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1.
Eur J Dermatol ; 34(2): 144-149, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38907544

RESUMO

Hydroa vacciniforme lymphoproliferative disorder (HVLPD) is a rare disease related to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), mainly in children, and is an EBV-associated cutaneous T and natural killer (NK) cell lymphoproliferative disorder. The disorder in some patients may progress to EBV-associated systemic T or NK-cell lymphoma. To summarize the characteristics of HVLPD in Chinese paediatric patients and to examine the risk factors indicating poor prognosis. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with HVLPD from the Department of Dermatology, Beijing Children's Hospital. Based on diagnosis, medical history, examination results, and immunophenotype, we analysed HVLPD in 42 paediatric cases in order to examine the clinical features, prognoses, and risk factors. Forty-two paediatric patients were enrolled, with a median onset age of five years. All patients presented with papulovesicular lesions, and 32 systemic HVLPD (sHVLPD) patients had systemic symptoms, including fever, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and liver dysfunction. Of the sHVLPD cases, 13 also had severe mosquito bite allergy (SMBA). Twenty-five cases were T-type, and nine were CD56+-dominant type. Follow-up data showed that 12 patients had complete remission, and three patients died. SMBA is a risk factor for disease progression in patients with HVLPD, and the pathological CD56+-dominant phenotype is associated with poor prognosis.


Assuntos
Hidroa Vaciniforme , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Masculino , Hidroa Vaciniforme/virologia , Hidroa Vaciniforme/patologia , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Lactente , Adolescente , Prognóstico , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/virologia , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/patologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Fatores de Risco , China/epidemiologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/isolamento & purificação , Hepatomegalia/virologia
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731931

RESUMO

The hepatic deletion of Rbpjκ (RbpjF/F::AlbCre) in the mouse leads to exhibition of the Alagille syndrome phenotype during early postnatal liver development with hyperlipidemia and cholestasis due to attenuated disruption of NOTCH signaling. Given the roles of NRF2 signaling in the regulation of lipid metabolism and bile ductal formation, it was anticipated that these symptoms could be alleviated by enhancing NRF2 signaling in the RbpjF/F::AlbCre mouse by hepatic deletion of Keap1 in compound Keap1F/F::RbpjF/F::AlbCre mice. Unexpectedly, these mice developed higher hepatic and plasma cholesterol levels with more severe cholestatic liver damage during the pre-weaning period than in the RbpjF/F::AlbCre mice. In addition, hypercholesterolemia and hepatic damage were sustained throughout the growth period unlike in the RbpjF/F::AlbCre mouse. These enhanced abnormalities in lipid metabolism appear to be due to NRF2-dependent changes in gene expression related to cholesterol synthetic and subsequent bile acid production pathways. Notably, the hepatic expression of Cyp1A7 and Abcb11 genes involved in bile acid homeostasis was significantly reduced in Keap1F/F::RbpjF/F::AlbCre compared to RbpjF/F::AlbCre mice. The accumulation of liver cholesterol and the weakened capacity for bile excretion during the 3 pre-weaning weeks in the Keap1F/F::RbpjF/F::AlbCre mice may aggravate hepatocellular damage level caused by both excessive cholesterol and residual bile acid toxicity in hepatocytes. These results indicate that a tuned balance of NOTCH and NRF2 signaling is of biological importance for early liver development after birth.


Assuntos
Hepatomegalia , Hipercolesterolemia , Proteína de Ligação a Sequências Sinal de Recombinação J de Imunoglobina , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch , Fígado , Animais , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/genética , Camundongos , Hipercolesterolemia/genética , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Hipercolesterolemia/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Hepatomegalia/genética , Hepatomegalia/metabolismo , Hepatomegalia/patologia , Proteína de Ligação a Sequências Sinal de Recombinação J de Imunoglobina/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Sequências Sinal de Recombinação J de Imunoglobina/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Deleção de Genes , Transdução de Sinais , Colesterol/metabolismo , Camundongos Knockout , Masculino , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo
3.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 52(7): 597-605, 2024 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697851

RESUMO

Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is essential in the regulation of liver homeostasis, and the gut microbiota is closely linked to liver physiologic and pathologic status. We previously found that activation of PXR significantly promotes liver enlargement through interaction with yes-associated protein (YAP). However, whether gut microbiota contributes to PXR-induced hepatomegaly and the involved mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, C57BL/6 mice were administered the mouse-specific agonist pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN) for 5 days. Depletion of gut microbiota was achieved using broad-spectrum antibiotics (ABX) and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was performed to restore the gut microbia. The composition of gut microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing, while the expression of PXR, YAP, and their downstream target genes and proteins were assessed. The results indicated that PCN treatment altered the composition and abundance of specific bacterial taxa. Furthermore, depletion of gut microbiota using ABX significantly attenuated PCN-induced hepatomegaly. FMT experiments further demonstrated that the fecal microbiota from PCN-treated mice could induce liver enlargement. Mechanistic studies revealed that ABX treatment impeded the PXR and YAP activation induced by PCN, as evidenced by decreased expression of PXR, YAP, and their downstream targets. Moreover, alterations in PXR and YAP activation were likely contributing to hepatomegaly in recipient mice following FMT from PCN-treated mice. Collectively, the current study demonstrated that gut microbiota is involved in PCN-induced hepatomegaly via regulating PXR and YAP activation, providing potential novel insights into the involvement of gut microbiota in PXR-mediated hepatomegaly. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: This work describes that the composition of gut microbiota is altered in mouse pregnane X receptor (PXR) agonist pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN)-induced hepatomegaly. Treatment with an antibiotic cocktail depletes the intestinal microbiota, leading to the impairment of liver enlargement caused by PCN. Additionally, fecal microbiota transplantation from PCN-treated mice induces liver enlargement. Further study revealed that gut microbiota is involved in hepatomegaly via regulating PXR and yes-associated protein activation.


Assuntos
Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hepatomegalia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Receptor de Pregnano X , Carbonitrila de Pregnenolona , Proteínas de Sinalização YAP , Animais , Hepatomegalia/induzido quimicamente , Hepatomegalia/metabolismo , Receptor de Pregnano X/agonistas , Receptor de Pregnano X/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Carbonitrila de Pregnenolona/farmacologia , Proteínas de Sinalização YAP/metabolismo , Masculino , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/métodos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo
4.
Toxicol Lett ; 397: 79-88, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734220

RESUMO

The activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) can induce liver enlargement. Recently, we reported that PXR or PPARα activation-induced hepatomegaly depends on yes-associated protein (YAP) signaling and is characterized by hepatocyte hypertrophy around the central vein area and hepatocyte proliferation around the portal vein area. However, it remains unclear whether PXR or PPARα activation-induced hepatomegaly can be reversed after the withdrawal of their agonists. In this study, we investigated the regression of enlarged liver to normal size following the withdrawal of PCN or WY-14643 (typical agonists of mouse PXR or PPARα) in C57BL/6 mice. The immunohistochemistry analysis of CTNNB1 and KI67 showed a reversal of hepatocyte size and a decrease in hepatocyte proliferation after the withdrawal of agonists. In details, the expression of PXR or PPARα downstream proteins (CYP3A11, CYP2B10, ACOX1, and CYP4A) and the expression of proliferation-related proteins (CCNA1, CCND1, and PCNA) returned to the normal levels. Furthermore, YAP and its downstream proteins (CTGF, CYR61, and ANKRD1) also restored to the normal states, which was consistent with the change in liver size. These findings demonstrate the reversibility of PXR or PPARα activation-induced hepatomegaly and provide new data for the safety of PXR and PPARα as drug targets.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células , Hepatócitos , Hepatomegalia , Fígado , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , PPAR alfa , Receptor de Pregnano X , Pirimidinas , Proteínas de Sinalização YAP , Animais , PPAR alfa/agonistas , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Hepatomegalia/induzido quimicamente , Hepatomegalia/metabolismo , Hepatomegalia/patologia , Receptor de Pregnano X/metabolismo , Receptor de Pregnano X/genética , Proteínas de Sinalização YAP/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Masculino , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP4A/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP4A/genética , Família 4 do Citocromo P450/genética , Família 4 do Citocromo P450/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana , Esteroide Hidroxilases , Família 2 do Citocromo P450 , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A , Hidrocarboneto de Aril Hidroxilases
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(14): e37632, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579088

RESUMO

Donor safety is crucial for living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), and sufficient liver regeneration significantly affects outcomes of living donors. This study aimed to investigate clinical factors associated with liver regeneration in living donors. The study retrospectively reviewed 380 living donors who underwent liver donation at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Linkou. The clinical characteristics and medical parameters of donors were analyzed and compared according to liver donation graft type. There were 355 donors (93.4%) with right hemi-liver donations and 25 donors (6.6%) with left hemi-liver donations. Left hemi-liver donors had a higher body mass index (BMI) and a larger ratio of remnant liver volume (RLV) to total liver volume (TLV). However, the 2 groups showed no significant difference in the liver regeneration ratio. The type of remnant liver (P < .001), RLV/body weight (P = .027), RLV/TLV (P < .001), serum albumin on postoperative day 7 and total bilirubin levels on postoperative day 30 were the most significant factors affecting liver regeneration in living donors. In conclusion, adequate liver regeneration is essential for donor outcome after liver donation. The remnant liver could eventually regenerate to an adequate volume similar to the initial TLV before liver donation. However, the remnant left hemi-liver had a faster growth rate than the remnant right hemi-liver in donors.


Assuntos
Regeneração Hepática , Transplante de Fígado , Humanos , Doadores Vivos , Hepatectomia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fígado/cirurgia , Hepatomegalia
7.
Wiad Lek ; 77(2): 358-362, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593002

RESUMO

Bone metastases from liver cancer are rare. We report two cases of bone metastases revealing HBV-induced HCC. A 26-year-old african man presented with 4 months of low back pain in the context of general deterioration. Examination revealed a lumbar spinal syndrome and hepatomegaly. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a multinodular liver, and a CT scan of the spine revealed osteolytic lesions. Biological tests revealed a hepatic cytolysis syndrome, hepatic cholestasis and hepatocellular insufficiency. Alpha foetoprotein levels were elevated and hepatitis B serology was positive. We adopted the diagnosis of HCC of viral B origin with bone metastasis. The second case involved a 44-year-old African man admitted for 10 days with back pain. Examination revealed a spinal syndrome, paraplegia and hepatomegaly. A thoracic-abdominal-pelvic CT scan revealed typical HCC lesions and osteolytic lesions on the ribs, pelvis and vertebrae. The biology revealed a biological inflammatory syndrome, hepatic cytolysis, a hepatocellular insufficiency syndrome and a cholestasis syndrome. Alfa-feto proteins were elevated and HBV serology was positive. The diagnosis of bone metastasis of HCC secondary to HBV infection was accepted.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Colestase , Hepatite B , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/complicações , Hepatomegalia/complicações , Hepatite B/complicações , Coluna Vertebral/patologia , Colestase/complicações
8.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 32(3): 222-227, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584103

RESUMO

Objective: To summarize the clinical manifestations and prognostic factors of patients with hepatic amyloidosis in a single center. Methods: The clinical data of 28 primary systemic light chain amyloidosis cases with liver involvement in our center from October 2012 to January 2023 were retrospectively analyzed. The main clinical manifestations and prognostic factors were studied. Statistical analysis were performed using the χ(2) test, Fisher's exact test, Wilcoxon rank test, or Kaplan-Meier survival curve log-rank test according to the different data. Results: The main clinical manifestations of patients with liver involvement were abdominal distension, hepatomegaly, and edema. CD56 and chemokine receptor 4 protein expression accounted for 52% (13/25) and 56% (14/25). 64.3% (9/14) patients were combined with t (11,14), and 21.4% (3/14) patients were positive for 1q21 (+), and no patients were detected with del(17p). Univariate analysis showed that Mayo 2004 and 2012 stages and total bilirubin (TBil) ≥34.2 µmol/L were associated with progression-free survival and overall survival. The median progression-free survival and overall survival were significantly inferior in patients with TBil≥34.2µmol/L group (0.178 years, 0.195 years) than with the TBil<34.2µmol/L group (0.750 years, 3.586 years) (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Mayo stage and hyperbilirubinemia are inferior prognostic factors for patients with primary systemic light chain amyloidosis accompanied with liver involvement.


Assuntos
Amiloidose , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Prognóstico , Hepatomegalia
9.
Arch Iran Med ; 27(1): 44-47, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431960

RESUMO

The most frequent type of extracranial solid tumor in pediatric cases is neuroblastoma (NB), almost always arising in tissues with sympathetic innervation with only a few reported cases arising in other organs. NBs with hepatic involvement are typically metastatic lesions as primary hepatic NBs are extremely rare. This study presents a 5.5-month-old boy with primary hepatic NB. This case study describes a male 5.5-month-old preterm infant who presented with overt hepatomegaly. Laboratory tests showed an abnormally high level of alpha-fetoprotein. A sonography-guided liver needle biopsy was performed, so histopathological examination suggested the diagnosis of a small round-cell tumor. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated evidence of neuronal differentiation in the tumor. The sum of these findings was in favor of the diagnosis of NB. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy were normal. The full-body computed tomography scan revealed a large intrahepatic mass measuring 82×70×74 mm with mild peripheral enhancement. A metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintiscan confirmed a huge round MIBG-avid hepatic lesion without other remarkable lesions at other sites in the body. Chemotherapy treatment was started for the patient, and after 4 sessions of chemotherapy, an ultrasound showed that the mass size had decreased to 55×36 mm. This report describes the first primary hepatic NB in a pediatric patient with detailed clinicopathological details. Primary hepatic NB is extremely rare. It is important to consider neuroendocrine tumors as a possibility when faced with a single hepatic tumor that has a similar histological appearance.


Assuntos
3-Iodobenzilguanidina , Neuroblastoma , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Hepatomegalia , Neuroblastoma/diagnóstico por imagem
12.
Liver Int ; 44(7): 1680-1688, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is characterized by the accumulation of atypical mast cells (MCs) in organs. Liver histology of SM has been marginally described and accurate histological classification is critical, given the consequences of aggressive SM diagnosis. We aimed to describe the histological features associated with liver SM using updated tools. METHODS: Using the database of the French Reference Centre for Mastocytosis, we retrospectively identified patients with a liver biopsy (LB) and a diagnosis of SM. All LB procedures were performed according to the local physician in charge and centrally reviewed by an expert pathologist. RESULTS: A total of 28 patients were included: 6 had indolent SM, 9 had aggressive SM, and 13 had SM with an associated hematologic neoplasm. Twenty-five (89%) patients presented hepatomegaly, and 19 (68%) had portal hypertension. The LB frequently showed slight sinusoid dilatation (82%). Fibrosis was observed in 3/6 indolent SM and in almost all advanced SM cases (21/22), but none of them showed cirrhosis. A high MC burden (>50 MCs/high-power field) was correlated with elevated blood alkaline phosphatase levels (p = .030). The presence of portal hypertension was associated with a higher mean fibrosis grade (1.6 vs. 0.8 in its absence; p = .026). In advanced SM, the presence of nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) was associated with decreased overall survival (9.5 vs. 46.3 months, p = .002). CONCLUSIONS: MC infiltration induced polymorphic hepatic lesions and the degree of fibrosis is associated with portal hypertension. NRH identifies a poor prognosis subgroup of patients with advanced SM. Assessing liver histology can aid in SM prognostic evaluation.


Assuntos
Hepatomegalia , Fígado , Mastocitose Sistêmica , Humanos , Mastocitose Sistêmica/patologia , Mastocitose Sistêmica/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Feminino , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Biópsia , Hepatomegalia/patologia , Hepatomegalia/etiologia , Idoso , Hipertensão Portal/patologia , Hipertensão Portal/etiologia , França , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Mastócitos/patologia , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Prognóstico
13.
Surgery ; 175(5): 1321-1328, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the role and mechanism of liver parenchyma transection in accelerating the regeneration of future liver remnants in rats with portal vein ligation (PVL). METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into the PVL group (90% PVL at the caudate lobe, right lobe , left lateral lobe and left median lobe), associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (portal vein ligation with complete liver parenchyma transection [ALPPS]) group (90% PVL with 80 to 90% liver parenchyma transection), PVL + partial liver partition (PLP) group (90% PVL with 30 to 50% liver parenchyma transection), PVL + partition in the ligated lobe (PLL) group (90% PVL with 40 to 60% liver parenchyma transection in the portal vein ligated lobe), PVL + partition in the remnant lobe (PRL) group (90% PVL with 40 to 60% liver parenchyma transection in the remnant lobe), PVL + radiofrequency ablation (RFA) group (90% PVL with splenic ablation) and sham operation (sham) group. The animals were killed at 4 time points of postoperative days 1, 3, 5, and 7. Six rats were killed at each time point, with 24 rats in each group. The weights of the future liver remnant and whole liver were measured. Serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and total bilirubin were analyzed by using an automatic biochemical analyzer. Serum tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and hepatocyte growth factor were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of cell proliferating nuclear antigen (Ki67) and phosphorylated histone H3 was detected by immunohistochemistry, and the positive rate was calculated. RESULTS: The ALPPS group displayed the highest FLR weight to body weight ratio compared with that of the other groups (P < .05), and the partial liver split (PVL + PLP) group also displayed higher remnant weight to body weight ratio than the ectopic liver split (PVL + PLL and PVL + PRL) groups (P < .05). During the first 7 days after surgery the cytokine levels of the ALPPS, PVL + PLP, PVL + PLL and PVL + PRL groups were comparable (P > .05). The PVL + PLP, PVL + PLL, PVL + PRL and PVL + RFA groups showed similar necrotic areas in the portal vein ligated lobe (P > .05). A hemodynamic study revealed that a liver split along the demarcation line could further increase the portal pressure of the FLR and both the split site and completeness were associated with portal hemodynamic alternations and liver hypertrophy. Extrahepatic organ injury (eg, spleen ablation) also has a significant impact on portal hemodynamics and liver regeneration. CONCLUSION: Complete liver splitting along the demarcation line induced higher portal vein pressure and more rapid FLR hypertrophy than partial or ectopic liver splitting after PVL. The portal hemodynamic alterations after liver split rather than inflammatory cytokine release may be the major cause of ALPPS-induced rapid liver hypertrophy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hepáticas , Veia Porta , Ratos , Animais , Veia Porta/cirurgia , Veia Porta/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Hepatectomia , Regeneração Hepática , Hepatomegalia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Hipertrofia/patologia , Ligadura , Citocinas , Peso Corporal
14.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 19(1): 75, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fanconi-Bickel syndrome (FBS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impaired glucose and galactose utilization as well as proximal renal tubular dysfunction. METHODS: Clinical, biochemical, genetic, treatment, and follow-up data for 11 pediatric patients with FBS were retrospectively analysed. RESULTS: Hepatomegaly (10/11), short stature (10/11) and hypophosphataemic rickets (7/11) were the most common initial symptoms. At diagnosis, all patients had decreased fasting blood glucose (FBG), plasma bicarbonate (HCO3-) and serum phosphorus, as well as elevated liver transaminases, alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and proximal renal tubular dysfunction. Two infant patients were misdiagnosed with transient neonatal diabetes mellitus. After therapy with uncooked cornstarch and conventional rickets treatment, remission of hepatomegaly was observed in all patients, with significant improvements in pre-prandial blood glucose, liver transaminases, triglyceride, plasma HCO3- and AKP (p < 0.05). At the last follow-up, 5/7 patients with elevated AKP had nephrocalcinosis. The mean height standard deviation score (Ht SDS) of eight patients with regular treatment increased from - 4.1 to -3.5 (p = 0.02). Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) was administered to 4/9 patients, but their Ht SDS did not improve significantly (p = 0.13). Fourteen variants of the SLC2A2 gene were identified, with six being novel, among which one was recurrent: c.1217T > G (p.L406R) (allele frequency: 4/22, 18%). Patients with biallelic missense variants showed milder metabolic acidosis than those with null variants. Two of five patients from nonconsanguineous families with rare homozygous variations showed 5.3 Mb and 36.6 Mb of homozygosity surrounding the variants, respectively; a region of homozygosity (ROH) involving the entire chromosome 3 covering the SLC2A2 gene, suggesting uniparental disomy 3, was detected in one patient. CONCLUSIONS: Early diagnosis of FBS is difficult due to the heterogeneity of initial symptoms. Although short stature is a major issue of treatment for FBS, rhGH is not recommended in FBS patients who have normal GH stimulation tests. Patients with biallelic null variants may require alkali supplementation since urine bicarbonate loss is genetically related. ROH is a mechanism for rare homozygous variants of FBS in nonconsanguineous families.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Fanconi , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Criança , Síndrome de Fanconi/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Fanconi/genética , Hepatomegalia , Glicemia , Bicarbonatos , Perfil Genético , Estudos Retrospectivos , China , Transaminases/genética
15.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 67(2): 435-437, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38391303

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a severe and frequently underdiagnosed disorder of systemic immune dysregulation resulting in hypercytokinemia and histologically evident hemophagocytosis, We report a case of a 34-year-old man who presented with breathlessness, generalized weakness, and fever of unknown origin with pancytopenia. Clinically the patient was admitted for febrile illness, and treated symptomatically but his general condition worsened leading to death within 21 hours of admission. A complete autopsy was performed. The deceased had a significant past history of repeated episodes of fever, weight loss, and axillary lymphadenopathy over a period of 8 months with multiple hospital admissions. He was also diagnosed with enteric fever (Widal test and Typhi IgM positive) at the start of these episodes. Hemogram during this period revealed persistent pancytopenia. Serum ferritin, serum triglycerides, and liver function tests were consistently deranged. Investigations for the etiology of fever and blood cultures were negative while the bone marrow aspirate revealed a normocellular marrow. CT abdomen-pelvis showed mild hepatomegaly with enlarged retroperitoneal lymph nodes. Infective endocarditis, lymphoma, and bronchopneumonia were being considered the clinical diagnoses. The significant autopsy findings were hepatosplenomegaly with retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy and multiple gastric ulcers. On microscopy, the liver, spleen, bone marrow, and lymph nodes showed characteristic hemophagocytosis. Post-mortem histopathological examination clinched the diagnosis of HLH and fulfilled six out of eight diagnostic criteria of the HLH-2004 protocol. We discuss the clinical course and diagnosis of this unique case and strive to create awareness about secondary HLH induced by common diseases, such as enteric fever.


Assuntos
Autopsia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica , Febre Tifoide , Humanos , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/patologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/complicações , Masculino , Adulto , Febre Tifoide/complicações , Febre Tifoide/diagnóstico , Febre Tifoide/patologia , Evolução Fatal , Medula Óssea/patologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Baço/patologia , Hepatomegalia/etiologia
16.
Mol Genet Metab ; 141(3): 108145, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301529

RESUMO

Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII) is an ultra-rare, life-threatening, progressive disease caused by genetic mutations that affect lysosomal storage/function. MPS VII has an estimated prevalence of <1:1,000,000 and accounts for <3% of all MPS diagnoses. Given the rarity of MPS VII, comprehensive information on the disease is limited and we present a review of the current understanding. In MPS VII, intracellular glycosaminoglycans accumulate due to a deficiency in the lysosomal enzyme that is responsible for their degradation, ß-glucuronidase, which is encoded by the GUSB gene. MPS VII has a heterogeneous presentation. Features can manifest across multiple systems and can vary in severity, age of onset and progression. The single most distinguishing clinical feature of MPS VII is non-immune hydrops fetalis (NIHF), which presents during pregnancy. MPS VII usually presents within one month of life and become more prominent at 3 to 4 years of age; key features are skeletal deformities, hepatosplenomegaly, coarse facies, and cognitive impairment, although phenotypic variation is a hallmark. Current treatments include hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and enzyme replacement therapy with vestronidase alfa. Care should be individualized for each patient. Development of consensus guidelines for MPS VII management and treatment is needed, as consolidation of expert knowledge and experience (for example, through the MPS VII Disease Monitoring Program) may provide a significant positive impact to patients.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Mucopolissacaridose VII , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Mucopolissacaridose VII/diagnóstico , Mucopolissacaridose VII/genética , Mucopolissacaridose VII/terapia , Glucuronidase/metabolismo , Hepatomegalia , Esplenomegalia , Glicosaminoglicanos , Doenças Raras/tratamento farmacológico
17.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 39(1): 161-167, 20240102. fig
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526868

RESUMO

Introducción. Las malformaciones linfáticas quísticas, también llamadas linfangiomas quísticos, aparecen muy raramente de forma aislada en el hígado. Casos clínicos. Se presentan dos pacientes femeninas de edad preescolar con marcada hepatomegalia, dependiente de lesiones quísticas multitabicadas, secundarias a malformación linfática quística gigante del hígado, que fueron tratadas en el Hospital Pediátrico Universitario William Soler, La Habana, Cuba. Resultados. En ambos casos el diagnóstico se apoyó en los estudios de imágenes, la laparoscopia y el análisis histopatológico. En un caso el tratamiento fue la hepatectomía derecha, mientras que en el otro se empleó la escleroterapia, ambas con evolución favorable. Conclusión. A pesar de su rareza, este diagnóstico no debe obviarse ante un paciente pediátrico con lesiones hepáticas quísticas. El tratamiento de elección es la resección quirúrgica, pero su indicación y envergadura debe valorarse de forma individualizada


Introduction. Cystic lymphatic malformations, also called cystic lymphangiomas, are very rarely found in the liver. Clinical cases. Two pediatric female preschool-age patients. presented with hepatomegaly due to multi-septated cystic lesions of the liver, who received treatment at Hospital Pediátrico Universitario William Soler, La Habana, Cuba. Results. We report two pediatric cases with giant cystic lymphatic malformation of the liver. In both cases, the diagnosis were based on imaging, laparoscopy and pathology. In one case the treatment was right hepatectomy, whereas in the other, sclerotherapy was performed, both with a favorable outcome. Conclusion. Despite its rarity, this diagnosis should be considered in pediatric patients with hepatic cystic lesions. The recommended treatment is surgical resection, but its indication and extent should be assessed individually for each patient.


Assuntos
Humanos , Escleroterapia , Linfangioma Cístico , Anormalidades Linfáticas , Laparoscopia , Hepatectomia , Hepatomegalia
19.
Environ Pollut ; 344: 123314, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38218542

RESUMO

Despite their use as substitutes for perfluorooctanoic acid, the potential toxicities of hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (HFPO-DA, commercial name: GenX) and its analogs (PFDMOHxA, PFDMO2HpA, and PFDMO2OA) remain poorly understood. To assess the hepatotoxicity of these chemicals on females, each chemical was orally administered to female C57BL/6 mice at the dosage of 0.5 mg/kg/d for 28 d. The contribution of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARα and γ) and other nuclear receptors involving in these toxic effects of GenX and its analogs were identified by employing two PPAR knockout mice (PPARα-/- and PPARγΔHep) in this study. Results showed that the hepatotoxicity of these chemicals increased in the order of GenX < PFDMOHxA < PFDMO2HpA < PFDMO2OA. The increases of relative liver weight and liver injury markers were significantly much lower in PPARα-/- mice than in PPARα+/+ mice after GenX analog exposure, while no significant differences were observed between PPARγΔHep and its corresponding wildtype groups (PPARγF/F mice), indicating that GenX analog induce hepatotoxicity mainly via PPARα instead of PPARγ. The PPARα-dependent complement pathways were inhibited in PFDMO2HpA and PFDMO2OA exposed PPARα+/+ mice, which might be responsible for the observed liver inflammation. In PPARα-/- mice, hepatomegaly and increased liver lipid content were observed in PFDMO2HpA and PFDMO2OA treated groups. The activated pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive activated receptor (CAR) pathways in the liver of PPARα-/- mice, which were highlighted by bioinformatics analysis, provided a reasonable explanation for hepatomegaly in the absence of PPARα. Our results indicate that GenX analogs could induce more serious hepatotoxicity than GenX whether there is a PPARα receptor or not. These chemicals, especially PFDMO2HpA and PFDMO2OA, may not be appropriate PFOA alternatives.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Fluorocarbonos , Propionatos , Camundongos , Feminino , Animais , Hepatomegalia/induzido quimicamente , PPAR alfa/genética , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fígado/metabolismo , Fluorocarbonos/toxicidade , Fluorocarbonos/metabolismo , Camundongos Knockout , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética
20.
J Med Case Rep ; 18(1): 14, 2024 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38212860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycogen storage disease type IX is a rare disorder that can cause a wide variety of symptoms depending on the specific deficiency of the phosphorylase kinase enzyme and the organs it affects. CASE PRESENTATION: A 4-and-a-half-year-old Caucasian girl was referred to our clinic with a liver biopsy report indicating a diagnosis of glycogen storage disease. Prior to being referred to our clinic, the patient had been under the care of pediatric gastroenterologists. The patient's initial symptoms included chronic abdominal pain, constipation, and elevated liver transaminase. With the help of the pediatric gastroenterologists, cholestasis, Wilson disease, and autoimmune hepatitis were ruled out. Given that glycogen storage diseases type I and type III are the most common, we initially managed the patient with frequent feedings and a diet that included complex carbohydrates such as a corn starch supplement and a lactose restriction. Following an unfavorable growth velocity and hepatomegaly during the follow-up period, genetic analysis was conducted, which revealed a novel mutation of the phosphorylase kinase regulatory subunit beta gene- a c.C412T (P.Q138x) mutation. As the diagnosis of glycogen storage disease type IX was confirmed, the treatment regimen was altered to a high protein diet (more than 2 g/kg/day) and a low fat diet. CONCLUSION: Given the mild and varied clinical manifestations of glycogen storage disease type IX, it is possible for the diagnosis to be overlooked. It is important to consider glycogen storage disease type IX in children who present with unexplained hepatomegaly and elevated transaminase levels. Furthermore, due to the distinct management of glycogen storage disease type IX compared with glycogen storage disease type I and glycogen storage disease type III, genetic analysis is essential for an accurate diagnosis.


Assuntos
Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio Tipo I , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Constipação Intestinal , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio/diagnóstico , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio/genética , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio/patologia , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio Tipo I/complicações , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio Tipo I/diagnóstico , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio Tipo I/genética , Hepatomegalia/patologia , Irã (Geográfico) , Fígado/patologia , Mutação , Fosforilase Quinase/genética , Fosforilase Quinase/metabolismo , Transaminases
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