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1.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(20): 8517-8548, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910270

RESUMO

Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult., commonly known as Indian sarsaparilla or Anantamul, is an ethnopharmacologically important medicinal plant from the family Apocynaceae. Biosynthesis of an array of bioactive compounds such as methoxybenzaldehydes and their derivatives has been accountable for its intensive medicinal attributes. Low seed setting, over-exploitation from natural habitat and a need for selection and preservation of elite germplasms yielding higher levels of bioactive compounds have led researchers to enquire the standardization of micropropagation techniques and quantitative estimation of phytochemicals from H. indicus. The present work aims to have a comprehensive account on micropropagation in H. indicus, a comparative estimation of biotic and abiotic factors, viz. elicitors and precursors playing a crucial role in H. indicus tissue culture, a critical appraisal of applied protocols to nullify embellished claims and a discussion on future perspectives. The review also highlights the comparative effect of different plant growth regulators as well as their combined role in rhizogenesis, callogenesis, base callus formation, callusing and somatic embryo-mediated indirect organogenesis, outcome of explant selection, contribution of abiotic (temperature, photoperiod, moisture, inorganic molecules) factors, role of carbon source, application of sterilization techniques and associated success rates, role of factors essential for acclimatization and secondary metabolite production, synthetic seed production and genetic transformation techniques. The compiled information along with individual study details, respective outcome and variability of reports will aid in proper assessment of cited standardized tissue culture protocols in H. indicus especially in relation to secondary metabolite production. Moreover, the assessment of applicability of different methodologies in this aspect will aid in the selection of high-yielding germplasms or chemotypes which is not only profitable for industrial application but also important for basic and applied preclinical and clinical research studies. KEY POINTS: • Critical and updated assessment on in vitro biotechnology in Hemidesmus indicus. • Biotechnological advancement via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. • Key shortcomings and future research directions Graphical abstract Effect of biotic and abiotic factors on Micropropagation and secondary metabolite synthesis in Hemidesmus indicus.


Assuntos
Hemidesmus , Plantas Medicinais , Biotecnologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais , Raízes de Plantas
2.
Biofouling ; 36(5): 549-563, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586125

RESUMO

Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE) is an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen that accounts for recalcitrant device-related infections worldwide. Owing to the growing interest in plants and their secondary metabolites targeting bacterial adhesion, this study was intended to uncover the anti-biofilm potential of Hemidesmus indicus and its major constituent 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (HMB) against SE. The minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) of H. indicus root extract and HMB were found to be 500 and 250 µg ml-1, respectively. The results of time-dependent biofilm inhibition and mature biofilm disruption assays confirmed that HMB targets initial cell adhesion. Furthermore, interference by HMB in the expression of adhesin genes (icaA, aap and bhp) and biofilm components was associated with an increased susceptibility of SE to oxidative stress and antibiotics. To conclude, this study reports for the first time HMB as a potential drug against SE biofilms.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Benzaldeídos/toxicidade , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus epidermidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemidesmus , Humanos , Infecções Estafilocócicas
3.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(15): 6463-6479, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535696

RESUMO

Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult is commonly known as anantmul or Indian sarsaparilla. The roots of this plant, which display a wide range of medicinal, biological, and phytopharmaceutical properties, are used in the pharmaceutical and food industries. Conventionally, the plant is propagated by seed germination or vegetatively, but the efficacy of traditional methods has some limitations: plants derived from seed germination are prone to seed-borne diseases, or plantlet production using vegetative propagation is limited. In contrast, plant tissue culture allows for large-scale propagation and secondary metabolite production in vitro without sacrificing plants from their natural habitats. Many efforts have been made over 40 years of research to establish efficient micropropagation protocols to speed up cultivation of this plant, including callus-mediated in vitro propagation, somatic embryogenesis, and shoot multiplication using cotyledenory nodes, stem segments, shoot tips, and nodal explants. Among these explants, nodal explants are the most commonly used for H. indicus micropropagation. The application of adenine sulfate, citric acid, ascorbic acid, and arginine may be useful in preventing explant browning, premature leaf senescence, and shoot tip abscission during in vitro culture. This review provides insight into micropropagation, use of synthetic seeds for short-term germplasm preservation, and in vitro production of secondary metabolites such as 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde, lupeol, vanillin, and rutin, from in vitro root and callus cultures. Furthermore, unexplored and possible innovative areas of research in Hemidesmus biotechnology are also discussed. KEY POINTS: • Hemidesmus indicus has multiple therapeutic applications. • H. indicus roots are used in confectionary and pharmacy. • This review comprehensively assesses H. indicus tissue culture. • Challenges and future research of H. indicus biotechnology are discussed.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/métodos , Hemidesmus/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos/métodos , Hemidesmus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/química , Metabolismo Secundário
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 254: 112609, 2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007632

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult. (Apocynaceae) is widely used in traditional medicine in the different parts of the Indian subcontinent due to the various biological activities attributed to its different parts, especially the roots. It has traditionally been used for treating snakebites, scorpion stings, diabetes, urinary diseases, dyspnea, menorrhagia, oligospermia, anorexia, fever, abdominal colic and pain, dysentery, diarrhea, cough, rheumatism, headache, inflammation, pyrosis, skin diseases, leprosy, sexually transmitted diseases and cancer. In Ayurveda, the plant is used in the treatment of bone-loss, low body weight, fever, stress, topical wound and psoriasis. Besides, Ayurvedic literature also depicts its use as anti-atherogenic, anti-spasmodic, memory enhancing, immunopotentiating and anti-inflammatory agents. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this review, we aim to present a comprehensive update on the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, specific pharmacology, and toxicology of H. indicus and its bioactive metabolites. Possible directions for future research are also outlined in brief. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Popular and widely used international databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Google Scholar and JSTOR were searched and traditional literature were consulted using the various search strings to retrieve a number of citations related to the ethnopharmacology, biological activity, toxicology, quality control and phytochemistry of H. indicus. All studies on the ethnobotany, phtochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of the plant up to 2019 were included in this review. RESULTS: H. indicus has played an important role in traditional Indian medicine (including Ayurveda) and also in European medicine. The main pharmacological properties of H. indicus include hepatoprotective, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, neuroprotective, anti-ophidian, cardioprotective, nephroprotective, anti-ulcerogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties. Phytochemical evaluations of the root have revealed the presence of aromatic aldehydes and their derivatives, phenolics, triterpenoids and many other compounds, some of which were attributed to its bioactivity. This review also compiles a list of Ayurvedic formulations and commercial preparations where H. indicus has been used as an active ingredient. We have included the critical assessment of all the papers cited in this manuscript based on experimental observation and other important points which reflect the loop-holes of research strategy and ambiguity in the papers reviewed in this manuscript. CONCLUSIONS: The study presents an exhaustive and updated review on the traditional, pharmacological and phytochemical aspects of H. indicus with notes on its quality control and toxicological information. Although the crude extracts of H. indicus exhibit an array of pharmacological activities, it is high time to identify more active phyto-constituents by bioactivity-guided isolation besides elucidating their structure-activity relationship. More designed investigations are needed to comprehend the multi-target network pharmacology, to clarify the molecular mode of action and to ascertain the efficacious doses of H. indicus. Moreover, H. indicus is not fully assessed on the basis of its safety and efficacy on human. We hope this review will compile and improve the existing knowledge on the potential utilization of H. indicus in complementary and alternative medicine.


Assuntos
Hemidesmus/efeitos adversos , Hemidesmus/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Animais , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacocinética , Fitoterapia
5.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 21(6): 502-515, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alternative medicine is available for those diseases which cannot be treated by conventional medicine. Ayurveda and herbal medicines are important alternative methods in which the treatment is done with extracts of different medicinal plants. This work is concerned with the evaluation of anti-stress bioactive compounds from the ethanolic root extract of Hemidesmus indicus. METHODS: Gas chromatography and Mass Spectrum studies are used to identify the compounds present in the ethanolic extract based on the retention time, area. In order to perform docking studies, Vasopressin model is generated using modeling by Modeller 9v7. Vasopressin structure is developed based on the crystal structure of neurophysin-oxytocin from Bos taurus (PDB ID: 1NPO_A) collected from the PDB data bank. Using molecular dynamics simulation methods, the final predicted structure is obtained and further analyzed by verifying 3D and PROCHECK programs, confirmed that the final model is reliable. The identified compounds are docked to vasopressin for the prediction of anti-stress activity using GOLD 3.0.1 software. RESULTS: The predicted model of Vasopressin structure is stabilized and confirmed that it is a reliable structure for docking studies. The results indicated ARG4, THR7, ASP9, ASP26, ALA32, ALA 80 in Vasopressin are important determinant residues in binding as they have strong hydrogen bonding with phytocompounds. Among the 21 phytocompounds identified and docked, molecule Deoxiinositol, pentakis- O-(trimethylsilyl) showed the best docking results with Vasopressin. CONCLUSION: The identified compounds were used for anti-stress activity by insilico method with Vasopressin which plays an important role in causing stress and hence selected for inhibitory studies with phytocompounds. The phytocompounds are inhibiting vasopressin through hydrogen bodings and are important in protein-ligand interactions. Docking results showed that out of twenty-one compounds, Deoxiinositol, pentakis-O-(trimethylsilyl) showed best docking energy to the Vasopressin.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Hemidesmus/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Animais , Ansiolíticos/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos , Simulação por Computador , Etanol/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Ligantes , Medicina Ayurvédica , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Medicinais , Vasopressinas/química
6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7199, 2019 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076590

RESUMO

Proteasome inhibition represents an important anticancer strategy. Here, we studied the mechanisms at the basis of the pro-apoptotic activity of the standardized decoction of Hemidesmus indicus, a plant evoking a complex anticancer activity, and explored its inhibition of proteasome activity in human leukemia cells. Additionally, we preliminary tested the cytotoxicity of some H. indicus's phytochemicals on leukemia cells and their intestinal absorption on a human intestinal epithelium model consisting of a monolayer of differentiated Caco2 cells. We observed a potent antileukemic effect for H. indicus, imputable to the modulation of different critical targets at protein and mRNA levels and the reduction of the 26S proteasome expression. We found that some phytomarkers of H. indicus decoction passed through the enterocyte monolayer. Overall, our study supports the pharmacological potential of H. indicus, which can represent an interesting botanical drug in the oncological area.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Hemidesmus/química , Inibidores de Proteassoma/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Células CACO-2 , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Absorção Intestinal , Células Jurkat , MicroRNAs/genética , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteassoma/química
7.
BMC Ecol ; 18(1): 52, 2018 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fungal endophytes are the living symbionts which cause no apparent damage to the host tissue. The distribution pattern of these endophytes within a host plant is mediated by environmental factors. This study was carried out to explore the fungal endophyte community and their distribution pattern in Asparagus racemosus and Hemidesmus indicus growing in the study area. RESULTS: Foliar endophytes were isolated for 2 years from A. racemosus and H. indicus at four different seasons (June-August, September-November, December-February, March-May). A total of 5400 (675/season/year) leaf segments harbored 38 fungal species belonging to 17 genera, 12 miscellaneous mycelia sterile from 968 isolates and 13 had yeast like growth. In A. racemosus, Acremonium strictum and Phomopsis sp.1, were dominant with overall relative colonization densities (RCD) of 7.11% and 5.44% respectively, followed by Colletotrichum sp.3 and Colletotrichum sp.1 of 4.89% and 4.83% respectively. In H. indicus the dominant species was A. strictum having higher overall RCD of 5.06%, followed by Fusarium moniliforme and Colletotrichum sp.2 with RCD of 3.83% and 3%, respectively. Further the overall colonization and isolation rates were higher during the wet periods (September-November) in both A. racemosus (92.22% and 95.11%) and H. indicus (82% and 77.11%). CONCLUSION: Study samples treated with 0.2% HgCl2 and 75% EtOH for 30 s and 1 min, respectively, confirmed most favorable method of isolation of the endophytes. Owing to high mean isolation and colonization rates, September-November season proved to be the optimal season for endophyte isolation in both the study plants. Assessing the bioactive potential of these endophytes, may lead to the isolation of novel natural products and metabolites.


Assuntos
Asparagus (Planta)/microbiologia , Endófitos/fisiologia , Fungos/fisiologia , Hemidesmus/microbiologia , Microbiota , Endófitos/classificação , Fungos/classificação , Índia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Estações do Ano
8.
New Microbiol ; 41(3): 187-194, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29874387

RESUMO

Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) cause several clinically relevant syndromes in both adults and neonates. Despite the availability of efficient anti-HSV agents, the search for new therapeutic approaches is highly encouraged due to the increasing drug resistance of virus strains. Medicinal plants represent a source of potential bioactive compounds. In this context we evaluated the anti-herpetic activity of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br., a plant widely used in traditional Indian medicine. The hydroalcoholic extract prepared from roots was characterized by NMR and HPLC analysis and assayed in vitro by CPE reduction and virus infectivity assays to define its anti-viral effect. The extract's mechanism of action was investigated by virucidal and time-of-addition assays and by in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory assay. The extract exhibited a remarkable anti-herpetic activity at 100 mg/mL, at non-cytotoxic concentration, through multiple mechanisms: it reduced the infectivity of viral particles released from infected cells possibly through its anti-ER α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and it inhibited the beginning stage of HSV infection acting as a virucide agent and/or preventing virus attachment to the host cell surface.


Assuntos
Hemidesmus/química , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Herpesvirus Humano 2/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/efeitos dos fármacos , Herpesvirus Humano 2/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Células Vero , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
9.
Toxins (Basel) ; 10(2)2018 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29415441

RESUMO

In traditional Indian medicine, the crude drug Hemidesmus indicus root-commonly known as Indian sarsaparilla-is used alone or in poly-herbal preparations for the treatment of a wide range of diseases. The present study focuses on the cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of H. indicus extracts on an acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line (CCRF-CEM). With this aim in mind, we subjected H. indicus roots to two subsequent extractions (hydro-alcoholic extraction and soxhlet extraction). As DNA damage is an important prerequisite for the induction of mutations/cancer by genotoxic carcinogens, cancer chemoprevention may be achieved by preventing genotoxicity. Through an integrated experimental approach, we explored the genoprotective potential of the soxhlet H. indicus extract against different mutagenic compounds and its cytotoxic, proapoptotic, and cytostatic properties. In our experimental conditions, H. indicus induced a cytotoxic effect involving the activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways and blocked the cell cycle in the S phase. Moreover, the antigenotoxicity results showed that the extract was able to mitigate DNA damage, an essential mechanism for its applicability as a chemopreventive agent, via either the modulation of extracellular and intracellular events involved in DNA damage. These data add to the growing body of evidence that H. indicus can represent a noteworthy strategy to target early and late stages of cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Hemidesmus , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/análise , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA , Hemidesmus/química , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia
10.
Nat Prod Res ; 32(11): 1295-1298, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28580798

RESUMO

Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. was extensively used as hypoglycaemic agent and significance of this plant on secondary complications of diabetes remained unknown. The present study was to investigate the anti-cataractous activity of H. indicus against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic cataract in rodent model. Root extracts have been prepared and tested for inhibition of rat lens aldose reductase (AR) activity. In addition, its pharmacological potential has been investigated in STZ-induced diabetic cataract. Methanol extract of H. indicus-inhibited AR activity in vitro decreased the blood glucose levels, inhibited the AR activity and delayed the onset and progression of cataract in a dose-dependent manner in in vivo and the antioxidant markers have been normalised. Our results demonstrate that H. indicus has decrease the osmotic stress by inhibiting the AR activity and prevented the loss of antioxidants and delayed the progression of diabetic cataract in STZ-induced diabetic rats.


Assuntos
Catarata/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Hemidesmus/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Aldeído Redutase/antagonistas & inibidores , Aldeído Redutase/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catarata/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Enzimas/metabolismo , Cristalino/efeitos dos fármacos , Cristalino/metabolismo , Masculino , Pressão Osmótica/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estreptozocina
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 65(40): 8773-8778, 2017 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28942637

RESUMO

2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (HMBA) is a nontoxic phenolic flavor from dietary source Decalipus hamiltonii and Hemidesmus indicus. HMBA is an excellent antimicrobial agent with additional antiaflatoxigenic potency. On the other hand, cinnamaldehyde from cinnamon is a widely employed flavor with significant antiaflatoxigenic activity. We have attempted the enhancement of antiaflatoxigenic and antimicrobial properties of HMBA, cinnamaldehyde, and similar molecules via Schiff base formation accomplished from condensation reaction with amino sugar (d-glucamine). HMBA derived Schiff bases exhibited commendable antiaflatoxigenic activity at the concentration 0.1 mg/mL resulting in 9.6 ± 1.9% growth of Aspergillus flavus and subsequent 91.4 ± 3.9% reduction of aflatoxin B1 with respect to control.


Assuntos
Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Apocynaceae/química , Aspergillus flavus/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzaldeídos/farmacologia , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Hemidesmus/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Acroleína/química , Acroleína/farmacologia , Aflatoxina B1/metabolismo , Aldeídos/química , Aldeídos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Aspergillus flavus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo , Benzaldeídos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Bases de Schiff/química , Bases de Schiff/farmacologia
12.
Pathog Dis ; 75(6)2017 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28637198

RESUMO

Despite the availability of several anti-retrovirals, there is still an urgent need for developing novel therapeutic strategies and finding new drugs against underexplored HIV-1 targets. Among them, there are the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT)-associated ribonuclease H (RNase H) function and the cellular α-glucosidase, involved in the control mechanisms of N-linked glycoproteins formation in the endoplasmic reticulum. It is known that many natural compounds, such as pentacyclic triterpenes, are a promising class of HIV-1 inhibitors. Hence, here we tested the pentacyclic triterpene Lupeol, showing that it inhibits the HIV-1 RT-associated RNase H function. We then performed combination studies of Lupeol and the active site RNase H inhibitor RDS1759, and blind docking calculations, demonstrating that Lupeol binds to an HIV-1 RT allosteric pocket. On the bases of these results and searching for potential multitarget active drug supplement, we also investigated the anti-HIV-1 activity of Hemidesmus indicus, an Ayurveda medicinal plant containing Lupeol. Results supported the potential of this plant as a valuable multitarget active drug source. In fact, by virtue of its numerous active metabolites, H. indicus was able to inhibit not only the RT-associated RNase H function, but also the HIV-1 RT-associated RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity and the cellular α-glucosidase.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/antagonistas & inibidores , Hemidesmus/química , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/farmacologia , Ribonuclease H/antagonistas & inibidores , Sítio Alostérico , Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/química , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/genética , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/metabolismo , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/enzimologia , HIV-1/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Ribonuclease H/química , Ribonuclease H/genética , Ribonuclease H/metabolismo , alfa-Glucosidases/genética , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2017: 1856713, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28626752

RESUMO

This study was carried out to determine the chemoprotective potential of a polyherbal aqueous decoction comprised of Nigella sativa (seeds), Hemidesmus indicus (roots), and Smilax glabra (rhizome) against bleomycin induced cytogenetic damage in human lymphocytes. Isolated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) were exposed to bleomycin at a dose of 40 µg/mL for 2 hrs in the presence or absence of different doses of the decoction (100, 300, and 600 µg/mL). Modulatory effect of the decoction on bleomycin induced cytogenetic damage was evaluated by (a) degree of chromosomal aberrations (CA), (b) formation of micronuclei (MN), and (c) induction of γH2AX foci in lymphocytes exposed to bleomycin. Lymphocytes pretreated with the decoction showed that a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in bleomycin induced (a) stable and unstable chromosome aberrations (CA), (b) MN formation, and (c) formation of γH2AX foci, when compared to lymphocytes treated only with bleomycin. The decoction by itself did not induce any significant cytogenetic damage in PBLs. Overall results of the present study confirm that the decoction can attenuate the cytogenetic damage mediated by bleomycin in human PBLs.


Assuntos
Bleomicina/efeitos adversos , Aberrações Cromossômicas/induzido quimicamente , Hemidesmus/química , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Nigella sativa/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rizoma/química , Sementes/química , Smilax/química , Bleomicina/farmacologia , Humanos , Linfócitos/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/química
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 199: 1-8, 2017 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28119100

RESUMO

PHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Root of Hemidesmus indicus (L). R. Br., an herbal drug of India is traditionally used to prevent or treat female hormonal disturbance related disorders and assuaging symptoms of menopausal conditions. AIM OF THE STUDY: Lack of scientific data for potential use in bone loss, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of ethanol extract of Hemidesmus indicus root for osteoporosis in ovariectomised rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty wistar female rats were randomly divided into five groups. One group was sham operated and other four groups were undergone dorsal ovariectomy (OVX). After four weeks of post-operative recovery, three OVX groups, viz. Group1, Group2 and Group3 were treated for ninety days with standard raloxifene (RLX) 1mg/kg/day, Hemidesmus indicus root extract (HIRE) 100mg/kg/day and HIRE 200mg/kg/day respectively. Sham and OVX control groups were fed with equal 1% vehicle volume. Serum and urine biochemistry (alkaline phosphatase, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase, triglyceride, total cholesterol, calcium, phosphorous and hydroxyproline), weight of body, uterus and vagina, femur parameters, three point bending of tibia and fourth lumbar vertebra compression were examined. Furthermore, bone architecture and uterine hypertrophy were examined by histopathological studies. RESULTS: Application of HIRE has increased bone strength and restored bone turnover markers such as alkaline phosphatase, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase and hydroxyproline moreover, improved femur parameters indicated mineralized bones, similar to the results observed with raloxifene treatment. Histopathology studies showed fibrocartilaginous proliferation of trabecular bone and absence of uterine hypertrophy. CONCLUSION: The results strongly suggest that HIRE prevents bone loss in OVX induced osteoporosis without estrogen like side effects. It might be a potential remedy like raloxifene for postmenopausal or estrogen deficiency caused osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemidesmus , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/tratamento farmacológico , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/etiologia , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ratos Wistar , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Recent Pat Drug Deliv Formul ; 11(1): 36-41, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27993107

RESUMO

AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Psychosis is a neurological disorder, which is usually defined as the &quot;loss of contact with reality.&quot; As medicine 'Hemidesmusindicus' holds a reputed place in all systems of medicine in India. It is given in the form of infusion, fine particles, or syrup. It is also a component of several medicinal preparations. The present research work is pertaining to find out an anti-psychotic activity of an aqueous root extract of Hemidesmusindicus- a time bound study in rats. METHODS: In the present study, the dried roots of Hemidesmusindicus were crushed to a coarse powder and extracted with water under reflux for 36 hours to obtain the aqueous extract of roots of Hemidesmusindicus (AERHI). The extract was reconstituted in 2% aqueous tragacanth just before use and administered orally at a dose 0f 100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg. In a single dose study, the parameters were assessed after oral administration of the single dose of the AERHI, whereas in a multiple dose study, the animals daily received the suitable oral dose of the AERHI for a period of 30 days. The parameters were assessed on the 15th and 30th day. The antipsychotic activity was screened using Apomorphine induced Stereotyped behavior in rats and Haloperidol induced catalepsy models were used. In Apomorphine induced Stereotyped behavior inhibition of the Stereotyped behavior was considered to be anti-psychotic activity and in Haloperidol induced catalepsy, we observed whether the AERHI potentate or attenuate the catalepsy in rats. RESULTS: In this study, the extract of Hemidesmusindicus significantly inhibited the stereotyped behavior induced by apomorphine in rats and also potentiate the catalepsy induced by haloperidol, thereby showing its anti-psychotic activity. CONCLUSION: All these observations imply that Hemidesmusindicus extract possesses anti-psychotic activity in experimental animals.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Catalepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Hemidesmus/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Catalepsia/induzido quimicamente , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Haloperidol , Patentes como Assunto , Raízes de Plantas/química , Ratos
16.
Phytother Res ; 29(6): 857-63, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25753739

RESUMO

Indian Sarsaparilla (Hemidesmus indicus R. Br.) is widely used in Indian traditional medicine. In the present work, we explored the effects of decoction, traditional Ayurvedic preparation, and hydroalcoholic extract, a phytocomplex more traditionally studied and commercialized as food supplement in western medicine, from the roots as possible source of chemicals with new functional potential linked to their nutritional uses. The antiproliferative and antioxidant properties were assayed. To test antiproliferative affects, different cancer cell lines, growing both as monolayers (CaCo2, MCF-7, A549, K562, MDA-MB-231, Jurkat, HepG2, and LoVo) and in suspension (K562 and Jurkat) were used. The decoction showed strong activity on HepG2 cells, while the hydroalcoholic extracts were active on HepG2, LoVo, MCF-7, K562, and Jurkat cell lines. Weak inhibition of cancer cell proliferation was observed for the principal constituents of the preparations: 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid, and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde that were tested alone. The antiradical activity was tested with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt tests and inhibition of nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Interesting result has also been obtained for hydroalcoholic extract regarding genoprotective potential (58.79% of inhibition at 37.5 µg/mL).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemidesmus/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina Ayurvédica , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Polifenóis/química , Proantocianidinas/química
17.
Microb Pathog ; 82: 43-9, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25797527

RESUMO

In the present investigation, we described the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using plant leaf extract of Hemidesmus indicus. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). TEM images proved that the synthesized silver nanoparticles were spherical in shape with an average particle size of 25.24 nm. To evaluate antibacterial efficacy, bacteria was isolated from poultry gut and subjected to 16S rRNA characterization and confirmed as Shigella sonnei. The in vitro antibacterial efficacy of synthesized silver nanoparticles was studied by agar bioassay, well diffusion and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) assay. The H. indicus mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles shows rapid synthesis and higher inhibitory activity (34 ± 0.2 mm) against isolated bacteria S. sonnei at 40 µg/ml.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Hemidesmus/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Shigella sonnei/efeitos dos fármacos , Prata/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Aves Domésticas , Shigella sonnei/isolamento & purificação , Prata/química , Prata/farmacologia , Análise Espectral , Difração de Raios X
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 162: 261-9, 2015 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25560668

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The decoction of the roots of Hemidesmus indicus is widely used in the Indian traditional medicine for many purposes and poly-herbal preparations containing Hemidesmus are often used by traditional medical practitioners for the treatment of cancer. In the context of anticancer pharmacology, anti-angiogenic therapy has become an effective strategy for inhibiting new vessel formation and contrast tumor growth. These considerations are supported by the evidence that most tumors originate in hypoxic conditions and limitation of oxygen diffusion stimulates the formation of tumor abnormal microvasculature. Aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-angiogenic potential of Hemidesmus indicus (0.31-0.93 mg/mL) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells and delineate the main molecular mechanisms involved in its anti-angiogenic activity both in normoxia and hypoxia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The decoction of Hemidesmus indicus was subjected to an extensive HPLC phytochemical characterization. Its in vitro anti-angiogenic potential was investigated in normoxia and hypoxia. Cell proliferation, apoptosis induction, and inhibition of endothelial cell migration and invasion were analyzed by flow cytometry. The endothelial tube formation assay was evaluated in matrix gel. The capillary tube branch points formed were counted using a Motic AE21 microscope and a VisiCam videocamera. The regulation of key factors of the neovascularization process such as VEGF, HIF-1α and VEGFR-2 was explored at mRNA and protein level by real time PCR and flow cytometry, respectively. RESULTS: Treatment with Hemidesmus resulted in a significant inhibition of cell proliferation and tube formation in both normoxia and hypoxia. Hemidesmus differently regulated multiple molecular targets related to angiogenesis according to oxygen availability. In normoxia, the inhibition of VEGF was the main responsible for its anti-angiogenic effect; the angiogenesis inhibition induced in hypoxia was regulated by a more complex mechanism involving firstly HIF-1α inhibition, and then VEGF and VEGFR-2 down-regulation. Additionally, the inhibition of endothelial cell migration and invasion by Hemidesmus was more pronounced in normoxia than in hypoxia, possibly due to the physiological enhanced induction of invasion characteristic of hypoxia. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that Hemidesmus might represent a promising therapeutic strategy for diseases in which the inhibition of angiogenesis could be beneficial, such as cancer. The antiangiogenic activity of Hemidesmus is based on multiple interactions with critical steps in the angiogenic cascade. VEGF expression stimulated by HIF-1α as well as endothelial cell migration and differentiation represent important targets of Hemidesmus action and might contribute to its cancer therapeutic efficacy that is presently emerging and offer a scientific basis for its use in traditional medicine.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemidesmus/química , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxigênio , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 154(2): 462-70, 2014 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24786575

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Four Indian plants, traditionally used in Ayurvedic medicine: Asparagus racemosus Willd., Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Hemidesmus indicus R. Br., and Rubia cordifolia L. were selected on the basis of their ethnobotanical use and of scientific evidence that suggests a potential efficacy in the treatment of bone-loss diseases. The antiresorptive properties of the four plants have been investigated. The aim was to provide adequate evidence for the exploitation of natural compounds as alternative therapeutics for the treatment of diseases caused by increased osteoclast activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Decoctions were prepared from dried plant material according to the traditional procedure and standardization by HPLC was performed using marker compounds for each species. Total polyphenols, flavonoids and radical scavenging activity of the decoctions were also determined. The bioactivity of the plant decoctions was evaluated in subsequent phases. (1) A cytotoxicity screening was performed on the mouse monocytic RAW 264.7 cell line to define the concentrations that could be utilized in the following step. (2) The antiresorptive properties of plant decoctions were compared with that of a "gold standard" drug (alendronate) by measuring osteoclastogenesis inhibition and osteoclast apoptosis. (3) The toxic effect on bone forming cells was excluded by evaluating the impact on the proliferation of osteogenic precursors (mesenchymal stem cells, MSC). RESULTS: All the decoctions inhibited osteoclastogenesis similarly to alendronate at the highest doses, but Hemidesmus indicus and Rubia cordifolia were also effective at lower concentrations. Apoptosis increased significantly when cells were exposed to the highest concentration of Emblica officinalis, Hemidesmus indicus, and Rubia cordifolia. All concentrations of Emblica officinalis tested inhibited the proliferation of osteogenic precursors, while only the highest doses of Asparagus racemosus and Rubia cordifolia were toxic. On the contrary, Hemidesmus indicus did not affect osteogenic precursor growth at any concentration tested. CONCLUSION: Among the medicinal plants included in the study, Hemidesmus indicus showed the greatest antiosteoclastic activity without toxic effect on osteogenic precursors. Therefore, Hemidesmus indicus exhibits the properties of an antiresorptive drug and represents the ideal candidate for further clinical investigations.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Reabsorção Óssea/prevenção & controle , Hemidesmus/química , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Medicinais/química , Animais , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/administração & dosagem , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/isolamento & purificação , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/toxicidade , Reabsorção Óssea/patologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina Ayurvédica , Camundongos , Osteoclastos/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
Ceylon Med J ; 59(1): 4-8, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24682189

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the antioxidant potential of porridges (kola kenda) made incorporating herbs. DESIGN: Experimental study. Main outcome measures Total phenolic content was estimated by Folin Ciocalteau method (GAEmg/g(FW) and the antioxidant potential by ABTS free radical scavenging activity (TEAC(µg)/100g (FW). RESULTS: Total phenolics and antioxidant potentials of porridges ranged from 5-73 TEAC(µg) /100g and 0.9- 34.2 GAEg/100g respectively. Significantly high (p ≤ 0.05) total phenolic contents were observed in C. auriculata ("Ranawara") [342 GAE mg/g (FW)] and in M. koenigii ("Karapincha") [199 GAEmg/g(FW)]. The highest antioxidant effect was in C. auriculata ("Ranawara") [73 TEAC(µg)/100g(FW)] followed by M. koenigi ("Karapincha") [26 TEAC(µg)/100g (FW)] and C. ternatea ("Ela Katarolu") [24 TEAC(µg)/100g (FW)]. Lowest antioxidant effect was in porridges made with rice and coconut milk both of which had comparable values. A positive correlation (correlation coefficient > 0.8) between total phenolics and the antioxidant potential was observed for all porridges except for Asparagus racemosus (Haathawariya) porridge which had a high antioxidant potential with a low phenolic content. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that green leafy porridges are a good source of antioxidants in addition to their reported low glycaemic indices.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Aegle , Amaranthaceae , Asparagus (Planta) , Cassia , Clitoria , Cocos , Hemidesmus , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Murraya , Oryza , Fenóis/análise , Preparações de Plantas/química , Sapindaceae , Scoparia , Sri Lanka
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