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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e247487, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345555

RESUMO

Abstract Worldwide, conventional agriculture makes extensive use of pesticides. Although the effects of herbicides are relatively well known in terms of environmental impacts on non-target organisms, there is very little scientific evidence regarding the impacts of herbicide residues on aquatic arthropods from tropical conservation areas. This study evaluates for the first time the toxicity of the herbicides ametryn, atrazine, and clomazone on the aquatic insect Limnocoris submontandoni (Hemiptera: Naucoridae). The lethal concentration (LC50) of herbicides was evaluated for these insects, as well as the effect of the herbicides on the insects' tissues and testicles. The estimated LC50 was 1012.41, 192.42, and 46.09 mg/L for clomazone, atrazine, and ametryn, respectively. Spermatocyte and spermatid changes were observed under the effect of atrazine, and effects on spermatogenesis were observed for some concentrations of clomazone, with apparent recovery after a short time. Our results provide useful information on the effects of herbicide residues in aquatic systems. This information can help minimize the risk of long-term reproductive effects in non-target species that have been previously overlooked in ecotoxicology studies.


Resumo Em todo o mundo, a agricultura convencional faz uso extensivo de pesticidas. Embora os efeitos dos herbicidas sejam relativamente bem conhecidos em termos de impactos ambientais em organismos não-alvo, há pouca evidência científica sobre os impactos de resíduos de herbicidas em artrópodes aquáticos de áreas de conservação tropicais. Este estudo avalia pela primeira vez a toxicidade dos herbicidas ametryn, atrazine e clomazone sobre o inseto aquático Limnocoris submontandoni (Hemiptera: Naucoridae). A concentração letal (LC50) de herbicidas foi avaliada para esses insetos, bem como o efeito dos herbicidas nos tecidos e testículos dos insetos. A LC50 estimada foi de 1012,41, 192,42 e 46,09 mg/L para clomazone, atrazine e ametryn, respectivamente. Alterações nos espermatócitos e espermátides foram observadas sob o efeito de atrazine, e efeitos na espermatogênese foram observados para algumas concentrações de clomazone, com aparente recuperação após um curto período de tempo. Nossos resultados fornecem informações úteis sobre os efeitos de resíduos de herbicidas em sistemas aquáticos. Essas informações podem ajudar a minimizar o risco de efeitos reprodutivos de longo prazo em espécies não-alvo que foram negligenciadas anteriormente em estudos de ecotoxicologia.


Assuntos
Animais , Artrópodes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Hemípteros , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Ecotoxicologia , Genitália
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253218, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355863

RESUMO

Abstract Indices are used to help on decision-making. This study aims to develop and test an index, which can determine the loss (e.g., herbivorous insects) and solution (e.g., natural enemies) sources. They will be classified according to their importance regarding the ability to damage or to reduce the source of damage to the system when the final production is unknown. Acacia auriculiformis (Fabales: Fabaceae), a non-native pioneer species in Brazil with fast growth and rusticity, is used in restoration programs, and it is adequate to evaluate a new index. The formula was: Percentage of the Importance Indice-Production Unknown (% I.I.-PU) = [(ks1 x c1 x ds1)/Σ (ks1 x c1 x ds1) + (ks2 x c2 x ds2) + (ksn x cn x dsn)] x 100. The loss sources Aethalion reticulatum L., 1767 (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae), Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera), Stereoma anchoralis Lacordaire, 1848 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and Tettigoniidae, and solution sources Uspachus sp. (Araneae: Salticidae), Salticidae (Araneae), and Pseudomyrmex termitarius (Smith, 1877) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) showed the highest % I.I.-PU on leaves of A. auriculiformis saplings. The number of Diabrotica speciosa Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was reduced per number of Salticidae; that of A. reticulatum that of Uspachus sp.; and that of Cephalocoema sp. (Orthoptera: Proscopiidae) that of P. termitarius on A. auriculiformis saplings. However, the number of Aleyrodidae was increased per number of Cephalotes sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and that of A. reticulatum that of Brachymyrmex sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on A. auriculiformis saplings. The A. reticulatum damage was reduced per number of Uspachus sp., but the Aleyrodidae damage was increased per number of Cephalotes sp., totaling 23.81% of increase by insect damages on A. auriculiformis saplings. Here I show and test the % I.I.-PU. It is an new index that can detect the loss or solution sources on a system when production is unknown. It can be applied in some knowledge areas.


Resumo Índices são usados para ajudar na tomada de decisões. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver e testar um índice capaz de determinar fontes de perda (ex.: insetos herbívoros) e de solução (ex.: inimigos naturais). Eles serão classificados de acordo com sua importância quanto a habilidade de danificar ou reduzir danos no sistema, quando a produção final é desconhecida. Acacia auriculiformis (Fabales: Fabaceae), uma espécie pioneira não nativa do Brasil com rápido crescimento e rusticidade, usada em programas de restauração, é adequada para avaliar um novo índice. A fórmula foi: Porcentagem de Índice de Importância-Produção Desconhecida (% I.I.-PD) = [(ks1 x c1 x ds1)/Σ (ks1 x c1 x ds1) + (ks2 x c2 x ds2) + (ksn x cn x dsn)] x 100. As fontes de perda Aethalion reticulatum L., 1767 (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae), Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera), Stereoma anchoralis Lacordaire, 1848 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) e Tettigoniidae, e as fontes de solução Uspachus sp. (Araneae: Salticidae), Salticidae (Araneae) e Pseudomyrmex termitarius (Smith, 1877) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) apresentaram maiores % I.I.-PD nas folhas das mudas de A. auriculiformis. O número de Diabrotica speciosa Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) foi reduzido pelo número de Salticidae; o de A. reticulatum pelo de Uspachus sp.; e o de Cephalocoema sp. (Orthoptera: Proscopiidae) pelo de P. termitarius em mudas de A. auriculiformis. Entretanto, o número de Aleyrodidae foi aumentado pelo número de Cephalotes sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) e o de A. reticulatum pelo de Brachymyrmex sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) em mudas de A. auriculiformis. O dano de A. reticulatum foi reduzido pelo número de Uspachus sp., mas o dano de Aleyrodidae foi aumentado pelo número de Cephalotes sp., totalizando 23,81% de aumento de danos em mudas de A. auriculiformis. Aqui eu apresento e testo o % I.I.-PD. Ele é um novo índice capaz de detectar fontes de perda e de solução no sistema quando não se conhece a produção final. Ele pode ser aplicado em algumas áreas do conhecimento.


Assuntos
Animais , Formigas , Besouros , Acacia , Hemípteros , Insetos
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253780, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360200

RESUMO

Sugarcane crops Saccharum spp. (Poales: Poaceae) produces different derivatives to the world: sugar, ethanol and bioenergy. Despite the application of pesticides, insect pests still cause economic losses, among these the pink sugarcane mealybug Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell, 1895) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) causing direct and indirect damage to the plant. This study assess the virulence of three entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) species and their symbiont bacteria against the pink sugarcane mealybug, under laboratory conditions. Fourteen treatments represented by control (distilled water), Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar, 1976 (HB EN01) (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae), Steinernema rarum (Doucet, 1986) (PAM25) and Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser, 1955 (All) (Rhabditida: Steinermatidae) at concentrations of 25, 50, 75 and 100 infective juveniles (IJs)/insect, and the standard chemical product, thiamethoxam, were assayed. In a second experiment, the bacteria Photorhabdus luminescens (Thomas and Poinar, 1979), Xenorhabdus szentirmaii Lengyel, 2005 and Xenorhabdus nematophila (Poinar and Thomas, 1965) (Enterobacterales: Morganellaceae) at 3.0 x 109 cells/ml were assessed for each treatment. Ten replications were stablished, each one counting ten females/mealybugs inside a 10 cm Petri dish, amounting 100 individuals/treatment. All treatments were kept under stable conditions (25±1 ºC, H 70±10%, in the dark). All nematodes species infected S. sacchari. Steinerma rarum (PAM25) provided the highest mortality against the pink sugarcane mealybug (79.25%), followed by H. bacteriophora (HB EN01) (58.25%) and S. carpocapsae (All) (42.50%) (P<0.001). The mortality rate caused by X. szentirmaii, P. luminescens and X. nematophila were 40, 45 and 20%, respectively. Steinerma rarum (PAM25) has conditions to be a potential agent to be incorporate into the integrated pest management in sugarcane.


A cultura da cana-de-açúcar Saccharum spp. (Poales: Poaceae) produz diferentes derivados para o mundo: açúcar, etanol e bioenergia. Apesar da aplicação de pesticidas, os insetos-praga ainda causam prejuízos econômicos, dentre eles a cochonilha rosada da cana-de-açúcar Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell, 1895) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) causando danos diretos e indiretos à planta. Este estudo avaliou a virulência de três espécies de nematoides entomopatogênicos (NEPs) e suas bactérias simbiontes contra a cochonilha rosada da cana-de-açúcar, em condições de laboratório. Quatorze tratamentos representados pelo controle (água destilada), Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar, 1976 (HB EN01) (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae), Steinernema rarum (Doucet, 1986) (PAM25) e Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser, 1955 (All) (Rhabditida: Steinermatidae) nas concentrações de 25, 50, 75 e 100 juvenis infectantes (JIs)/inseto, e o produto químico padrão, tiametoxam, foram testados. Em um segundo experimento, a bactéria Photorhabdus luminescens (Thomas e Poinar, 1979), Xenorhabdus szentirmaii Lengyel, 2005 e Xenorhabdus nematophila (Poinar e Thomas, 1965) (Enterobacterales: Morganellaceae) em 3,0 x 109 células/ml foram avaliadas para cada tratamento. Dez repetições foram estabelecidas, cada uma contendo dez fêmeas/cochonilhas dentro de uma placa de Petri de 10 cm, totalizando 100 indivíduos/tratamento. Todos os tratamentos foram mantidos em condições estáveis (25±1 ºC, U 70±10%, no escuro). Todas as espécies de nematoides infectaram S. sacchari. Steinerma rarum (PAM25) proporcionou a maior mortalidade contra a cochonilha rosada da cana-de-açúcar (79,25%), seguida por H. bacteriophora (HB EN01) (58,25%) e S. carpocapsae (All) (42,50%) (P<0,001). As taxas de mortalidade causada por X. szentirmaii, P. luminescens e X. nematophila foram de 40, 45 e 20%, respectivamente. Steinerma rarum (PAM25) tem condições de ser um agente potencial a ser incorporado ao manejo integrado de pragas da cana-de-açúcar.


Assuntos
Animais , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Saccharum , Agricultura , Hemípteros , Nematoides
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250931, 2024. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360206

RESUMO

The red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae), an insect pest originating in Australia and which feeds only on Eucalyptus L'Hér. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) plants, has spread to several countries. The populations of this insect commonly reach high populations on Eucalyptus plants since its entry into Brazil, and also indicated an unrecorded behavioral. The objectives of this study were to describe a peculiar adaptation in the feeding habit of G. brimblecombei and to register the new habit. The oviposition and feeding by G. brimblecombei, commonly, on the leaves of Eucalyptus, started to occur, also, on lignified twigs. This suggests a not yet recorded adaptation of this insect to reduce insect × plant intraspecific competition.


O psilídeo de concha, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae), um inseto praga originário da Austrália e que se alimenta apenas de plantas de Eucalyptus L'Hér. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), se espalhou por vários países. Esse inseto, geralmente, atinge grandes populações em plantas de Eucalyptus desde sua entrada no Brasil e, também, indicou um comportamento diferente. Os objetivos deste estudo foram descrever uma adaptação peculiar no hábito alimentar de G. brimblecombei e registrar o novo hábito. A oviposição e alimentação por G. brimblecombei, geralmente, nas folhas de Eucalyptus, passaram a ocorrer, também, em ramos lignificados. Isso sugere uma adaptação diferente desse inseto para reduzir a competição intraespecífica inseto × planta.


Assuntos
Animais , Oviposição , Comportamento , Eucalyptus/parasitologia , Hemípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 13: 1121186, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36949814

RESUMO

Background: Wolbachia is the most abundant bacterial endosymbiont among insects. It can play a prominent role in the development, reproduction and immunity of its given insect host. To date, Wolbachia presence is well studied within aphids, whiteflies and planthoppers, but relatively few studies have investigated its presence in psyllids. Methods: Here, the infection status of Wolbachia in five species of psyllid, including Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri and longan psyllid Cornegenapsylla sinica was investigated. The phylogenetic relationships of different Wolbachia lines and their infection density and patterns in D. citri and C. sinica from different countries was also examined. Results: The infection rates of Wolbachia in D. citri and C. sinica were both 100%, and their sequencing types are ST173 and ST532 respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Wolbachia lines in D. citri and C. sinica both belong to the Con subgroup of Wolbachia supergroup B. In addition, Wolbachia displayed a scattered localization pattern in the 5th instar nymphs and in the reproductive organs of both D. citri and C. sinica but differed in other tissues; it was highest in the midgut, lowest in the salivary glands and medium in both the testes and ovaries. Conclusion: Our findings assist in further understanding the coevolution of Wolbachia and its psyllid hosts. Given that Wolbachia could play an important role in insect pest control and pathogen transmission inhibition, our findings may also provide new insights for development of control strategies for D. citri and C. sinica.


Assuntos
Citrus , Hemípteros , Wolbachia , Animais , Hemípteros/microbiologia , Wolbachia/genética , Filogenia , Citrus/microbiologia
7.
Genome Biol Evol ; 15(3)2023 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36864565

RESUMO

Planthoppers in the family Cixiidae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Fulgoromorpha) harbor a diverse set of obligate bacterial endosymbionts that provision essential amino acids and vitamins that are missing from their plant-sap diet. "Candidatus Sulcia muelleri" and "Ca. Vidania fulgoroidea" have been associated with cixiid planthoppers since their origin within the Auchenorrhyncha, whereas "Ca. Purcelliella pentastirinorum" is a more recent endosymbiotic acquisition. Hawaiian cixiid planthoppers occupy diverse habitats including lava tube caves and shrubby surface landscapes, which offer different nutritional resources and environmental constraints. Genomic studies have focused on understanding the nutritional provisioning roles of cixiid endosymbionts more broadly, yet it is still unclear how selection pressures on endosymbiont genes might differ between cixiid host species inhabiting such diverse landscapes, or how variation in selection might impact symbiont evolution. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of Sulcia, Vidania, and Purcelliella isolated from both surface and cave-adapted planthopper hosts from the genus Oliarus. We found that nutritional biosynthesis genes were conserved in Sulcia and Vidania genomes in inter- and intra-host species comparisons. In contrast, Purcelliella genomes retain different essential nutritional biosynthesis genes between surface- and cave-adapted planthopper species. Finally, we see the variation in selection pressures on symbiont genes both within and between host species, suggesting that strong coevolution between host and endosymbiont is associated with different patterns of molecular evolution on a fine scale that may be associated with the host diet.


Assuntos
Betaproteobacteria , Hemípteros , Animais , Cavernas , Havaí , Filogenia , Genômica , Betaproteobacteria/genética , Enterobacteriaceae , Hemípteros/microbiologia , Simbiose/genética
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(5)2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36902211

RESUMO

The small brown planthopper (SBPH, Laodelphax striatellus) is one of the most destructive insect pests in rice (Oryza sativa), which is the world's major grain crop. The dynamic changes in the rice transcriptome and metabolome in response to planthopper female adult feeding and oviposition have been reported. However, the effects of nymph feeding remain unclear. In this study, we found that pre-infestation with SBPH nymphs increased the susceptibility of rice plants to SBPH infestation. We used a combination of broadly targeted metabolomic and transcriptomic studies to investigate the rice metabolites altered by SBPH feeding. We observed that SBPH feeding induced significant changes in 92 metabolites, including 56 defense-related secondary metabolites (34 flavonoids, 17 alkaloids, and 5 phenolic acids). Notably, there were more downregulated metabolites than upregulated metabolites. Additionally, nymph feeding significantly increased the accumulation of seven phenolamines and three phenolic acids but decreased the levels of most flavonoids. In SBPH-infested groups, 29 differentially accumulated flavonoids were downregulated, and this effect was more pronounced with infestation time. The findings of this study indicate that SBPH nymph feeding suppresses flavonoid biosynthesis in rice, resulting in increased susceptibility to SBPH infestation.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Oryza , Animais , Feminino , Oryza/genética , Ninfa , Metabolismo Secundário , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hemípteros/genética
9.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 1289, 2023 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36894574

RESUMO

Arboviruses and symbiotic viruses can be paternally transmitted by male insects to their offspring for long-term viral persistence in nature, but the mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we identify the sperm-specific serpin protein HongrES1 of leafhopper Recilia dorsalis as a mediator of paternal transmission of the reovirus Rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV) and a previously undescribed symbiotic virus of the Virgaviridae family, Recilia dorsalis filamentous virus (RdFV). We show that HongrES1 mediates the direct binding of virions to leafhopper sperm surfaces and subsequent paternal transmission via interaction with both viral capsid proteins. Direct interaction of viral capsid proteins mediates simultaneously invasion of two viruses into male reproductive organs. Moreover, arbovirus activates HongrES1 expression to suppress the conversion of prophenoloxidase to active phenoloxidase, potentially producing a mild antiviral melanization defense. Paternal virus transmission scarcely affects offspring fitness. These findings provide insights into how different viruses cooperatively hijack insect sperm-specific proteins for paternal transmission without disturbing sperm functions.


Assuntos
Arbovírus , Hemípteros , Reoviridae , Animais , Masculino , Proteínas do Espermatozoide , Proteínas do Capsídeo , Sêmen , Insetos , Reoviridae/fisiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0280405, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36888691

RESUMO

Potamobates Champion, 1898 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerridae) heretofore included 18 species distributed from southern Mexico to Peru. They display a distinct morphology, especially regarding the projections of abdominal segment VIII. Specific identification and delimitation are difficult, and the genus lacks a thorough revision and evaluation of inter- and intraspecific variation. Here, we revise Potamobates, redescribe and/or illustrate known species, and describe P. molanoi Floriano and Moreira, sp. nov. and Brailovskybates Floriano and Moreira, gen. nov. The new genus is erected for P. thomasi Hungerford, 1937 and is characterized by the following features: (1) abdomen elongated, longer than the mesothorax; (2) abdominal spiracles positioned at the center of the segments; (3) male abdominal segment VIII without projections; (4) male pygophore and proctiger not rotated in relation to the longitudinal axis of the body; (5) female abdominal tergum VIII subequal in length and width; (6) and posterior margin of female abdominal sternum VII not produced medially, with a pair of lateral projections.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Heterópteros , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , México , Peru , Projeção , Posição Ortostática , Distribuição Animal
11.
BMC Genomics ; 24(1): 112, 2023 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36918764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mass production of natural predators with prolonged shelf life is a prerequisite for their field application as pest control agents. The traditional methods used for the mass production of Serangium japonicum rely heavily on the consistent supply of natural prey. This study explains the effects of B. tabaci (natural prey) and C. cephalonica eggs (alternative food) on life history and transcriptome profile of S. japanicum. METHODS: This study compares the effects of B. tabaci (natural prey) and C. cephalonica eggs (alternative food) on biology, reproduction, and predatory efficacy, and transcriptome profile of S. japanicum. RESULTS: This study revealed that S. japonicum was able to successfully complete its life cycle while feeding on B. tabaci (natural prey) and C. cephalonica eggs (alternative food). The C. cephalonica eggs fed S. japonicum individuals had longer developmental period and lower fecundity as compared to those feeding on whitefly but the survival rates (3rd instar nymphs, 4th instar nymphs and pupae) and predatory efficacy of C. cephalonica eggs fed S. japonicum individuals were significantly similar to to those feeding on whitefly.Transcriptome analysis showed that when faced with dietary changes, S. japanicum could successfully feed on C. cephalonica eggs by regulating genes related to nutrient transport, metabolism, and detoxification. Moreover, S. japanicum degraded excess cellular components through ribosomal autophagy and apoptosis, which provided sufficient materials and energy for survival and basic metabolism. CONCLUSION: Corcyra cephalonica eggs can be used as an alternate host for the predator, Serangium japonicum, as the survival rates and predatory efficacy of the predator are similar to those feeding on the natural host (B.tabaci). When faced with dietary changes, S. japanicum could successfully feed on C. cephalonica eggs as revealed by upregulation of genes related to nutrient transport, metabolism, and detoxification. These findings are of great significance for studying the functional evolution of S. japonicum in response to dietary changes.


Assuntos
Besouros , Hemípteros , Lepidópteros , Animais , Humanos , Transcriptoma , Hemípteros/genética , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Reprodução
12.
Cells ; 12(5)2023 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36899907

RESUMO

Plants produce diverse secondary compounds as natural protection against microbial and insect attack. Most of these compounds, including bitters and acids, are sensed by insect gustatory receptors (Grs). Although some organic acids are attractive at low or moderate levels, most acidic compounds are potentially toxic to insects and repress food consumption at high concentrations. At present, the majority of the reported sour receptors function in appetitive behaviors rather than aversive taste responses. Here, using two different heterologous expression systems, the insect Sf9 cell line and the mammalian HEK293T cell line, we started from crude extracts of rice (Oryza sativa) and successfully identified oxalic acid (OA) as a ligand of NlGr23a, a Gr in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens that feeds solely on rice. The antifeedant effect of OA on the brown planthopper was dose dependent, and NlGr23a mediated the repulsive responses to OA in both rice plants and artificial diets. To our knowledge, OA is the first identified ligand of Grs starting from plant crude extracts. These findings on rice-planthopper interactions will be of broad interest for pest control in agriculture and also for better understanding of how insects select host plants.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Oryza , Humanos , Animais , Ligantes , Ácido Oxálico , Paladar , Células HEK293 , Comportamento Alimentar , Receptores de Superfície Celular , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Plantas , Mamíferos
13.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 154: 103918, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36758646

RESUMO

Protein glycosylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications, modulating the properties of proteins. In insects, α-1,6-fucosyltransferase (FucT6) is an important enzyme in the glycosylation pathway, modifying the core structure of N-glycans on glycoproteins with the addition of a fucose residue. In our previous study, RNAi-mediated silencing of FucT6 in the third-instar nymphs of Nilaparvata lugens caused a failure of the ecdysis process during nymphal development, leading to high mortality. These results suggested the requirement of FucT6 during nymphal development in N. lugens. In this study, RNAi-mediated gene silencing of FucT6 in adults did not cause lethality. However, parental RNAi of FucT6 led to full failure in the hatching of eggs, and this effect was maternally mediated. Interestingly, gene expression levels of FucT6 in the eggs peaked at the katatrepsis event, where the embryo rotates 180° resulting in the head pointing towards the anterior side of the egg. Proteome analysis showed significant differences in the abundance of proteins between different embryonal developmental stages, suggesting the crucial role of FucT6 mediated core N-fucosylation in embryonal development. Therefore, correct α-1,6-fucosylation of glycoproteins is important for N. lugens during embryonic development and this study provides new insights into the role of N-glycosylation in embryogenesis in insects.


Assuntos
Fucosiltransferases , Hemípteros , Animais , Fucosiltransferases/genética , Fucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Hemípteros/genética , Glicosilação , Interferência de RNA , Inativação Gênica , Ninfa , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 233: 123647, 2023 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36780959

RESUMO

Cuticular proteins (CPs) play an important role in protecting insects from adverse environmental conditions, like neonicotinoid insecticides, which are heavily used for numerous pests and caused environmental problems and public health concerns worldwide. However, the relationship between CPs and insecticides resistance in Bemisia tabaci, a serious and developed high insecticide resistance, is lacking. In this study, 125 CPs genes were identified in B. tabaci. Further phylogenetic tree showed the RR-2-type genes formed large gene groups in B. tabaci. Transcriptional expression levels of CPs genes at different developmental stages revealed that some CPs genes may play a specific role in insect development. The TEM results indicated that the cuticle thickness of susceptible strain was thinner than imidacloprid-resistance strain. Furthermore, 16 CPs genes (5 in RR-1 subfamily, 7 in RR-2 subfamily, 3 in CPAP3 subfamily and 1 in CPCFC subfamily) were activated in response to imidacloprid. And RNAi results indicated that CP9 and CP83 involved in imidacloprid resistance. In conclusion, this study was the first time to establish a basic information framework and evolutionary relationship between CPs and imidacloprid resistance in B. tabaci, which provides a basis for proposing integrated pest management strategies.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Inseticidas , Animais , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Hemípteros/metabolismo , Filogenia , Neonicotinoides/farmacologia , Neonicotinoides/metabolismo , Nitrocompostos/farmacologia
15.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0265707, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36730235

RESUMO

A major ongoing research effort seeks to understand the behavior, ecology and control of the spotted lanternfly (SLF) (Lycorma delicatula), a highly invasive pest in the U.S. and South Korea. These insects undergo four nymphal stages (instars) before reaching adulthood, and appear to shift host plant preferences, feeding, dispersal and survival patterns, anti-predator behaviors, and response to traps and chemical controls with each stage. However, categorizing SLF life stage is challenging for the first three instars, which have the same coloration and shape. Here we present a dataset of body mass and length for SLF nymphs throughout two growing seasons and compare our results with previously-published ranges of instar body lengths. An analysis using two clustering methods revealed that 1st-3rd instar body mass and length fell into distinct clusters consistently between years, supporting using these metrics to stage nymphs during a single growing season. The length ranges for 2nd-4th instars agreed between years in our study, but differed from those reported by earlier studies for diverse locations, indicating that it is important to obtain these metrics relevant to a study's region for most accurate staging. We also used these data to explore the scaling of SLF instar bodies during growth. SLF nymph body mass scaled with body length varied between isometry (constant shape) and growing somewhat faster than predicted by isometry in the two years studied. Using previously published data, we also found that SLF nymph adhesive footpad area varies in direct proportion to weight, suggesting that footpad adhesion is independent of nymphal stage, while their tarsal claws display positive allometry and hence disproportionately increasing grasp (mechanical adhesion). By contrast, mouthpart dimensions are weakly correlated with body length, consistent with predictions that these features should reflect preferred host plant characteristics rather than body size. We recommend future studies use the body mass vs length growth curve as a fitness benchmark to study how SLF instar development depends on factors such as hatch date, host plant, temperature, and geographic location, to further understanding of life history patterns that help prevent further spread of this invasive insect.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Animais , Ninfa , Insetos , Tamanho Corporal
16.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 190: 105321, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36740334

RESUMO

As a multigene superfamily of Phase II detoxification enzymes, uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) play important roles in the metabolism of xenobiotics including insecticides. In this study, 5-nitrouracil, an inhibitor of UGT enzyme activity, effectively increased the toxicity of chlorpyrifos to the chlorpyrifos-resistant strain of Nilaparvata lugens, one of the most resistant rice pests. The enzyme content of UGT in the resistant strain was significantly higher than that in the susceptible strain. Among 20 identified UGT genes, UGT386H2, UGT386J2, UGT386N2 and UGT386P1 were found significantly overexpressed in the resistant strain and can be effectively induced by chlorpyrifos. These four UGT genes were most highly expressed in the midgut and/or fat body, two main insect detoxification tissues. Amino acid sequence alignments revealed that these four UGTs contained a variable N-terminal substrate-binding domain and a conserved C-terminal sugar donor-binding domain. Furthermore, homology modeling and molecular docking analyses showed that these UGTs could stably bind to chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos oxon, with the binding free energies from -19.4 to -110.62 kcal mol-1. Knockdown of UGT386H2 or UGT386P1 by RNA interference dramatically increased the susceptibility of the resistant strain to chlorpyrifos. These findings suggest that overexpression of these two UGT genes contributes to chlorpyrifos resistance in N. lugens.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Hemípteros , Inseticidas , Animais , Clorpirifos/farmacologia , Difosfato de Uridina/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Glicosiltransferases/metabolismo , Glicosiltransferases/farmacologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética
17.
J Genet ; 1022023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36722212

RESUMO

The cicada species, Hyalessa fuscata and H. maculaticollis(Hemiptera: Cicadidae), share numerous morphological characters, and their status as distinct species remains controversial. We reconstructed a phylogeny based on two new mitogenomes of H. fuscata from Korea and H. maculaticollis from Japan, in combination with GenBank sequences of H. maculaticollis from China and Japan, and other closely related cicada species. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference phylogenies showed that H. fuscata from Korea is more closely related to H. maculaticollis from China than either is to H. maculaticollis from Japan. The time-calibrated Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees (BEAST) phylogeny indicated that the mainland and insular forms diverged approximately 1.7-2.6 million years ago. This coincides with the formation of the East China Sea land bridge between East Asia and the Japanese archipelago, which would provide a dispersal corridor for Hyalessa from the mainland via the Korean peninsula southeastward to Japan. East Asian H. fuscata is a geographic variant that may be considered synonymous with H. maculaticollis.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Teorema de Bayes , Filogenia , República da Coreia , Hemípteros/genética , Animais
18.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0281597, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36763628

RESUMO

Notobitus montanus Hsiao, 1963 is a major pest of bamboos. The mitogenome of N. montanus (ON052831) was decoded using next-generation sequencing. The mitogenome, with 42.26% A, 30.54% T, 16.54% C, and 10.65% G, is 16,209 bp in size. Codon usage analysis indicated that high frequently used codons used either A or T at the third position of the codon. Amino acid usage analysis showed that leucine 2, phenylalanine, isoleucine and tyrosine were the most abundant in 31 Coreoidea species. Thirteen protein-coding genes (PCGs) were evolving under purifying selection, nad5 and cox1 had the lowest and strongest purifying selection stress, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that evolutionary rate had positive correlation with A+T content. No tandem repeat was detected in the non-coding region of N. montanus. The phylogenetic tree showed that Alydidae and Coreidae were not monophyletic. However, the topology of phylogenetic trees, based on 13 PCGs, was in accordance with that of tree based on both mitochondrial and nuclear genes but not ultraconserved element loci or combination of 13 PCGs and two rRNAs. It seems that their relationships are complex, which need revaluation and revision. The mitogenomic information of N. montanus could shed light on the evolution of Coreoidea.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Hemípteros , Heterópteros , Animais , Hemípteros/genética , Filogenia , RNA de Transferência/genética , Heterópteros/genética , Códon/genética
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(3)2023 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36768487

RESUMO

Cuticular proteins (CPs) are a large family and perform a variety of functions. However, the physiological roles of cuticle protein 21-like (Cpr21L) in the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH), one of the most destructive insect pests of rice, are largely unclear. In this study, Cpr21L was revealed to be expressed in both BPH nymphs and adults, and the mRNA expression level was much higher in male adults than female adults. Spatially, the expression of Cpr21L in the testis was higher than in the ovary. The RNA interference (RNAi) of Cpr21L seriously decreased nymph survival, and no individual survived 8 days post-dsCpr21L injection. The RNAi of Cpr21L in adults also decreased the fertility of males, especially in the dsCpr21L♂ × dsGFP♀ group. The average number of eggs laid by one female in this group significantly decreased by 50.1%, and the eggs' hatchability decreased from 76.5% to 23.8% compared with the control (dsGFP♂ × dsGFP♀). Furthermore, observations under a stereomicroscope showed that the RNAi of Cpr21L severely impaired the development of the testes. Therefore, Cpr21L is essential for the nymphal survival and male fecundity of BPH, thus providing a possible target for pest control.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Oryza , Hiperplasia Prostática , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Humanos , Ninfa , Hiperplasia Prostática/genética , Fertilidade/genética , Ovário , Oryza/genética , Interferência de RNA
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(3)2023 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36768757

RESUMO

Nutritional symbionts of sap-sucking auchenorrhynchan insects of Hemiptera are usually confined to the bacteriomes and/or fat bodies. Knowledge is limited about the distribution of microbial symbionts in other organs. We investigated the distribution of obligate symbionts in the salivary glands, gut tissues, reproductive organs, bacteriomes, and fat bodies of two cicada species, Karenia caelatata and Tanna sp., using integrated methods, including a modified fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, which can greatly enhance the FISH signal intensity of related symbionts. We revealed that Candidatus Sulcia muelleri (Sulcia) and a yeast-like fungal symbiont (YLS) were harbored in the bacteriomes and fat bodies, respectively. Both of Sulcia and YLS can be transmitted to the offspring via ovaries, forming a "symbiont ball" in each egg. Neither Sulcia nor YLS were harbored in the salivary glands, gut tissues and testes. Phylogenetic trees of both Sulcia and cicadas confirm that K. caelatata is a member of the tribe Dundubiini, and the tribe Leptopsaltriini that comprises Ta. sp. is not monophyletic. YLS of K. caelatata is embedded inside the lineage of YLS of Dundubiini, whereas YLS of Ta. sp. is closely related to the clade comprising both cicada-parasitizing fungi Ophiocordyceps and YLS of Mogannia conica and Meimuna mongolica, suggesting an evolutionary replacement of YLS in Ta. sp. from an Ophiocordyceps fungus to another Ophiocordyceps fungus. Our results provide new insights into the symbiosis between Cicadidae and related symbionts. Modification through the addition of helpers and heat shock greatly enhanced the FISH signal intensity of YLS, which may provide guidelines for enhancement of the hybridization signal intensity of other symbiont(s) in the FISH experiments.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Hemípteros , Animais , Hemípteros/genética , Filogenia , Simbiose , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Evolução Biológica
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