell/mL). Gene expression investigation showed a substantial reduction in the mRNA levels of cytochrome b6, ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase large chain, and silicon transporter in S. costatum when grown in co-culture conditions. Furthermore, metabolic pathway analysis suggested that the allelopathic effects of H. akashiwo disrupted several vital metabolic pathways in S. costatum, including a reduction in purine and pyrimidine metabolism and an increase in fatty acid biosynthesis. Our investigation has revealed the intricate and substantial involvement of allelopathy in the formation of H. akashiwo blooms, demonstrating the complexity of the allelopathic interaction between H. akashiwo and S. costatum. These insights also contribute significantly to our understanding of the dynamics within HAB species.


Assuntos
Alelopatia , Diatomáceas , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Metabolômica , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica , Dinoflagellida/fisiologia , Dinoflagellida/genética , Estramenópilas/fisiologia
18.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(6): e17348, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822656

RESUMO

Global climate change intensifies the water cycle and makes freshest waters become fresher and vice-versa. But how this change impacts phytoplankton in coastal, particularly harmful algal blooms (HABs), remains poorly understood. Here, we monitored a coastal bay for a decade and found a significant correlation between salinity decline and the increase of Karenia mikimotoi blooms. To examine the physiological linkage between salinity decreases and K. mikimotoi blooms, we compare chemical, physiological and multi-omic profiles of this species in laboratory cultures under high (33) and low (25) salinities. Under low salinity, photosynthetic efficiency and capacity as well as growth rate and cellular protein content were significantly higher than that under high salinity. More strikingly, the omics data show that low salinity activated the glyoxylate shunt to bypass the decarboxylation reaction in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, hence redirecting carbon from CO2 release to biosynthesis. Furthermore, the enhanced glyoxylate cycle could promote hydrogen peroxide metabolism, consistent with the detected decrease in reactive oxygen species. These findings suggest that salinity declines can reprogram metabolism to enhance cell proliferation, thus promoting bloom formation in HAB species like K. mikimotoi, which has important ecological implications for future climate-driven salinity declines in the coastal ocean with respect to HAB outbreaks.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Salinidade , Fotossíntese , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fitoplâncton/fisiologia , Carbono/metabolismo , Carbono/análise
19.
Mar Environ Res ; 199: 106623, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38917660

RESUMO

Marine phytoplankton are widely used to monitor the state of the water column due to their rapid changes in response to environmental conditions. In this study, we aimed to investigate the coastal phytoplankton assemblages, including bloom-forming species using high-throughput sequencing of 18S rRNA genes targeting the V4 region and their relationship with environmental variables along the Istanbul coasts of the Sea of Marmara. A total of 118 genera belonging to six phyla were detected. Among them, Dinoflagellata (36) and Bacillariophyta (26) were represented with the highest number of genera. According to the relative abundance of DNA reads, the most abundant taxa were Dinoflagellata_phylum (18.1%), Emiliania (8.4%), Biecheleria (8.4), and Noctiluca (8.1%). The ANOSIM test showed that there was a significant temporal difference in the assemblages, while the driving environmental factors were pH, water temperature, and salinity. According to the TRIX index, the trophic state of the coasts was highly mesotrophic and eutrophic. In addition, 45 bloom-forming and HAB taxa were detected and two species of Noctiluca and Emiliania, which frequently cause blooms in the area, were recorded in high abundance. Our results provide insight into the phytoplankton assemblages along the urbanized coastlines by analysing the V4 region of 18S rRNA. This data can support future studies that use both traditional methods and metabarcoding, employing various primers and targeting different genes and regions.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fitoplâncton , Fitoplâncton/genética , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Turquia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , DNA Ambiental/genética , DNA Ambiental/análise , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Dinoflagellida/genética , Biodiversidade
20.
Mar Environ Res ; 199: 106601, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38875900

RESUMO

Invasive species that outcompete endemic ones and toxic harmful algae that cause algal blooms threaten marine resources like fisheries, aquaculture, and even tourism. Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding can help as a method for early alert. In this study, we have analyzed communities inhabiting six lagoons within the Gulf of Lion (northwest Mediterranean Sea) with spatial protection as RAMSAR and Natura 2000 sites. Employing the COI gene as the only metabarcode, we found 15 genera that have caused recognized algal bloom outbreaks in the studied lagoons since 2000. In addition, seven alien invasive species that can pose risks to the rich marine resources of the zone and lagoons were also found. The results found from eDNA are consistent with events of toxic algae blooms before and after the sampling moment and with reported occurrences of the invasive species in nearby Mediterranean areas. Multivariate multiple analysis showed the importance of anthropic pressure in the abundance of these nuisance species. Mitigation actions and routine eDNA metabarcoding in zones of special interest like these fragile French Mediterranean lagoons are recommended for early alert of nuisance species in order to plan timely management actions.


Assuntos
DNA Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Espécies Introduzidas , Mar Mediterrâneo , DNA Ambiental/genética , DNA Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Animais
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