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1.
J Hepatol ; 77(1): 243-244, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513903
2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(34): 46725-46737, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241495

RESUMO

Hepatovirus A is known as a waterborne and foodborne virus that can be transmitted from one person to another through contaminated water and raw food. Therefore, it is necessary to survey the circulation of this type of enteric virus in the wastewater to prevent prospective outbreaks. Wastewater samples collected from WWTP El Menzeh I and Charguia I have been the subject for physicochemical, bacteriological (MPN) and virological analyses. Hepatovirus A (HAV) detection was carried out using the standard reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Hepatovirus A was detected respectively in 62% (63/102) and 66% (92/140) of the collected wastewater samples at El Menzeh I and Charguia I WWTPs. The treated effluent by natural oxidizing lagoon procedure was characterized by a poor physical-chemical and virological qualities but with excellent bacteriological quality. Consequently, this effluent is not suitable to be recycled and reused in agriculture or even dismissed in the environment. The treated sewage by activated sludge and rotating biodisk procedures turned out to be of a very good physical-chemical quality but with a poor bacteriological and virological quality. After tertiary UV-C254 nm irradiation, the faecal indicator bacteria concentration was mostly reduced and removed. These findings confirmed the need for improvement and upgrade of the treatment processes used in these two studied sewage purification plants and the necessity of implementation and establishment of a proper national virological standard to control the circulation rates of enteric viruses in Tunisian municipal wastewater.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Purificação da Água , Hepatovirus , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Esgotos
3.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 4(8): 5897-5907, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35006918

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has made it essential to explore alternative antiviral materials. Alginate is a biodegradable, renewable, biocompatible, water-soluble and antiviral biopolymer with many potential biomedical applications. In this regard, this review shows 17 types of viruses that have been tested in contact with alginate and its related biomaterials. Most of these studies show that alginate-based materials possess little or no toxicity and are able to inhibit a wide variety of viruses affecting different organisms: in humans by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1, the hepatitis A, B, and C viruses, Sindbis virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2, poliovirus type 1, rabies virus, rubella virus, and the influenza virus; in mice by the murine norovirus; in bacteria by the T4 coliphage, and in plants by the tobacco mosaic virus and the potato virus X. Many of these are enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, like SARS-CoV-2, which render alginate-based materials highly promising in the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Alginatos/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Materiais Biocompatíveis/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/virologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Norovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
4.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 119(3): 752-756, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477484

RESUMO

Continuous strengthening of the safety of blood products to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted HCV in recipients is an important issue of Taiwanese government concern. Since 2013, highly sensitivity serology and NAT assays were simultaneously used for blood donation screening to shorten the window period of HIV, HBV and HCV infections. 15 cases of suspected transfusion-transmitted HCV infection were analyzed in 2015-2018. No HCV nucleic acid was detected among a total 91 bags of donated blood. Eleven cases among the 15 suspected recipients were positive for HCV nucleic acid, and 9 recipients had genotype results. Of these 9 recipients, five for genotype 1b (5/9, 55.6%), three for genotype 2a (3/9, 33.3%) and one for genotype 2b (1/9, 11.1%). We will continuously monitor the blood safety of recipients. There have been no confirmed cases of acute hepatitis C (AHC) infection due to transfusions of HCV contaminated blood product in 2015-2018 in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Hepatite C/transmissão , Hepatovirus/isolamento & purificação , Segurança do Paciente , Reação Transfusional , Hepatovirus/genética , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Taiwan
5.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 27(4): 241-243, 2019 Apr 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082332

RESUMO

The mechanism of innate and adaptive immune responses to chronic infections with hepatotropic viruses (HBV, HCV) was studied in 2018. Its mechanism elucidated the dysregulation of natural killer (NK) cells, monocytes, B cells and T cells. In addition, a new target for immune regulation of HBV infection (TLR3/OX40L) was introduced. The discovery of new NK cell immune checkpoints, the involvement of mononuclear macrophages in liver failure and inflammation, sex hormone affecting intrahepatic-resistant bacterial infection through the regulation of humoral immunity, and the communication mechanism between liver and other immune organs have enriched people's understanding of liver immunology and its clinical significance.


Assuntos
Hepatite A/imunologia , Hepatovirus/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais , Fígado/imunologia , Humanos , Linfócitos T
6.
Eur J Pediatr ; 178(1): 61-67, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269249

RESUMO

Various atypical manifestations have been described in acute viral hepatitis (AVH). We evaluated the prevalence, clinical features, response to treatment and outcome of various atypical manifestations of AVH in children. Consecutive children (≤ 18 years) with AVH due to hepatitis A, B, or E were studied while patients with acute or acute on chronic liver failure were excluded. Diagnosis of atypical manifestations was based on standard criteria. A total of 477 children with AVH (median age 7.0 (5-11) years, 74% boys) were seen; 22% (n = 106) had atypical manifestations. Prolonged cholestasis was the most common (11%), followed by ascites (7%), intravascular hemolysis (3%), relapsing hepatitis (2%), acute pancreatitis (1.3%), and thrombocytopenia (0.7%). Atypical manifestations were more common in HAV as compared to HBV (30% vs. 3%, p = 0.00) and HEV (30% vs. 15%, p = 0.07). Prolonged cholestasis was significantly more common in older children (20% in > 10 years vs. 9% in 6-10 years ; p = 0.009 and 5% in 0-5 years of age [p < 0.000]). Ascites was more common in younger children, although not significant. All patients recovered with supportive treatment.Conclusions: Twenty-two percent of children with AVH have atypical manifestations, more often with HAV infection, and prolonged cholestasis is most common. Recognition of these manifestations ensures correct diagnosis and treatment. What is Known: • Acute viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in developing countries. • There is limited information about atypical manifestations which may lead to unnecessary investigations, delayed diagnosis and morbidity. What is New: • Atypical manifestations are common in children, seen most often with HAV infection, and prolonged cholestasis is most common. • Prompt recognition of these manifestations helps in early diagnosis, appropriate management, and preventing unnecessary investigations. • Ensure follow-up until complete recovery and not to miss underlying chronic liver disease.


Assuntos
Hepatite Viral Humana/diagnóstico , Hepatovirus , Doença Aguda , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Immunological basis for immunization series;module 18
Monografia em Inglês | WHO IRIS | ID: who-326501
8.
J Viral Hepat ; 25(7): 853-859, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29397017

RESUMO

Fulminant hepatic failure is a life-threatening disease. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) can cause fulminant hepatic failure and death in about 0.2% of cases. Extensive destruction of infected hepatocytes by immune-mediated lysis is thought to be the cause. We aimed to evaluate the use of steroid therapy in children with fulminant HAV. This study included 33 children with fulminant HAV in two groups. Steroid group: comprised of 18 children who received prednisolone (1 mg/kg/d) or its equivalent dose of methylprednisolone, and the nonsteroid group: comprised another 15 children who did not receive steroid therapy. Age and sex were matched for both groups (P > .05), and they were comparable regarding baseline clinical and laboratory characteristics. Of the steroid group, 15 patients survived and 3 died, while in the nonsteroid group, 4 patients survived and 11 died (P = .001). Of the living patients, 15 of 19 (78.9%) received steroids while only 3 of 14 (21.4%) of the dead patients received steroids (P = .001). Stepwise regression analysis showed that steroid therapy was the only independent variable associated with recovery (P = .001). Steroid therapy in children with fulminant HAV associated significantly with improved outcome and survival. Future studies on a larger population size are strongly recommended.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Hepatite A/tratamento farmacológico , Metilprednisolona/administração & dosagem , Prednisolona/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hepatovirus , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Pediatr Ann ; 45(12): e420-e426, 2016 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27975110

RESUMO

Hepatitis is defined as inflammation of the liver. This inflammation can be acute and self-limited, chronic (leading to cirrhosis and an increased risk for hepatocellular carcinoma), or fulminant (requiring lifesaving liver transplantation). Although there are many causes of hepatitis, this article focuses on the main childhood viral hepatidities: types A, B, C, D, and E. This review discusses the main characteristics of each virus, including salient epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention strategies. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(12):e420-e426.].


Assuntos
Hepatite Viral Humana/diagnóstico , Hepatovirus , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/terapia , Humanos , Incidência , Prevalência
12.
Sci Rep ; 6: 22361, 2016 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26924426

RESUMO

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a hepatotropic picornavirus that causes acute liver disease worldwide. Here, we report on the identification of a novel hepatovirus tentatively named Marmota Himalayana hepatovirus (MHHAV) in wild woodchucks (Marmota Himalayana) in China. The genomic and molecular characterization of MHHAV indicated that it is most closely related genetically to HAV. MHHAV has wide tissue distribution but shows tropism for the liver. The virus is morphologically and structurally similar to HAV. The pattern of its codon usage bias is also consistent with that of HAV. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that MHHAV groups with known HAVs but forms an independent branch, and represents a new species in the genus Hepatovirus within the family Picornaviridae. Antigenic site analysis suggested MHHAV has a new antigenic property to other HAVs. Further evolutionary analysis of MHHAV and primate HAVs led to a most recent common ancestor estimate of 1,000 years ago, while the common ancestor of all HAV-related viruses including phopivirus can be traced back to 1800 years ago. The discovery of MHHAV may provide new insights into the origin and evolution of HAV and a model system with which to explore the pathogenesis of HAV infection.


Assuntos
Hepatovirus/classificação , Marmota/virologia , Animais , Antígenos Virais , Composição de Bases , Teorema de Bayes , Códon , Epitopos/imunologia , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Viral , Genômica , Genótipo , Hepatovirus/genética , Hepatovirus/imunologia , Hepatovirus/ultraestrutura , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , RNA Viral
13.
mBio ; 6(4)2015 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26307166

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Describing the viral diversity of wildlife can provide interesting and useful insights into the natural history of established human pathogens. In this study, we describe a previously unknown picornavirus in harbor seals (tentatively named phopivirus) that is related to human hepatitis A virus (HAV). We show that phopivirus shares several genetic and phenotypic characteristics with HAV, including phylogenetic relatedness across the genome, a specific and seemingly quiescent tropism for hepatocytes, structural conservation in a key functional region of the type III internal ribosomal entry site (IRES), and a codon usage bias consistent with that of HAV. IMPORTANCE: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an important viral hepatitis in humans because of the substantial number of cases each year in regions with low socioeconomic status. The origin of HAV is unknown, and no nonprimate HAV-like viruses have been described. Here, we describe the discovery of an HAV-like virus in seals. This finding suggests that the diversity and evolutionary history of these viruses might be far greater than previously thought and may provide insight into the origin and pathogenicity of HAV.


Assuntos
Hepatovirus/genética , Hepatovirus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Focas Verdadeiras/virologia , Animais , Códon , Genoma Viral , Genótipo , Vírus da Hepatite A Humana/genética , Hepatovirus/fisiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Fígado/virologia , Pulmão/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Baço/virologia , Replicação Viral
15.
J Hepatol ; 61(6): 1397-406, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25157983

RESUMO

Hypoxia inducible transcription factors (HIFs) activate diverse pathways that regulate cellular metabolism, angiogenesis, proliferation, and migration, enabling a cell to respond to a low oxygen or hypoxic environment. HIFs are regulated by oxygen-dependent and independent signals including: mitochondrial dysfunction, reactive oxygen species, endoplasmic reticular stress, and viral infection. HIFs have been reported to play a role in the pathogenesis of liver disease of diverse aetiologies. This review explores the impact of HIFs on hepatocellular biology and inflammatory responses, highlighting the therapeutic potential of targeting HIFs for an array of liver pathologies.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/fisiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/fisiopatologia , Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/fisiologia , Hepatopatias/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/fisiopatologia , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hepatovirus/fisiologia , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/virologia , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Camundongos , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Viroses/fisiopatologia
16.
Euro Surveill ; 19(50): 20992, 2014 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25597541

RESUMO

In October 2012, a hepatitis A (HA) outbreak with 83 laboratory-confirmed cases occurred in Lower Saxony. We defined primary outbreak cases as people with laboratory-confirmed HA and symptom onset between 8 October and 12 November 2012, residing in or visiting the affected districts. Secondary outbreak cases were persons with symptom onset after 12 November 2012 and close contact with primary cases. We identified 77 primary and six secondary cases. We enrolled 50 primary cases and 52 controls matched for age and sex, and found that 82% of cases and 60% of controls had consumed products from a particular bakery (OR=3.09; 95% CI: 1.15­8.68). Cases were more likely to have eaten sweet pastries (OR=5.74; 95% CI: 1.46­22.42). Viral isolates from five selected cases and three positively tested surfaces in the bakery had identical nucleotide sequences. One additional identical isolate derived from a salesperson of the bakery suffering from a chronic disease that required immunosuppressive treatment. Epidemiological and laboratory findings suggested that the salesperson contaminated products while packing and selling. Future risk assessment should determine whether food handlers with chronic diseases under immunosuppressive treatment could be more at risk of contaminating food and might benefit from HAV immunisation.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Hepatovirus/genética , Hepatovirus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Sequência de Bases , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/virologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Hepatite A/sangue , Hepatite A/transmissão , Hepatite A/virologia , Humanos , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Vigilância da População , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23297630

RESUMO

AIM: Evaluate the effectiveness of multiplex reverse transcription (RT) and polymerase chain reaction with fluorescence detection in real time mode (qPCR) methods for differential detection of 11 groups of intestine viruses (adenoviruses, enteroviruses, polioviruses, hepatitis A and E viruses, group A and C rotaviruses, orthoreoviruses, noroviruses, sapoviruses and astroviruses) in various biological samples. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Panels of virus isolates and clinical samples characterized by reference methods were used to evaluate sensitivity of detection of various intestine viruses. Nucleic acids were isolated from study samples and multiplex RT and qPCR were carried out. RESULTS: Sensitivity of laboratory reagent kit (LRK) when compared with results obtained from reference methods was 100% for rotavirus A, adenovirus, enterovirus and norovirus, 88.9% for hepatitis E virus and 92.3% for hepatitis A virus, and diagnostic specificity - 99.4%. During analysis of 697 clinical samples from patients with acute intestine infection symptoms nucleic acids of various intestine viruses were isolated in 71.7%. CONCLUSION: Multiplex qRT-PCR was shown as an effective method of etiologic diagnostics of an intestine viral infection. Use of LRK was demonstrated to establish etiology of intestine diseases in 63 - 72% and in children with watery diarrhea - in approximately 90% of cases.


Assuntos
Intestinos/virologia , Viroses/diagnóstico , Viroses/epidemiologia , Adenoviridae/genética , Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Criança , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Enterovirus/genética , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Fluorescência , Hepatovirus/genética , Hepatovirus/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Mamastrovirus/genética , Mamastrovirus/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Orthoreovirus/genética , Orthoreovirus/isolamento & purificação , Poliovirus/genética , Poliovirus/isolamento & purificação , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Sapovirus/genética , Sapovirus/isolamento & purificação , Viroses/virologia
18.
Infectio ; 15(1): 8-13, mar. 2011. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-635671

RESUMO

Introducción. La hepatitis A es una enfermedad infectocontagiosa causada por un virus ARN no encapsulado de la familia Picornaviridae y del género Hepatovirus, que se trasmite por vía fecal-oral, bien sea de persona a persona o en epidemias originadas por una fuente común. Objetivo. Se estimo la seroprevalencia de anticuerpos de tipo IgG contra el virus de la hepatitis A en niños de 1 a 15 años, atendidos en un hospital universitario, como parte de un estudio cooperativo nacional. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y prospectivo, entre junio y noviembre de 2007. Los niveles de anticuerpos se detectaron mediante un inmunoensayo enzimático de micropartículas. A cada participante del estudio se le hizo una encuesta de riesgo con las variables objeto del estudio. Resultados. Se estudiaron 422 niños. La prevalencia global de anticuerpos contra el virus de la hepatitis A fue de 29,1%: 37,1% en el grupo de 5 a 9 años, 36,1%, en el de 10 a 15 y 13,8%, en el de 1 a 4 años. La mayor proporción de prevalencia de anticuerpos se encontró en los niños de estrato socioeconómico más bajo: 44,2% para el estrato 1 y 27,9% para el estrato 2. Discusión. En este estudio se encontró una seroprevalencia de anticuerpos para hepatitis A más baja en menores de 5 años, lo que puede indicar una transición del patrón epidemiológico hacia un nivel intermedio. La prevalencia fue mayor en los niños de estratos socioeconómicos bajos, lo que puede estar en relación con el hacinamiento y las malas prácticas de higiene.


Introduction: Hepatitis A is an infectious disease caused by a non-encapsulated RNA virus of the Picornaviridae family, classified as Hepatovirus. It is transmitted by a fecal-oral route, either from person to person or in common source epidemics. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against the hepatitis A virus in children aged 1-15 years, treated in a university hospital as part of a national collaborative study. Methods: A descriptive study was performed between June and November 2007. The antibody titers were detected by means of a Microparticle Capture Enzyme Immunoassay. A survey to identify risk factors was conducted for each participant, with additional variables under study. Results: We studied 422 children. The overall prevalence of antibodies against hepatitis A was 29.1%, with 37.1% in the group of 5 to 9 years of age, 36.1% for 10 to 15, and 13.8% for 1 to 4. The highest proportion of antibody prevalence was found in children of the lowest socioeconomic status, 44.2% for the stratum 1 and 27.9% for the stratum 2. Conclusion: The seroprevalence to hepatitis A virus was lower in children with less than five years of age, which is an indication of a transition of the epidemiological profile to an intermediate one. The prevalence was higher in children of low socioeconomic levels, which may be related to overcrowding and poor hygiene practices.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Prevalência , Epidemias , Hepatite A , Vírus de RNA , Imunoglobulina G , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Hepatovirus , Vírus da Hepatite A , Anticorpos
19.
Immunological basis for immunization series, module 18
Monografia em Inglês | WHO IRIS | ID: who-44570
20.
Rev. GASTROHNUP ; 12(2, Supl.1): S8-S13, mayo-ago. 2010. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-645157

RESUMO

La Hepatitis A (HVA), también llamada hepatitis infecciosa, transmitida por alimentos, epidémica,ictericia catarral o epidémica, entre otros, es una enfermedad producida por un agente viral que se trasmite por vía fecal oral y generalmente su curso es autolimitado, aunque, puede progresar ahepatitis fulminante ocasionando la muerte a una proporción pequeña de los infectados. Pertenece al géner o Hepatovir us de la Familia Picornaviridae. La HVA, tiene una distribución universal, aunque con grandes diferencias geográficas en cuanto a su prevalencia, ocurre en forma esporádica y epidémica en todo el mundo, con una tendencia a presentarse en ciclos. La HVA, tiene un periodo de incubación prolongado, entre 15 a 50 días, con un promedio de 29 días, lo que hace difícil relacionar los síntomas con algún alimento o bebida ingerida. El diagnostico de la HVA, se basa en la detección de anticuerpos contra el VHA tipo IgM e IgG. El tratamiento básicamente es de soporte, sintomático y en casos de falla hepática, el trasplante es la única opción. La inmunoglobulina confiere inmunidad pasiva a corto plazo mientras la vacuna provee una protección activa a largo plazo.


Hepatitis A (HVA), also called infectious hepatitis, foodborne, epidemic, or epidemic or catarrhaljaundice, among others, is a disease caused by a viral agent that spreads through fecal-oral routeand usually self-limited course, although fulminant hepatitis can progress to causing death to a small proportion of those infected. Is a Hepatovirus genus of the Picornaviridae Family. The HVA, has a worldwide distribution, but with large geographical differences in its prevalence, occurs in sporadic and epidemic worldwide, with a tendency to occur in cycles. The HVA, has a long incubation period between 15 to 50 days, with an average of 29 days, making it difficult to correlate symptoms with food or drink intake. The diagnosis of HVA was based on the detection of antibodies against HAV IgM and IgG.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Hepatite A/classificação , Hepatite A/complicações , Hepatite A/diagnóstico , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Hepatite A/mortalidade , Hepatite A/prevenção & controle , Hepatite A/virologia , Vacinas contra Hepatite A/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Hepatite A/classificação , Vacinas contra Hepatite A , Hepatovirus/classificação , Hepatovirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vacinas contra Hepatite A/farmacocinética , Vacinas contra Hepatite A/farmacologia , Vacinas contra Hepatite A
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