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1.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 18(6): 957-963, 2024 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38991002

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Blood donation is vital for healthcare; however, transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) pose a serious risk. This study investigated the seroprevalence of TTIs among Saudi blood donors. METHODOLOGY: This retrospective study included male blood donors aged ≥ 18 years who donated blood at Al-Noor Specialist Hospital in Makkah from January 2017 to December 2022. The blood units were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and core antibodies (HBc-IgG), hepatitis C antibodies (HCV-Abs), syphilis, HIV-1 antigen/antibody (HIV-1 Ag/Ab), human T-lymphotropic virus 1, 2 (HTLV-1/2), and malaria. RESULTS: There were 40,287 donors with an average age of 44.33 ± 18.12 years, and 62.3% (n = 25103) were Saudis. The overall rate of TTIs seropositivity was 7.4% (n = 2953); HBc-IgG (6.1%; n = 2473) was the most common, followed by HCV-Abs (0.4%; n = 177), and syphilis (0.34%; n = 136). All cases were negative for malaria, whilst HIV and HTLV positive donors were 0.06% (n = 24) and 0.13% (n = 52), respectively. Syphilis was more prevalent among non-Saudis (0.24%; n = 83) than among Saudis (0.1%; n = 53), whereas anti-HBc antibodies seropositivity was significantly higher among Saudi (3.4%; n = 1373) than non-Saudi donors (2.7%; n = 1100). CONCLUSIONS: Hepatitis B virus was the most frequently detected bloodborne pathogen, followed by hepatitis C virus and syphilis. Hepatitis B virus was also more prevalent among Saudi donors, whilst expatriates had higher rates of syphilis. Additional prospective multicenter studies are needed to accurately determine the prevalence of TTIs in Saudi Arabia.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Sífilis , Humanos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Adulto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis/sangue , Adolescente , Reação Transfusional/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Infecções Transmitidas por Sangue/epidemiologia , Idoso , Hepatite C/epidemiologia
2.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 66(1): e1-e9, 2024 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38949452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:  The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the most important biological occupational hazards for healthcare workers. A high percentage of HBV infections are attributable to percutaneous occupational exposure. This study aimed to describe the HBV immunisation and current immune status of all the nurses employed in a regional hospital in central South Africa. METHODS:  A descriptive record review included all the nurses (N = 388) employed in a regional hospital in central South Africa from 01 January 2018 to 31 January 2020. A total of 289 health records were included in the study. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Logistic regression analysis was used to establish factors associated with full immunisation. RESULTS:  Most nurses were females (87.9%), working in medical (27.0%) wards. Only 20.4% of nurses received one dose of vaccine, while 51.2% received the three prescribed doses. However, 91.2% of nurses did not receive the vaccine at the correct intervals. Most of the tested nurses (71.0%) were immune. Immunisation status was significantly associated with religion (p  0.001) and schedule (p = 0.003). Nurses who were non-Christians were 35.9% less likely to be fully vaccinated compared to Christians. CONCLUSION:  Half of the nursing staff received three doses as prescribed. All nurses should receive the vaccine against HBV and their immune status monitored to minimise the risk of an infection. It is therefore recommended that proof of immunity should be a requirement.Contribution: This study found a high percentage of nurses with HBV antibodies, which will ensure workplace safety.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Humanos , Feminino , África do Sul , Masculino , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/imunologia , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
World J Gastroenterol ; 30(25): 3147-3151, 2024 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39006388

RESUMO

In this editorial, we discussed the apparent discrepancy between the findings described by Colapietro et al, in their case report and data found in the literature. Colapietro et al reported a case of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatic decompensation in a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia and a previously resolved HBV infection who was receiving Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor therapy. First of all, we recapitulated the main aspects of the immune system involved in the response to HBV infection in order to underline the role of the innate and adaptive response, focusing our attention on the protective role of anti-HBs. We then carefully analyzed literature data on the risk of HBV reactivation (HBVr) in patients with previous HBV infection who were treated with either tyrosine kinase inhibitors or BTK inhibitors for their hematologic malignancies. Based on literature data, we suggested that several factors may contribute to the different risks of HBVr: The type of hematologic malignancy; the type of therapy (BTK inhibitors, especially second-generation, seem to be at a higher risk of HBVr than those with tyrosine kinase inhibitors); previous exposure to an anti-CD20 as first-line therapy; and ethnicity and HBV genotype. Therefore, the warning regarding HBVr in the specific setting of patients with hematologic malignancies requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia , Neoplasias Hematológicas , Vírus da Hepatite B , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases , Ativação Viral , Humanos , Ativação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Viral/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/imunologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/virologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B/imunologia , Fatores de Risco , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/imunologia , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/imunologia , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/virologia , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico
5.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2024: 6623848, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38947874

RESUMO

Purpose: To use hepatic uptake index (HUI) of liver lobes on gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to discriminate between patients with hepatitis B-related cirrhosis in compensated and decompensated statuses. Methods: Forty-four consecutive patients with hepatitis B-related cirrhosis who underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI were divided into compensated and decompensated statuses based on clinical evaluation. Volume and signal intensity of individual lobes were retrospectively measured to calculate HUI of the right liver lobe (RHUI), medial (MHUI) and lateral (LHUI) left liver lobes, and caudate lobe (CHUI). Spearman's rank correlation analyses were performed to evaluate relationships of lobe-based HUI with Child-Pugh and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scoring system scores in compensated and decompensated statuses. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the lobe-based HUI between compensated and decompensated statuses. The performance of lobe-based HUI in distinguishing cirrhosis was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was calculated as a measure of accuracy. Delong's method was used for statistical analysis to elucidate which HUI is optimal. Results: Compensated and decompensated liver cirrhosis were confirmed in 25 (56.82%) and 19 (43.18%) patients, respectively. According to Spearman's rank correlation analysis, RHUI, MHUI, LHUI, and CHUI were all significantly associated with Child-Pugh and MELD scores (all P values <0.05). Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that among all lobe-based HUI parameters, RHUI could best perform the previous discrimination with a cut-off of 485.73 and obtain an AUC of 0.867. The AUC of RHUI improved and was significantly different from that of MHUI, LHUI, and CHUI (P = 0.03, P = 0.007, and P < 0.001, respectively, Delong's test). Conclusions: The RHUI could help quantitatively discriminate hepatitis B-related cirrhosis between compensated and decompensated statuses.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste , Gadolínio DTPA , Cirrose Hepática , Fígado , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Gadolínio DTPA/farmacocinética , Gadolínio DTPA/administração & dosagem , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Masculino , Meios de Contraste/farmacocinética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Curva ROC , Idoso , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/diagnóstico por imagem
6.
Clin Transplant ; 38(7): e15389, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952185

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B virus reactivation (HBVr) can occur in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients with previously inactive hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Previous studies have reported that HBVr is generally less than 10% in nonliver SOT recipients with past HBV infection. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study from January 2018 to August 2023 at Mayo Clinic sites in Arizona, Florida, and Minnesota. We examined the antiviral prophylaxis strategy used and the characteristics of HBVr in hepatitis B core antibody-positive (HBcAb +) nonliver SOT adult recipients. Past HBV infection was defined as HBcAb + / hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) -. Chronic HBV infection was defined as HBcAb + / HBsAg +. RESULTS: A total of 180 nonliver SOT recipients were identified during the study period. Indefinite antiviral prophylaxis was utilized in 77 recipients, and none developed HBVr after transplantation. In 103 recipients without antiviral prophylaxis, the incidence of HBVr was 12% (12/97) and 33% (2/6) in those with past HBV infection and chronic HBV infection. The incidence of HBVr in patients with past HBV infection is 16% (8/50), 15% (3/20), and 5% (1/22) in kidney, heart, and lungs, respectively. HBVr was more frequent in those who received alemtuzumab. Among 14 recipients with HBVr, none had HBV-associated liver failure or death. CONCLUSIONS: Our study observed a higher rate of HBVr (12%) in nonliver SOT recipients with past HBV infection compared to the previous studies. Further studies are needed to identify predictors of HBVr in nonliver SOT recipients and optimize antiviral prophylaxis guidance.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Transplante de Órgãos , Ativação Viral , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Masculino , Feminino , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transplante de Órgãos/efeitos adversos , Hepatite B/virologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Fatores de Risco , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Adulto , Medição de Risco , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/virologia , Idoso
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15198, 2024 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956154

RESUMO

Early prognostic assessment of patients with hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) is important for guiding clinical management and reducing mortality. The aim of this study was to dynamically monitor the clinical characteristics of HBV-ACLF patients, thereby allowing the construction of a novel prognostic scoring model to predict the outcome of HBV-ACLF patients. Clinical data was prospectively collected for 518 patients with HBV-ACLF and randomly divided into training and validation sets. We constructed day-1, day-2, and day-(1 + 3) prognostic score models based on dynamic time points. The prognostic risk score constructed for day-3 was found to have the best predictive ability. The factors included in this scoring system, referred to as DSM-ACLF-D3, were age, hepatic encephalopathy, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, triglycerides, very low-density lipoprotein, blood glucose, neutrophil count, fibrin, and INR. ROC analysis revealed the area under the curve predicted by DSM-ACLF-D3 for 28-day and 90-day mortality (0.901 and 0.889, respectively) was significantly better than those of five other scoring systems: COSSH-ACLF IIs (0.882 and 0.836), COSSH-ACLFs (0.863 and 0.832), CLIF-C ACLF (0.838 and 0.766), MELD (0.782 and 0.762) and MELD-Na (0.756 and 0.731). Dynamic monitoring of the changes in clinical factors can therefore significantly improve the accuracy of scoring models. Evaluation of the probability density function and risk stratification by DSM-ACLF-D3 also resulted in the best predictive values for mortality. The novel DSM-ACLF-D3 prognostic scoring model based on dynamic data can improve early warning, prediction and clinical management of HBV-ACLF patients.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/mortalidade , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Vírus da Hepatite B , Curva ROC , Hepatite B/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Idoso
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 658, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare Workers (HCWs) are susceptible to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and are advised to receive vaccination. However, vaccination rates remain low in developing countries. There is little data concerning Hepatitis B (HepB) vaccination and information regarding HBV knowledge among HCWs in Cambodia. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge of HBV infection, HepB vaccine, and vaccination status with its associated factors among HCWs in Cambodia. METHODS: A Cross-sectional study was conducted among HCWs in Kampot and Kep Provinces, Cambodia, from September to October 2023 using a questionnaire survey. A total of 261 HCWs were recruited from 1,309 individuals working in all 83 health facilities using systematic random sampling methods. Statistical analyses including the χ2-test and multivariate logistic regression were conducted to identify factors associated with vaccination among the participants. RESULTS: Among 259 participants, 62.9% showed good knowledge of HBV infection, and 65.6% demonstrated good knowledge of the HepB vaccine. 59.8% of the participants had received the HepB vaccine, while 40.2% remained unvaccinated. Analysis showed that HCWs working at Provincial Health Department/Operational Districts and Provincial Referral Hospital/Referral Hospitals were more likely to be vaccinated compared to those at Health Centers [AOR = 6.5; CI = 1.1-39.5, p = 0.0403; AOR = 2.8, CI = 1.0-7.8, p = 0.0412], respectively. Furthermore, individuals with good knowledge of the HBV infection and vaccine were more likely to receive the vaccine compared to those with inadequate knowledge [AOR = 6.3; CI = 3.3-12.3, p < .0001; AOR = 3.7, CI = 1.9-7.4, p = 0.0001], respectively. Within the unvaccinated HCWs, 32% reported high vaccine costs as a barrier, 33% mentioned workplace vaccine was not for adults, and 59% reported insufficient education on adult HepB vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: The HepB vaccination coverage among HCWs is at 59.8%, which is below the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendation rate of 100%. Knowledge of HBV infection and HepB vaccine were good predictive factors for vaccination. The high cost of vaccine, workplace vaccine not for adults, and insufficient education on adult vaccination were found as barriers to vaccination. This study underscores the importance of providing education to HCWs on HBV infection and the HepB vaccine. Furthermore, it highlights the need for a policy that ensures free vaccination for HCWs.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Vacinas contra Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Vacinação , Humanos , Camboja/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 27: e240033, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38958369

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the probability of infection with hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses in different socioeconomic strata of the population of Recife, Northeast Brazil. METHODS: Study carried out from samples obtained in a survey of residents of a large urban center that had a population base and stratified sampling with random selection of households using the "Brazil Sample" package in the R software. HBV (HBsAg) and anti-HCV was performed using immunochromatographic tests. In cases positive for HBsAg, anti-HBc and HBeAg were tested using chemiluminescence, as well as HBV-DNA using real-time PCR. For cases positive for anti-HCV, the search for this antibody was repeated by chemiluminescence and for HCV-RNA by real-time PCR. The occurrence of HBsAg and anti-HCV cases in the general population was estimated based on a theoretical negative binomial distribution. RESULTS: Among 2,070 samples examined, 5 (0.24%) were HBsAg and 2 (0.1%) anti-HCV positive. The majority of cases had self-reported skin color as black/brown (6/7), education level up to high school (6/7), a steady partner (5/7) and lived in an area of low socioeconomic status (5/7). CONCLUSION: The occurrence of HBsAg and anti-HCV was lower than those previously found in population-based studies and slightly lower than the most recent estimates. Individuals with lower socioeconomic status should be a priority target of public health policies.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Hepatite C , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Criança
10.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 27: e240036, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38958371

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the dimensions of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and complete vaccination for hepatitis B among healthcare workers (HCW). METHODS: Cross-sectional epidemiological study with HCW in Primary Health and Medium Complexity Care. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed to test the association between the outcome variable (complete vaccination for hepatitis B based on self-report) and the variables of the HBM dimensions. Prevalence ratio (PR) and its respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated. RESULTS: 453 HCW participated. The prevalence of complete vaccination for hepatitis B was 56.9%. In the final analysis model, the following variables were associated with complete vaccination for hepatitis B: chances of having hepatitis B (PR=1.73) - related to the susceptibility dimension; disease severity (PR=0.74) - related to severity; reduced risk of absenteeism (PR=1.29) - related to benefits; not spending time to get vaccinated (PR=1.41) and not worrying about Events Supposedly Attributable to Vaccination or Immunization (PR=1.43) - related to barriers. CONCLUSIONS: The completeness of the hepatitis B vaccination schedule, reported by the investigated HCW, reveals the prevalence is below the target established by the Ministry of Health, which follows the national scenario of low coverage presented for other age groups. Understanding the risk perception and severity of hepatitis B can contribute to increasing the prevalence of vaccination for this infection.


Assuntos
Modelo de Crenças de Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Vacinas contra Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/psicologia , Adulto Jovem , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
11.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0292473, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38959256

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Limited data are available on the prevalence rates of hepatitis B and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among women survivors of sexual violence (WSSV) in South Kivu province, in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), where armed conflicts persist. Here, we aimed to assess the prevalence of these two infections in this vulnerable local population. METHODS: A total of 1002 WSSV, aged from 18 to 70 years old were enrolled from May 2018 to May 2020 at three healthcare facilities (Panzi, Mulamba and Bulenga hospitals), which are called "The One-Stop Centre Care Model" for the management of sexual violence in South Kivu. Blood samples were collected and tested for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antigens and antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) methods. Subsequently, viral load quantification for HBV and HIV were performed using the GeneXpert. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess factors associated with HIV-positive and HBV-positive status. RESULTS: For HBV, overall prevalence was 8.9% (95% CI; 7.2-10.8%), 32.1% (95% CI; 29.3-35.0%), and 14.5% (95% CI; 12.3-16.8%) for HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HBs antibodies, respectively. Among the 89 HBsAg-positive patients, 17 (19.1%) were HBeAg-positive. The median age of individuals with a positive HBsAg test was higher than those with a negative test (median: 40 years (IQR 30-52) compared to 36 years (IQR 24-48)). Risk factors for HBV infection were age (≥35 years) (AOR = 1.83 [1.02-3.32]; p = 0.041), having no schooling (AOR = 4.14 [1.35-12.62]; p = 0.012) or only primary school-level (AOR = 4.88 [1.61-14.75]; p = 0.005), and multiple aggressors (AOR = 1.76 [1.09-2.84], p = 0.019). The prevalence of HIV was 4.3% [95% CI: 3.1-5.7%]. HIV/HBV co-infection occurred only in 5 individuals (0.5%). The HBV viral load was detectable (> 1 log10 UI/mL) in 61.8% of HBsAg-positive subjects and 64.8% HIV-positive subjects had a high viral load (≥ 3 log10 copies/mL). CONCLUSION: This study revealed a high prevalence of HBV and HIV infections among WSSV in South Kivu. The results generated highlight the urgent need for systematic screening of HBV and HIV by integrating fourth-generation ELISA tests in HIV and HBV control programs.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hepatite B , Delitos Sexuais , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Sobreviventes , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Carga Viral
12.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0306965, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38985751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus infection remains a significant public health concern globally, particularly among healthcare workers, including health science students who are at high risk due to their exposure to infected patients and contaminated medical equipment. In Ethiopia, where the burden of HBV infection is substantial, preventive practices among health science students are critical for minimizing transmission and ensuring a healthy workforce. However, there is a lack of comprehensive evidence regarding the effectiveness of these practices specifically among this population in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to provide a systematic review and meta-analysis of preventive measures for Hepatitis B infection among Health Science Students in Ethiopia. METHODS: This study followed the guidelines outlined in the PRISMA checklist and focused on research conducted within Ethiopia. Seven relevant studies were identified through comprehensive searches across various databases including Google, Medline, PubMed, and Scholar. Data retrieval was systematically conducted using a checklist, and analysis was performed using STATA version 14. Heterogeneity was assessed using both the Cochrane Q test and the I2 statistic. Additionally, publication bias was evaluated using Egger's weighted regression, a funnel plot, and Begg's test. RESULTS: In this meta-analysis and systematic review, we identified a total of 515 research articles, of which seven studies met the eligibility criteria for analysis. The overall pooled magnitude of practices aimed at preventing Hepatitis B infection among Health Science Students in Ethiopia was 41.21% (95% CI: 30.81-51.62). Factors significantly associated with these practices included better understanding of Hepatitis B infection prevention (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.20-3.29), age group 20-24 years (OR = 5.79, 95% CI: 2.43-13.78), needle stick injury exposure (OR = 3.43, 95% CI: 1.10-10.70), and students enrolled in medicine or public health officer departments (OR = 4.20, 95% CI: 2.65-6.65). CONCLUSION: Our analysis indicates that only 41.21% of Health Science students in Ethiopia adhere to Hepatitis B prevention practices. To improve these practices, it is essential to mandate vaccination, provide targeted training on infection prevention, and increase awareness of vaccine uptake. Tailored educational programs should equip students with practical strategies. Additionally, intelligent interventions must address factors influencing preventive practices. Collaboration between institutions and ongoing monitoring is crucial to ensuring success.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Humanos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Estudantes , Pessoal de Saúde/educação
13.
Saudi Med J ; 45(7): 667-674, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38955448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To ascertain the prevalence of transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs) across diverse donor groups in the Najran province. Additionally, to establish a potential association between the development of TTI and the donors' blood group, as determined by the ABO/Rh blood grouping system. METHODS: Blood donation data of 4120 donors, spanning from January to December 2020, were retrospectively reviewed. The blood were screened for TTI markers, including hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-hepatitis B core (anti-HBc), anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), anti-human immunodeficiency viruses 1 and 2 (anti-HIV1&2), anti-human T-lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (anti-HTLV-1&2), and syphilis antigen. RESULTS: Positive TTI markers were detected in 10.9% of the donors. The most detected TTI marker was anti-HBc (8.9%), followed by HBsAg (0.7%). Other markers were individually detected in <1% of the donors. Anti-HBc-positive was significantly elevated among non-Saudi blood donors. There was an association between age groups and anti-HCV (p=0.002), anti-HTLV (p=0.004) and syphilis antigen (p=0.02) markers positivity. The AB positive blood group exhibited the most positivity for TTI markers, followed by O positive blood group. Similarly, association was found between ABO group and HBsAg (p=0.01), anti-HBc (p=0.001), and anti-HCV (p<0.001) markers positivity. CONCLUSION: Emphasis on implementing robust screening measures for donated blood is underscored by this study. There is the need for future study to extensively evaluate TTI status to enhance our understanding of the trend in TTI.


Assuntos
Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos , Doadores de Sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Humanos , Adulto , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Masculino , Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis/sangue , Adulto Jovem , Reação Transfusional/epidemiologia , Reação Transfusional/sangue , Prevalência , Adolescente , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/sangue
15.
Afr Health Sci ; 24(1): 16-24, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38962339

RESUMO

Background: Most studies on viral infections among livestock handlers have focused on occupational exposure from inadvertent contact with infected animals. Consequently, little emphasis is given to the effect of their lifestyle on the acquisition of other blood-borne viruses. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and assess risk factors for HIV, HBV and HCV infections among livestock handlers in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 265 livestock handlers between October 2016 to April 2017 in Ibadan. The samples were tested for the presence of antibodies to HIV and HCV; and surface antigen to HBV using ELISA. Structured questionnaire was administered to collect information on risk factors associated with the transmission of these viruses. Data analysis was carried out using Chi-square test and logistic regression to determine the association between risk factors and predictors of infection (p < 0.05). Results: Of 265 participants, 11 (4.2%), 29 (10.9%) and 13 (4.9%) individuals tested positive for HIV, HBV and HCV infections respectively. Two (0.8%) of the participants were coinfected with HIV and HBV while 1(0.4%) was coinfected with both HBV and HCV. Individuals who travelled frequently in the course of Livestock trades had a higher rate of HIV infection. Conclusions: A high Infection with HIV, HBV and HCV is common among the study participants. There is a need for continued surveillance and awareness creation on preventive measures against these viruses.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Infecções por HIV , Hepatite B , Hepatite C , Gado , Exposição Ocupacional , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Masculino , Adulto , Prevalência , Feminino , Animais , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gado/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Transversais , Adulto Jovem , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Coinfecção/epidemiologia
16.
Afr Health Sci ; 24(1): 94-103, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38962345

RESUMO

Background: The current risk of contracting a transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) is unknown in Burundi. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess sociodemographic profiles of blood bank donors at Kamenge Teaching Hospital, the prevalence and associated risk factors of HIV, syphilis, HBV and HCV from 2015 to 2020. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study including all blood donors of Kamenge Teaching Hospital blood bank. During this study, 1370 blood samples were screened for HIV, Syphilis, HBV and HCV. We calculated prevalence of TTIs and performed logistic regression to know associated risk factors. Results: Blood donors were males at 77% and 23% females. They were mostly students (54.2%). On screening, 83 blood samples (6.06%) were seropositive for at least one TTI. The overall prevalence rate of HIV, Syphilis, HBV and HCV among blood donors was 1.3%, 0.2% ,1.6%, 2.9% respectively. There was difference in distribution of the four TTIs among blood donors which is statistically significant (x2=33.997, ϱ-value<0.001). Private donors were associated with a high risk of syphilis and being a first-time donor was associated with a high HBV risk factor. Conclusion: The prevalence of TTIs found still to be high; mandatory and continuous screening is necessary.


Assuntos
Bancos de Sangue , Doadores de Sangue , Infecções por HIV , Hepatite B , Hepatite C , Hospitais de Ensino , Sífilis , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Burundi/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Adulto , Prevalência , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/transmissão , Bancos de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Reação Transfusional/epidemiologia , Adolescente
17.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 32(6): 497-503, 2024 Jun 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38964891

RESUMO

In order to achieve the early goal of "eliminating viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030" as proposed by the World Health Organization, the relevant issues that have not yet reached consensus on the aspects of hepatitis B prevention and treatment, including population-wide screening, adult hepatitis B vaccination, the evaluation of quantitative values of hepatitis B virus DNA, the alanine aminotransferase threshold for initiating antiviral therapy, the treatment of patients in the "indeterminate phase," the treatment of patients with co-infections and comorbidities, and others. Thus, experts have formulated recommendations to further expand hepatitis B prevention and treatment, with the aim of accelerating the elimination of hepatitis B virus infection.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Humanos , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite B , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Organização Mundial da Saúde
18.
Clin Lab ; 70(7)2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38965960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since Imbach [1] first reported the use of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in the treatment of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) in children, indications for IVIg therapy have been increaseing. At present, IVIg infusion has become an important means of clinical treatment. The phenomenon of anti-HBs and anti-HBc elevation caused by IVIg infusion in patients has been reported in journals, but similar reports in journals related to laboratory diagnosis are rare. METHODS: We reported a case of a patient with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) which interfered with hepatitis B virus (HBV) serological detection after receiving intravenous IVIg. We used chemiluminescence immunoassay to detect serological markers of HBV. IU/mL was used to represent the detection data of HBsAg and HBsAb and cutoff value was used to represent the detection HBeAg, HBeAb, and HbcAb. RESULTS: The serological markers of HBV were all negative before IVIg infusion. One week after IVIG infusion, the item was tested again, and the results of HBsAb, HBeAb, and HBcAb were positive. As the time increased after infusion, HBsAb, HBeAb, and HBcAb in the patient gradually decreased. CONCLUSIONS: After IVIg infusion, the sudden positive change of HBsAb, HBeAb, and HbcAb in the patient's body was not caused by HBV infection, but caused by the infusion of foreign antibody. This case study shows that physicians should be particularly careful when interpreting results in patients treated with intravenous IVIg involving viral hepatitis B.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/diagnóstico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/tratamento farmacológico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/sangue , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/imunologia , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Masculino , Feminino
19.
J Med Case Rep ; 18(1): 321, 2024 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38965631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thrombotic microangiopathy is characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and organ injury. The pathological features include vascular damage that is manifested by arteriolar and capillary thrombosis with characteristic abnormalities in the endothelium and vessel wall. Thrombocytopenia is one of the common adverse effects of interferon therapy. However, a more serious but rare side effect is thrombotic microangiopathy. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 36-year-old Asian male patient with clinical manifestations of hypertension, blurred vision, acute renal failure, thrombocytopenia, and thrombotic microangiopathy. Renal biopsy showed interstitial edema with fibrosis, arteriolar thickening with vitreous changes, and epithelial podocytes segmental fusion. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed C3(+), Ig A(+) deposition in the mesangial region, which was pathologically consistent with thrombotic microangiopathy renal injury and Ig A deposition. The patient had a history of hepatitis B virus infection for more than 5 years. Lamivudine was used in the past, but the injection of long-acting interferon combined with tenofovir alafenamide fumarate was used since 2018. The comprehensive clinical investigation and laboratory examination diagnosed the condition as thrombotic microangiopathy kidney injury caused by interferon. After stopping interferon in his treatment, the patient's renal function partially recovered after three consecutive therapeutic plasma exchange treatments and follow-up treatment without immunosuppressant. The renal function of the patient remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: This report indicates that interferon can induce thrombotic microangiopathy with acute renal injury, which can progress to chronic renal insufficiency.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Microangiopatias Trombóticas , Humanos , Masculino , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Injúria Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Troca Plasmática , Hepatite B/complicações , Interferons/efeitos adversos
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