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1.
J Peripher Nerv Syst ; 26(1): 35-42, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462873

RESUMO

Oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (OIPN) is a common and dose-limiting toxic effect that markedly limits the use of oxaliplatin and affects the quality of life. Although it is common, the underlying mechanisms of OIPN remain ambiguous. Recent studies have shown that the platinum accumulation in peripheral nervous system, especially in dorsal root ganglion, is a significant mechanism of OIPN. Several specific transporters, including organic cation transporters, high-affinity copper uptake protein1 (CTR1), ATPase copper transporting alpha (ATP7A) and multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (MATE1), could be associated with this mechanism. This review summarizes the current research progress about the relationship between platinum accumulation and OIPN, as well as suggests trend for the future research.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Gânglios Espinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Gânglios Espinais/metabolismo , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Oxaliplatina/toxicidade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/metabolismo , Platina/metabolismo , Humanos
2.
J Peripher Nerv Syst ; 26(1): 43-48, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345432

RESUMO

We investigated whether rechallenge with oxaliplatin (OXA) can worsen the pre-existing oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neurotoxicity (OXAIPN) in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. Patients previously treated with OXA, having clinically significant grade 1 or 2 OXAIPN were assessed, after receiving rechallenge with OXA, using the clinical version of the Total Neuropathy Score (TNSc). Peripheral neuropathy was assessed at the end of first OXA exposure and at completion of OXA rechallenge. The first line OXA-based chemotherapy was completed at least 9 months earlier (OXA-free interval). We studied 25 mCRC patients, 14 males and 11 females, with a median age of 63 (35-77) years. After their first exposure to OXA-based chemotherapy, 9 (36%) patients developed grade 1 OXAIPN and 16 patients grade 2 (64%) neurotoxicity. OXA reintroduction with a median of 10 (8-14) cycles led to grade 1 OXAIPN in two patients (8%), grade 2 in 19 patients (76%), and grade 3 neuropathy in 4 (16%) patients Worsening of pre-existing OXAIPN was documented in seven (28%) patients and was significantly associated with higher OXA delivered cumulative dose (P < .001). Median TNSc scores following treatment (10; range 4-18) were significantly increased (P < .001), when compared to the scores recorded at the end of first line treatment (8; range 2-12). Rechallenging OXA appears to relatively worsen the severity of existing OXAIPN. However, the majority of rechallenged patients developed a clinically significant (grade 2) OXAIPN, rather than treatment-emergent grade 3. As such, OXA rechallenge might be a feasible option in patients previously having OXAIPN.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/etiologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Oxaliplatina/farmacologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Oxaliplatina/administração & dosagem , Oxaliplatina/toxicidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Neurochem Res ; 46(2): 367-378, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201401

RESUMO

Impaired homeostasis of copper has been linked to different pathophysiological mechanisms in neurodegenerative diseases and oxidative injury has been proposed as the main mechanism. This study aims to use curcumin, a widely used antioxidative and anti-apoptotic agent, to exert the neuroprotective effect against copper in vitro and illuminate the underlying mechanism. The effect of curcumin was examined by using a cell counting kit-8 assay, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, spectrophotometer, and western blot. Results revealed that after pretreatment with curcumin for 3 h, copper-induced toxicity and apoptosis show a significant decline. Further experiments showed that curcumin not only decreased the production of ROS and MDA but also increased the activities of the ROS scavenging enzymes SOD and CAT. Moreover, curcumin treatment alleviated the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and the nuclear translocation of cytochrome c induced by copper. The protein levels of pro-caspase 3, pro-caspase 9, and PARP1 were up-regulated and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was down-regulated in the presence of curcumin. Taken together, our study demonstrates that curcumin has neuroprotective properties against copper in SH-SY5Y cells and the potential mechanisms might be related to oxidative stress and mitochondrial apoptosis.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/tratamento farmacológico , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cobre , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Humanos
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(1): e48-e52, 2020-02-00. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1095869

RESUMO

El síndrome de Guillain-Barré constituye una entidad de etiología diversa, que se caracteriza por debilidad muscular aguda, simétrica, ascendente y progresiva, y es una de las polineuropatías adquiridas más frecuentes en la infancia. Entre los diagnósticos diferenciales, deben considerarse las neuropatías producidas por metales pesados, mercurio y plomo, y metaloides, como el arsénico, plaguicidas organofosforados y el tetracloruro de carbono.Se presenta a un paciente de 14 años con diagnóstico de síndrome de Guillain-Barré sin respuesta al tratamiento convencional con gammaglobulina. Considerando otras etiologías, se sospechó neuropatía producida por metales pesados, y se confirmó intoxicación por mercurio.El objetivo de esta presentación es concientizar a los pediatras acerca del impacto de los tóxicos ambientales en la salud infantil para realizar un diagnóstico precoz pesquisando datos clave a través de la historia clínica ambiental


Guillain-Barré syndrome is an entity of diverse etiology, characterized by acute, symmetric, ascending and progressive muscle weakness, being one of the most frequent acquired polyneuropathies in childhood. Neuropathies produced by heavy metals, mercury and lead, and metalloids, such as arsenic, organophosphorus pesticides and carbon tetrachloride, should be considered among the differential diagnoses.We present a 14-year-old patient with a presumptive diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome without response to conventional treatment with gamma globulin. Considering other etiologies, heavy metal neuropathy was suspected, and mercury poisoning was confirmed.The aim of this presentation is to make pediatricians aware about the impact of environmental toxic agents on children's health in order to make an early diagnosis by researching key data through the environmental clinical history.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Mercúrio/diagnóstico , Polineuropatias , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/tratamento farmacológico , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos
5.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 84(6): 1195-1200, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxaliplatin is widely used in the treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies. One of the most common and dose-limiting side effects of oxaliplatin is the chronic peripheral sensory neuropathy. The mechanism of this neurotoxicity is poorly understood and there are no effective preventive or treatment strategies, other than oxaliplatin dose interruption or reduction. METHODS: Colorectal cancer patients who completed FOLFOX at least 6 months prior to enrollment were eligible. EORTC QLQ-CIPN20 questionnaire was used for assessing self-reported neuropathic symptom. Blood samples and skin biopsies were obtained and analyzed for platinum. RESULTS: Twelve patients were enrolled. The mean cumulative dose of oxaliplatin was 818 ± 54 mg/m2, and the median time from last dose of oxaliplatin was 38.7 months (range: 7.2-65.6 months). The QLQ-CIPN20 sensory score was 18 or less in 10 patients and 19 and 25, respectively, in 2 patients. Platinum was detectable in plasma from 4/12 patients up to 63.3 months after the completion of FOLFOX. In all six patients with skin biopsies, platinum was present in the skin with imaging mass cytometry. CONCLUSIONS: QLQ-CIPN20 scores and plasma platinum concentrations were not related to cumulative doses of oxaliplatin or interval from the last dose of oxaliplatin. Platinum was readily detectable in skin biopsies more than 60 months post-completion of FOLFOX. This is the first demonstration of platinum deposition in skin post-oxaliplatin treatment and it provides a possible mechanism for oxaliplatin-induced peripheral sensory neuropathy and its persistence.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/etiologia , Oxaliplatina/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Biópsia , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/patologia , Humanos , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Limite de Detecção , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Organoplatínicos/efeitos adversos , Oxaliplatina/administração & dosagem , Oxaliplatina/metabolismo , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/patologia , Platina/análise , Platina/metabolismo , Platina/toxicidade , Pele/química , Pele/patologia
6.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(6): 828-837, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996207

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) are the major toxic heavy metals and are known to induce neurotoxicity. Although many studies have shown that several heavy metals have neurotoxic effects, the cellular and molecular mechanisms thereof are still not clear. Oxidative stress is reported to be a common and important mechanism in cytotoxicity induced by heavy metals. However, the assays for identifying toxic mechanisms were not performed under the same experimental conditions, making it difficult to compare toxic properties of the heavy metals. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying neurotoxicity induced by heavy metals and H2O2, focusing on cell death, cell proliferation, and oxidative stress under the same experimental condition. Our results showed that MeHg caused lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, caspase activation and cell-cycle alteration, and ROS generation in accordance with decreased cell viability. HgCl2 caused LDH release and cell-cycle alteration, but not caspase activation. CdCl2 had a remarkable effect on the cell cycle profiles without induction of LDH release, caspase activation, or ROS generation. Pretreatment with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) prevented the decrease in cell viability induced by MeHg and HgCl2, but not CdCl2. Our results demonstrate a clear difference in neurotoxic mechanisms induced by MeHg, HgCl2, CdCl2 or H2O2 in SH-SY5Y cells. Elucidating the characteristics and mechanisms of each heavy metal under the same experimental conditions will be helpful to understand the effect of heavy metals on health and to develop a more effective therapy for heavy metal poisoning.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
7.
Stat Med ; 37(30): 4680-4694, 2018 12 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30277584

RESUMO

Exposure to environmental mixtures can exert wide-ranging effects on child neurodevelopment. However, there is a lack of statistical methods that can accommodate the complex exposure-response relationship between mixtures and neurodevelopment while simultaneously estimating neurodevelopmental trajectories. We introduce Bayesian varying coefficient kernel machine regression (BVCKMR), a hierarchical model that estimates how mixture exposures at a given time point are associated with health outcome trajectories. The BVCKMR flexibly captures the exposure-response relationship, incorporates prior knowledge, and accounts for potentially nonlinear and nonadditive effects of individual exposures. This model assesses the directionality and relative importance of a mixture component on health outcome trajectories and predicts health effects for unobserved exposure profiles. Using contour plots and cross-sectional plots, BVCKMR also provides information about interactions between complex mixture components. The BVCKMR is applied to a subset of data from PROGRESS, a prospective birth cohort study in Mexico city on exposure to metal mixtures and temporal changes in neurodevelopment. The mixture include metals such as manganese, arsenic, cobalt, chromium, cesium, copper, lead, cadmium, and antimony. Results from a subset of Programming Research in Obesity, Growth, Environment and Social Stressors data provide evidence of significant positive associations between second trimester exposure to copper and Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development cognition score at 24 months, and cognitive trajectories across 6-24 months. We also detect an interaction effect between second trimester copper and lead exposures for cognition at 24 months. In summary, BVCKMR provides a framework for estimating neurodevelopmental trajectories associated with exposure to complex mixtures.


Assuntos
Teorema de Bayes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/induzido quimicamente , Pré-Escolar , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/epidemiologia , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Cadeias de Markov , México/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Método de Monte Carlo , Gravidez , Trimestres da Gravidez/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Regressão
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29199130

RESUMO

The causes of neurodegenerative diseases are complex with likely contributions from genetic susceptibility and environmental exposures over an organism's lifetime. In this review, we examine the role that aquatic models, especially zebrafish, have played in the elucidation of mechanisms of heavy metal toxicity and nervous system function over the last decade. Focus is applied to cadmium, lead, and mercury as significant contributors to central nervous system morbidity, and the application of numerous transgenic zebrafish expressing fluorescent reporters in specific neuronal populations or brain regions enabling high-resolution neurodevelopmental and neurotoxicology research.


Assuntos
Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/etiologia , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Degeneração Neural , Sistema Nervoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/genética , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/patologia , Humanos , Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso/patologia , Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Medição de Risco , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
9.
Adv Neurobiol ; 18: 13-34, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28889261

RESUMO

Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal that plays a fundamental role for brain development and functioning. Environmental exposure to Mn may lead to accumulation in the basal ganglia and development of Parkinson-like disorders. The most recent research is focusing on early-life overexposure to Mn and the potential vulnerability of younger individuals to Mn toxicity also in regard to cognitive and executive functions through the involvement of the frontal cortex.Neurodevelopmental disturbances are increasing in the society, and understanding the potential role of environmental determinants is a key for prevention. Therefore, assessing the environmental sources of Mn exposure and the mechanisms of developmental neurotoxicity and defining appropriate biomarkers of exposure and early functional alterations represent key issues to improve and address preventive strategies. These themes will be reviewed in this chapter.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Intoxicação por Manganês/psicologia , Transtornos da Memória/epidemiologia , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/epidemiologia , Desempenho Acadêmico , Cognição , Água Potável , Função Executiva , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados , Humanos , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Material Particulado , Solo
10.
Adv Neurobiol ; 18: 85-111, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28889264

RESUMO

The paraoxonases (PONs) are a three-gene family which includes PON1, PON2, and PON3. PON1 and PON3 are synthesized primarily in the liver and a portion is secreted in the plasma, where they are associated with high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), while PON2 is an intracellular enzyme, expressed in most tissues and organs, including the brain. PON1 received its name from its ability to hydrolyze paraoxon, the active metabolite of the organophosphorus (OP) insecticide parathion, and also more efficiently hydrolyzes the active metabolites of several other OPs. PON2 and PON3 do not have OP-esterase activity, but all PONs are lactonases and are capable of hydrolyzing a variety of lactones, including certain drugs, endogenous compounds, and quorum-sensing signals of pathogenic bacteria. In addition, all PONs exert potent antioxidant effects. PONs play important roles in cardiovascular diseases and other oxidative stress-related diseases, modulate susceptibility to infection, and may provide neuroprotection (PON2). Hence, significant attention has been devoted to their modulation by a variety of dietary, pharmacological, lifestyle, or environmental factors. A number of metals have been shown in in vitro, animal, and human studies to mostly negatively modulate expression of PONs, particularly PON1, the most studied in this regard. In addition, different levels of expression of PONs may affect susceptibility to toxicity and neurotoxicity of metals due to their aforementioned antioxidant properties.


Assuntos
Arildialquilfosfatase/efeitos dos fármacos , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Metais/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes , Arildialquilfosfatase/metabolismo , Cádmio/farmacologia , Intoxicação por Cádmio/metabolismo , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Chumbo/farmacologia , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Chumbo/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas HDL/metabolismo , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Manganês/farmacologia , Intoxicação por Manganês , Mercúrio/farmacologia , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Mercúrio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Adv Neurobiol ; 18: 143-158, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28889266

RESUMO

Parkinsonism is comprised of a host of neurological disorders with an underlying clinical feature of movement disorder, which includes many shared features of bradykinesia, tremor, and rigidity. These clinical outcomes occur subsequent to pathological deficits focused on degeneration or dysfunction of the nigrostriatal dopamine system and accompanying pathological inclusions of alpha-synuclein and tau. The heterogeneity of parkinsonism is equally matched with the complex etiology of this syndrome. While a small percentage can be attributed to genetic alterations, the majority arise from an environmental exposure, generally composed of pesticides, industrial compounds, as well as metals. Of these, metals have received significant attention given their propensity to accumulate in the basal ganglia and participate in neurotoxic cascades, through the generation of reactive oxygen species as well as their pathogenic interaction with intracellular targets in the dopamine neuron. The association between metals and parkinsonism is of critical concern to subsets of the population that are occupationally exposed to metals, both through current practices, such as mining, and emerging settings, like E-waste and the manufacture of metal nanoparticles. This review will explore our current understanding of the molecular and pathological targets that mediate metal neurotoxicity and lead to parkinsonism and will highlight areas of critical research interests that need to be addressed.


Assuntos
Cobre/intoxicação , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Ferro/intoxicação , Exposição Ocupacional , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/metabolismo , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Chumbo/metabolismo , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Chumbo/fisiopatologia , Manganês , Intoxicação por Manganês/metabolismo , Intoxicação por Manganês/fisiopatologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/fisiopatologia
12.
Adv Neurobiol ; 18: 227-265, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28889271

RESUMO

Metals are the oldest toxins known to humans. Metals differ from other toxic substances in that they are neither created nor destroyed by humans (Casarett and Doull's, Toxicology: the basic science of poisons, 8th edn. McGraw-Hill, London, 2013). Metals are of great importance in our daily life and their frequent use makes their omnipresence and a constant source of human exposure. Metals such as arsenic [As], lead [Pb], mercury [Hg], aluminum [Al] and cadmium [Cd] do not have any specific role in an organism and can be toxic even at low levels. The Substance Priority List of Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) ranked substances based on a combination of their frequency, toxicity, and potential for human exposure. In this list, As, Pb, Hg, and Cd occupy the first, second, third, and seventh positions, respectively (ATSDR, Priority list of hazardous substances. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Atlanta, 2016). Besides existing individually, these metals are also (or mainly) found as mixtures in various parts of the ecosystem (Cobbina SJ, Chen Y, Zhou Z, Wub X, Feng W, Wang W, Mao G, Xu H, Zhang Z, Wua X, Yang L, Chemosphere 132:79-86, 2015). Interactions among components of a mixture may change toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics (Spurgeon DJ, Jones OAH, Dorne J-L, Svendsen C, Swain S, Stürzenbaum SR, Sci Total Environ 408:3725-3734, 2010) and may result in greater (synergistic) toxicity (Lister LJ, Svendsen C, Wright J, Hooper HL, Spurgeon DJ, Environ Int 37:663-670, 2011). This is particularly worrisome when the components of the mixture individually attack the same organs. On the other hand, metals such as manganese [Mn], iron [Fe], copper [Cu], and zinc [Zn] are essential metals, and their presence in the body below or above homeostatic levels can also lead to disease states (Annangi B, Bonassi S, Marcos R, Hernández A, Mutat Res 770(Pt A):140-161, 2016). Pb, As, Cd, and Hg can induce Fe, Cu, and Zn dyshomeostasis, potentially triggering neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Additionally, changes in heme synthesis have been associated with neurodegeneration, supported by evidence that a decline in heme levels might explain the age-associated loss of Fe homeostasis (Atamna H, Killile DK, Killile NB, Ames BN, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99(23):14807-14812, 2002).The sources, disposition, transport to the brain, mechanisms of toxicity, and effects in the central nervous system (CNS) and in the hematopoietic system of each one of these metals will be described. More detailed information on Pb, Mn, Al, Hg, Cu, and Zn is available in other chapters. A major focus of the chapter will be on Pb toxicity and its interaction with other metals.


Assuntos
Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Alumínio/intoxicação , Animais , Intoxicação por Arsênico/metabolismo , Intoxicação por Arsênico/fisiopatologia , Intoxicação por Cádmio/metabolismo , Intoxicação por Cádmio/fisiopatologia , Misturas Complexas , Cobre/intoxicação , Exposição Ambiental , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Ferro/intoxicação , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Chumbo/metabolismo , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Chumbo/fisiopatologia , Intoxicação por Manganês/metabolismo , Intoxicação por Manganês/fisiopatologia , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Mercúrio/metabolismo , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Mercúrio/fisiopatologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/fisiopatologia , Zinco/intoxicação
13.
Adv Neurobiol ; 18: 287-301, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28889273

RESUMO

Vanadium (V) is a transition metal that presents in multiple oxidation states and numerous inorganic compounds and is also an ultra-trace element considered to be essential for most living organisms. Despite being one of the lightest metals, V offers high structural strength and good corrosion resistance and thus has been widely adopted for high-strength steel manufacturing. High doses of V exposure are toxic, and inhalation exposure to V adversely affects the respiratory system. The neurotoxicological properties of V are just beginning to be identified. Recent studies by our group and others demonstrate the neurotoxic potential of this metal in the nigrostriatal system and other parts of the central nervous system (CNS). The neurotoxic effects of V have been mainly attributed to its ability to induce the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It is noteworthy that the neurotoxicity induced by occupational V exposure commonly occurs with co-exposure to other metals, especially manganese (Mn). This review focuses on the chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and neurotoxicity of V.


Assuntos
Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/etiologia , Vanádio/intoxicação , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Intoxicação por Manganês , Exposição Ocupacional , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
14.
Adv Neurobiol ; 18: 303-312, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28889274

RESUMO

Zinc-induced neurotoxicity has been shown to play a role in neuronal damage and death associated with traumatic brain injury, stroke, seizures, and neurodegenerative diseases. During normal firing of "zinc-ergic" neurons, vesicular free zinc is released into the synaptic cleft where it modulates a number of postsynaptic neuronal receptors. However, excess zinc, released after injury or disease, leads to excitotoxic neuronal death. The mechanisms of zinc-mediated neurotoxicity appear to include not only neuronal signaling but also regulation of mitochondrial function and energy production, as well as other mechanisms such as aggregation of amyloid beta peptides in Alzheimer's disease. However, recent data have raised questions about some of our long-standing assumptions about the mechanisms of zinc in neurotoxicity. Thus, this review explores the most recent published findings and highlights the current mechanistic controversies.


Assuntos
Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/etiologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Zinco/intoxicação , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Morte Celular , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Sinapses/metabolismo
15.
Adv Neurobiol ; 18: 313-343, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28889275

RESUMO

Copper is an essential trace metal that is required for several important biological processes, however, an excess of copper can be toxic to cells. Therefore, systemic and cellular copper homeostasis is tightly regulated, but dysregulation of copper homeostasis may occur in disease states, resulting either in copper deficiency or copper overload and toxicity. This chapter will give an overview on the biological roles of copper and of the mechanisms involved in copper uptake, storage, and distribution. In addition, we will describe potential mechanisms of the cellular toxicity of copper and copper oxide nanoparticles. Finally, we will summarize the current knowledge on the connection of copper toxicity with neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cobre/metabolismo , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/metabolismo , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Cobre/intoxicação , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/etiologia , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/fisiopatologia , Degeneração Hepatolenticular/metabolismo , Degeneração Hepatolenticular/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Doença de Huntington/metabolismo , Doença de Huntington/fisiopatologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Estresse Oxidativo , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia
16.
Adv Neurobiol ; 18: 345-353, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28889276

RESUMO

Thallium (Tl+) is a ubiquitous natural trace metal considered as the most toxic among heavy metals. The ionic ratio of Tl+ is similar to that of potassium (K+), therefore accounting for the replacement of the latter during enzymatic reactions. The principal organelle damaged after Tl+ exposure is mitochondria. Studies on the mechanisms of Tl+ include intrinsic pathways altered and changes in antiapoptotic and proapoptotic proteins, cytochrome c, and caspases. Oxidative damage pathways increase after Tl+ exposure to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), changes in physical properties of the cell membrane caused by lipid peroxidation, and concomitant activation of antioxidant mechanisms. These processes are likely to account for the neurotoxic effects of the metal. In humans, Tl+ is absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes and then is widely distributed throughout the body to be accumulated in bones, renal medulla, liver, and the Central Nervous System. Given the growing relevance of Tl+ intoxication, in recent years there is a notorious increase in the number of reports attending Tl+ pollution in different countries. In this sense, the neurological symptoms produced by Tl+ and its neurotoxic effects are gaining attention as they represent a serious health problem all over the world. Through this review, we present an update to general information about Tl+ toxicity, making emphasis on some recent data about Tl+ neurotoxicity, as a field requiring attention at the clinical and preclinical levels.


Assuntos
Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/etiologia , Tálio/intoxicação , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Tálio/metabolismo
17.
Adv Neurobiol ; 18: 355-383, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28889277

RESUMO

Metals are a component of a variety of ecosystems and organisms. They can generally be divided into essential and nonessential metals. The essential metals are involved in physiological processes once the deficiency of these metals has been associated with diseases. Although iron, manganese, copper, and zinc are important for life, it has been evidenced that they are also involved in neuronal damage in many neurodegenerative disorders. Nonessential metals, which are metals without physiological functions, are present in trace or higher levels in living organisms. Occupational, environmental, or deliberate exposures to lead, mercury, aluminum, and cadmium are clearly correlated with the increase of toxicity and varied kinds of pathological situations. Actually, the field of neurotoxicology needs to satisfy two opposing demands: the testing of a growing list of chemicals and resource limitations and ethical concerns associated with testing using traditional mammalian species. Toxicological assays using alternative animal models may relieve some of this pressure by allowing testing of more compounds while reducing expenses and using fewer mammals. The nervous system is by far the more complex system in C. elegans. Almost a third of their cells are neurons (302 neurons versus 959 cells in adult hermaphrodite). It initially underwent extensive development as a model organism in order to study the nervous system, and its neuronal lineage and the complete wiring diagram of its nervous system are stereotyped and fully described. The neurotransmission systems are phylogenetically conserved from nematodes to vertebrates, which allows for findings from C. elegans to be extrapolated and further confirmed in vertebrate systems. Different strains of C. elegans offer a new perspective on neurodegenerative processes. Some genes have been found to be related to neurodegeneration induced by metals. Studying these interactions may be an effective tool to slow neuronal loss and deterioration.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/etiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/induzido quimicamente , Alumínio/intoxicação , Animais , Intoxicação por Cádmio , Ferro/intoxicação , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Chumbo , Intoxicação por Manganês , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Mercúrio , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Zinco/intoxicação
18.
Inhal Toxicol ; 29(5): 227-238, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28722486

RESUMO

Manganese (Mn) is a toxic heavy metal exposing workers in various occupational settings and causing, among others, nervous system damage. Metal fumes of welding, a typical source of Mn exposure, contain a complex mixture of metal oxides partly in nanoparticle form. As toxic effects of complex substances cannot be sufficiently understood by examining its components separately, general toxicity and functional neurotoxicity of a main pathogenic welding fume metal, Mn, was examined alone and combined with iron (Fe) and chromium (Cr), also frequently found in fumes. Oxide nanoparticles of Mn, Mn + Fe, Mn + Cr and the triple combination were applied, in aqueous suspension, to the trachea of young adult Wistar rats for 4 weeks. The decrease of body weight gain during treatment, caused by Mn, was counteracted by Fe, but not Cr. At the end of treatment, spontaneous and evoked cortical electrical activity was recorded. Mn caused a shift to higher frequencies, and lengthened evoked potential latency, which were also strongly diminished by co-application of Fe only. The interaction of the metals seen in body weight gain and cortical activity were not related to the measured blood and brain metal levels. Fe might have initiated protective, e.g. antioxidant, mechanisms with a more general effect.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/patologia , Manganês/toxicidade , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Soldagem , Administração por Inalação , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/química , Animais , Esquema de Medicação , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Traqueia/citologia , Aumento de Peso
19.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 42(1): E56-E59, 2017 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27172284

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: A case report. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report a case of progressive pain and paraparesis secondary to metallosis four years after a pediatric posterior spinal fusion (PSF). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Metallosis as a late complication of pediatric spinal surgery is rarely reported. Myelographic computed tomography (CT) can be helpful in establishing the diagnosis. The use of serum chromium levels as a means of definitive diagnosis has been suggested, but has only been reported retrospectively. METHODS: A 19-year-old male presented four years after PSF for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with sudden onset of pain and neurologic deficits. Radiographs and CT scan suggested infection. Intraoperatively, no purulent material was noted, but black and yellowish corrosive debris was found around the right L1 pedicle screw, so it was removed and the cavity packed with tobramycin impregnated calcium sulfate beads. After surgery, neurologic deficits worsened. CT myelogram showed irregular opacification of the thecal sac at the level of the conus. A posterior laminectomy and decompression was performed with removal of all debris and spinal instrumentation. Metallosis within the spinal canal was noted and serum chromium levels were obtained. RESULTS: The patient was discharged one week after admission with improvement of pain and gradual improvement in neurologic examination. Three years postdischarge, the patient is asymptomatic and examination shows bilateral clonus. Serum chromium levels declined from a high of 4.5 µg/L operatively to 0.8 at final follow-up (normal: 0.2-0.6 µg/L). CONCLUSION: Although uncommon, metallosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any late presenting case of pain, infection-like symptoms, or neurologic deficits after pediatric PSF. CT myelography and serum chromium levels may help guide diagnosis; however, surgical exploration is needed for definitive diagnosis and treatment. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4.


Assuntos
Cromo/toxicidade , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/etiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Paraparesia/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Escoliose/cirurgia , Fusão Vertebral/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Cromo/sangue , Descompressão Cirúrgica , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/sangue , Humanos , Laminectomia , Masculino , Mielografia , Dor Pós-Operatória/sangue , Paraparesia/sangue , Adulto Jovem
20.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 48: 203-213, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27816841

RESUMO

Human exposure to toxic heavy metals is a global challenge. Concurrent exposure of heavy metals, such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and methylmercury (MeHg) are particularly important due to their long lasting effects on the brain. The exact toxicological mechanisms invoked by exposure to mixtures of the metals Pb, Cd, As and MeHg are still unclear, however they share many common pathways for causing cognitive dysfunction. The combination of metals may produce additive/synergetic effects due to their common binding affinity with NMDA receptor (Pb, As, MeHg), Na+ - K+ ATP-ase pump (Cd, MeHg), biological Ca+2 (Pb, Cd, MeHg), Glu neurotransmitter (Pb, MeHg), which can lead to imbalance between the pro-oxidant elements (ROS) and the antioxidants (reducing elements). In this process, ROS dominates the antioxidants factors such as GPx, GS, GSH, MT-III, Catalase, SOD, BDNF, and CERB, and finally leads to cognitive dysfunction. The present review illustrates an account of the current knowledge about the individual metal induced cognitive dysfunction mechanisms and analyse common Mode of Actions (MOAs) of quaternary metal mixture (Pb, Cd, As, MeHg). This review aims to help advancement in mixture toxicology and development of next generation predictive model (such as PBPK/PD) combining both kinetic and dynamic interactions of metals.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Misturas Complexas/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/etiologia , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Animais , Arsênio/farmacocinética , Arsênio/toxicidade , Ligação Competitiva , Cádmio/farmacocinética , Cádmio/toxicidade , Cálcio/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Misturas Complexas/farmacocinética , Poluentes Ambientais/farmacocinética , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Humanos , Chumbo/farmacocinética , Chumbo/toxicidade , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/farmacocinética , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Modelos Biológicos , Ligação Proteica , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo
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