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1.
J Gen Virol ; 103(9)2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36170152

RESUMO

The family Hepeviridae includes enterically transmitted small quasi-enveloped or non-enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses infecting mammals and birds (subfamily Orthohepevirinae) or fish (Parahepevirinae). Hepatitis E virus (genus Paslahepevirus) is responsible for self-limiting acute hepatitis in humans; the infection may become chronic in immunocompromised individuals and extrahepatic manifestations have been described. Avian hepatitis E virus (genus Avihepevirus) causes hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in chickens. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the family Hepeviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/hepeviridae.


Assuntos
Hepevirus , Vírus de RNA , Animais , Galinhas , Peixes , Genoma Viral , Hepevirus/genética , Humanos , Mamíferos , Vírus de RNA/genética , Vírion , Replicação Viral
2.
Poult Sci ; 101(10): 102103, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36041385

RESUMO

To investigate the prevalence of avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) in chickens and gather evidence of viral vertical transmission, we collected 288 cloacal swabs and 288 yolks samples from 12 farms with clinically healthy chickens in 4 different areas in Tai'an City, Shandong Province, China (i.e., Daiyue District, Xintai City, Feicheng City, and Ningyang County). We also collected 240 samples from 2 breeder farms (from each of which 30 chicks, 30 dead embryos, 30 live embryos, and 30 hatching eggs were taken). PCR detection revealed that the positive rates of cloacal swabs and yolks were 6.25% (18/288) and 4.51% (13/288), respectively. Besides, avian HEV was detected with higher positive rates in the chicks (11.67%), hatching eggs (10.00%), live embryos (13.33%), and dead embryos (26.67%) from 2 breeder farms. Sequence and genetic evolution analyses revealed that the nucleotide homology of the isolated strains was 76.4to 83.9% compared with 4 reported genotypes, but the isolated strains were located in a separate branch, indicating they were potential novel genotypes. In conclusion, those results indicate that the latent infection of avian HEV novel genotypes has been widespread in chicken farms in Tai'an City, and provide reliable evidence of the possible vertical transmission of avian HEV.


Assuntos
Hepevirus , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas/genética , China/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Hepevirus/genética , Nucleotídeos , Óvulo/química , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/genética
3.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269854, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35737708

RESUMO

Orthohepevirus B, commonly known as avian hepatitis E virus (aHEV), causes big liver and spleen disease (BLS) or hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome (HSS) in chickens. BLS is an emerging disease among chicken flocks in several countries around the world. In our previous studies, serology and molecular biology screening revealed that chicken flocks are widely affected by aHEV in Poland. The present study, which was conducted between 2019 and 2020, aimed to investigate the prevalence of aHEV in chicken flocks and other poultry, including ducks, geese, and turkeys. A total of 307 flocks were examined. In addition, 29 samples from captive wild birds (western capercaillies, Tetrao urogallus) were analyzed. In all the investigated poultry species, except turkeys, the nucleic acid sequence covering part of the ORF1 gene of the aHEV genome was detected (34/336 samples, 10.1%). The infection rate was found to be the highest in broiler breeder chicken flocks (14/40 samples; 35%). Phylogenetic analysis of partial ORF1 gene, which encodes helicase, revealed that the obtained sequences belonged to genotypes 2 and 4, while one belonged to genotype 3. Genotype 2 was detected for the first time in domestic geese and ducks, and genotype 4 was detected for the first time in Poland. The study demonstrated the presence of aHEV among the investigated western capercaillies, suggesting that this species is susceptible to aHEV infections and biosecurity is therefore required in western capercaillie breeding facilities.


Assuntos
Hepatite Viral Animal , Hepevirus , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas , Patos , Gansos , Hepatite Viral Animal/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Codorniz , Perus
4.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0226521, 2022 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35138149

RESUMO

Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes liver diseases and multiple extrahepatic disorders in chickens. However, the mechanisms involved in avian HEV entry remain elusive. Herein, we identified the RAS-related protein 1b (Rap1b) as a potential HEV-ORF2 protein interacting candidate. Experimental infection of chickens and cells with an avian HEV isolate from China (CaHEV) led to upregulated expression and activation of Rap1b both in vivo and in vitro. By using CaHEV capsid as mimic of virion to treat cell in vitro, it appears that the interaction between the viral capsid and Rap1b promoted cell membrane recruitment of the downstream effector Rap1-interacting molecule (RIAM). In turn, RIAM further enhanced Talin-1 membrane recruitment and retention, which led to the activation of integrin α5/ß1, as well as integrin-associated membrane protein kinases, including focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Meanwhile, FAK activation triggered activation of downstream signaling molecules, such as Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 RAC1 cell division cycle 42 (CDC42), p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), and LIM domain kinase 1 (LIMK1). Finally, F-actin rearrangement induced by Cofilin led to the formation of lamellipodia, filopodia, and stress fibers, contributes to plasma membrane remodeling, and might enhance CaHEV virion internalization. In conclusion, our data suggested that Rap1b activation was triggered during CaHEV infection and appeared to require interaction between CaHEV-ORF2 and Rap1b, thereby further inducing membrane recruitment of Talin-1. Membrane-bound Talin-1 then activates key Integrin-FAK-Cofilin cascades involved in modulation of actin kinetics, and finally leads to F-actin rearrangement and membrane remodeling to potentially facilitate internalization of CaHEV virions into permissive cells. IMPORTANCE Rap1b is a multifunctional protein that is responsible for cell adhesion, growth, and differentiation. The inactive form of Rap1b is phosphorylated and distributed in the cytoplasm, while active Rap1b is prenylated and loaded with GTP to the cell membrane. In this study, the activation of Rap1b was induced during the early stage of avian HEV infection under the regulation of PKA and SmgGDS. Continuously activated Rap1b recruited its effector RIAM to the membrane, thereby inducing the membrane recruitment of Talin-1 that led to the activation of membrane α5/ß1 integrins. The triggering of the signaling pathway-associated Integrin α5/ß1-FAK-CDC42&RAC1-PAK1-LIMK1-Cofilin culminated in F-actin polymerization and membrane remodeling that might promote avian HEV virion internalization. These findings suggested a novel mechanism that is potentially utilized by avian HEV to invade susceptible cells.


Assuntos
Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Hepatite Viral Animal/metabolismo , Hepevirus/patogenicidade , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus , Proteínas rap de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Actinas/genética , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Galinhas , Citoesqueleto/genética , Citoesqueleto/virologia , Hepatite Viral Animal/genética , Hepatite Viral Animal/virologia , Hepevirus/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteína cdc42 de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Proteína cdc42 de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Quinases Ativadas por p21/genética , Quinases Ativadas por p21/metabolismo , Proteínas rap de Ligação ao GTP/genética
5.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35215886

RESUMO

Rat hepatitis E virus (rat HEV) was first identified in wild rats and was classified as the species Orthohepevirus C in the genera Orthohepevirus, which is genetically different from the genotypes HEV-1 to HEV-8, which are classified as the species Orthohepevirus A. Although recent reports suggest that rat HEV transmits to humans and causes hepatitis, the infectivity of rat HEV to non-human primates such as cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys remains controversial. To investigate whether rat HEV infects non-human primates, we inoculated one cynomolgus monkey and five rhesus monkeys with a V-105 strain of rat HEV via an intravenous injection. Although no significant elevation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was observed, rat HEV RNA was detected in fecal specimens, and seroconversion was observed in all six monkeys. The partial nucleotide sequences of the rat HEV recovered from the rat HEV-infected monkeys were identical to those of the V-105 strain, indicating that the infection was caused by the rat HEV. The rat HEV recovered from the cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys successfully infected both nude and Sprague-Dawley rats. The entire rat HEV genome recovered from nude rats was identical to that of the V-105 strain, suggesting that the rat HEV replicates in monkeys and infectious viruses were released into the fecal specimens. These results demonstrated that cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys are susceptible to rat HEV, and they indicate the possibility of a zoonotic infection of rat HEV. Cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys might be useful as animal models for vaccine development.


Assuntos
Hepatite Viral Animal/transmissão , Hepevirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/veterinária , Zoonoses Virais/transmissão , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Hepatite Viral Animal/virologia , Macaca fascicularis , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/transmissão , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/virologia , RNA Viral/análise , Ratos , Zoonoses Virais/virologia , Replicação Viral
6.
Vet Microbiol ; 265: 109331, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999311

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a zoonotic virus, infects many animal species, including humans. Capsid proteins of human, swine, rabbit and avian HEVs share 48 %-100 % amino acid identity. In the present study, antigenic cross-reactivity among human, swine, rabbit and avian HEV capsid proteins were analyzed in detail using indirect and blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The C-terminal 268 amino acids of genotype 1 human, genotype 4 swine, genotype 3 rabbit and genotype B3 avian HEV capsid proteins served as coating antigens for ELISA. Hyperimmune rabbit antisera (against four HEV capsid proteins) and human, pig, rabbit and chicken clinical sera were as primary antibodies. Closely correlated and statistically indistinguishable results were obtained for detection of anti-HEV antibodies in human and pig sera using human, swine and rabbit HEV capsid proteins as coating antigens. Moderately correlated differences in detection of anti-HEV antibodies in rabbit sera were obtained using the three capsid proteins. Statistically significant differences with no correlations were obtained for anti-HEV antibodies detection in chicken sera between avian HEV capsid protein and human, swine and rabbit ones. Blocking ELISA results demonstrated that two common epitopes among the four species HEVs were immunodominant in avian HEV, but were non-immunodominant in human, swine and rabbit HEVs. Nevertheless, three epitopes common to human, swine and rabbit HEVs were all immunodominant epitopes for the three species HEVs. Collectively, these results demonstrate that anti-HEV antibodies in human and pig sera can be detected using human, swine and rabbit HEV capsid proteins. By contrast, for optimal detection of anti-HEV antibodies in rabbit and chicken sera, the respective rabbit and avian HEV capsid proteins should be used. These results provide insights to guide future development of serological assays for diagnosing HEV infections in various animal species.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E , Hepatite E , Hepevirus , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Antígenos Virais , Aves , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Hepatite E/veterinária , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Hepevirus/genética , Humanos , Coelhos , Suínos
7.
Poult Sci ; 101(3): 101633, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986452

RESUMO

Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the major causative pathogen of the big liver and spleen disease, hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome, and hepatic rupture hemorrhage syndrome. Until now, there are 6 different avian HEV genotypes that infect chickens have been reported worldwide. Epidemiologic investigations of the avian HEV demonstrated that avian HEV has been widely spread in China in recent years. In this study, an avian HEV named YT-aHEV was obtained from white-feathered broilers using LMH cells by virus isolation assay in Shandong province, China. The complete genome consists of 6656-nt excluding the poly(A) tail. The isolate was highly similar to the CaHEV strain and segregated into the same branch belonging to avian HEV genotype 3. Indirect immunofluorescence using capsid protein-specific polyclonal antibodies confirmed that YT-aHEV could establish productive infection and replicate stably in LMH cells. Furthermore, an in vivo avian HEV infection model was established successfully in specific pathogen-free chicken embryos by intravenous experiments. In the present study, we demonstrate an avian HEV infection associated with liver lesions of hemorrhage and swelling by LMH cells for the first time in a white-feather broiler flock in China. This research also provides a new diagnosis method for detection of avian HEV, which laid a foundation for the understanding of pathogenicity and molecular biology of this virus for further study.


Assuntos
Hepatite Viral Animal , Hepevirus , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas , China/epidemiologia , Plumas/patologia , Hepatite Viral Animal/epidemiologia , Hepevirus/genética
8.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 56, 2022 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35078465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the pathogenic agent of big liver and spleen disease (BLS) and of hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome (HSS) in chickens, which have caused economic losses to the poultry industry in China. In this study, 18 samples of BLS chickens were collected to reveal the molecular epidemiological characteristics of avian HEV in the province of Shandong, China. RESULTS: Gross and microscopic lesions of clinical samples were observed; then, virology detection and genetic analysis of avian HEV were performed. The results showed that there was significant swelling and rupture in the liver and that the spleen was enlarged. Microscopic lesions demonstrated obvious hemorrhage in the liver, with infiltration of heterophilic granulocytes, lymphocytes, and macrophages, as well as the reduction of lymphocytes in the spleen. Eleven of the 18 samples were positive for avian HEV, with a positive rate of 61.11%. More importantly, all avian HEV-positive samples were mixed infections: among these, the mixed infections of avian HEV and chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) and avian HEV and fowl adenovirus (FAdV) were the most common. Furthermore, the genetic evolution analysis showed that all avian HEV strains obtained here did not belong to the reported 4 genotypes, thus constituting a potential novel genotype. CONCLUSIONS: These results of this study further enrich the epidemiological data on avian HEV in Shandong, prove the genetic diversity of avian HEV in China, and uncover the complex mixed infections of avian HEV clinical samples.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Hepatite E , Hepatite Viral Animal , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Hepatite E/veterinária , Hepatite Viral Animal/diagnóstico , Hepatite Viral Animal/epidemiologia , Hepevirus/genética , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia
9.
Infect Genet Evol ; 96: 105095, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597819

RESUMO

Avian hepatitis E virus (aHEV) is the causative agent of an important disease of broiler breeders and layers. aHEV cannot be readily propagated in cell culture and is characterised primarily by sequencing of amplicons generated through several RT-PCRs that target individual genes. This study aims to uncover the origin of current Australian aHEV isolates based on whole genome sequencing using clinical liver tissues. Complete genome sequences of the two aHEV isolates were assembled using Nanopore and Illumina reads. The two isolates possessed only four single nucleotide polymorphisms to each other. Comparison of the sequences with aHEV genome sequences available in the GenBank showed the highest nucleotide sequence identity of 88% with the prototype USA strain (AY535004), 82% with the European (AM943647) and genotype 1 Australian strains (AM943647). Recombination analysis suggested that aHEV isolates characterised in this study are progeny of a cross between a US and a Hungarian strain. Phylogenetic tree and phylogenetic networks constructed using complete genome and individual coding sequences revealed that Australian aHEV isolates formed a distinct clade closer to the USA strains and classified as genotype 2 whereas genotype 1 Australian strain clustered together with South Korean strains.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Genoma Viral , Hepatite Viral Animal/virologia , Hepevirus/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Fígado/virologia , Filogenia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/virologia , Recombinação Genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
10.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578311

RESUMO

The sole member of the Piscihepevirus genus (family Hepeviridae) is cutthroat trout virus (CTV) but recent metatranscriptomic studies have identified numerous fish hepevirus sequences including CTV-2. In the current study, viruses with sequences resembling both CTV and CTV-2 were isolated from salmonids in eastern and western Canada. Phylogenetic analysis of eight full genomes delineated the Canadian CTV isolates into two genotypes (CTV-1 and CTV-2) within the Piscihepevirus genus. Hepevirus genomes typically have three open reading frames but an ORF3 counterpart was not predicted in the Canadian CTV isolates. In vitro replication of a CTV-2 isolate produced cytopathic effects in the CHSE-214 cell line with similar amplification efficiency as CTV. Likewise, the morphology of the CTV-2 isolate resembled CTV, yet viral replication caused dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum lumen which was not previously observed. Controlled laboratory studies exposing sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka), pink (O. gorbuscha), and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) to CTV-2 resulted in persistent infections without disease and mortality. Infected Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and chinook salmon served as hosts and potential reservoirs of CTV-2. The data presented herein provides the first in vitro and in vivo characterization of CTV-2 and reveals greater diversity of piscihepeviruses extending the known host range and geographic distribution of CTV viruses.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Hepevirus/classificação , Hepevirus/genética , Hepevirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Canadá , Genótipo , Hepevirus/patogenicidade , Filogenia , Salmo salar/virologia , Salmão/virologia , Truta , Virulência , Vírus não Classificados/classificação , Vírus não Classificados/genética , Vírus não Classificados/isolamento & purificação , Vírus não Classificados/patogenicidade
11.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252534, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133435

RESUMO

Many recent disease outbreaks in humans had a zoonotic virus etiology. Bats in particular have been recognized as reservoirs to a large variety of viruses with the potential to cross-species transmission. In order to assess the risk of bats in Switzerland for such transmissions, we determined the virome of tissue and fecal samples of 14 native and 4 migrating bat species. In total, sequences belonging to 39 different virus families, 16 of which are known to infect vertebrates, were detected. Contigs of coronaviruses, adenoviruses, hepeviruses, rotaviruses A and H, and parvoviruses with potential zoonotic risk were characterized in more detail. Most interestingly, in a ground stool sample of a Vespertilio murinus colony an almost complete genome of a Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was detected by Next generation sequencing and confirmed by PCR. In conclusion, bats in Switzerland naturally harbour many different viruses. Metagenomic analyses of non-invasive samples like ground stool may support effective surveillance and early detection of viral zoonoses.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Metagenômica/métodos , Viroma/genética , Vírus/genética , Zoonoses/virologia , Adenoviridae/classificação , Adenoviridae/genética , Animais , Quirópteros/classificação , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Hepevirus/classificação , Hepevirus/genética , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/classificação , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Filogenia , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Suíça , Vírus/classificação
12.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064072

RESUMO

Avian hepatitis E virus (aHEV) is the major etiological agent of hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome (HSS), big liver and spleen disease (BLSD), and hepatic rupture hemorrhage syndrome (HRHS) in chickens. Infections with aHEV cause a significant decrease in egg production and increased mortality in chickens worldwide. However, studies on the prevalence of aHEV in Nigeria are scarce. In this study, serum (n = 88) and fecal samples (n = 110) obtained from apparently healthy layer chickens from three states in southwestern Nigeria were analyzed by nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (nRT-PCR) targeting the helicase and capsid gene for the presence of aHEV. Avian HEV was detected in 12.5% (n = 11/88) of serum samples and 9.1% (n = 10/110) of fecal samples tested. Phylogenetic analysis showed that five of the twelve identified aHEV sequences belonged to genotype 2. The remaining seven sequences were only distantly related to other known aHEV isolates. After amplification of the near-complete ORF2 fragment (1618 bp) and part of the ORF1 (582 bp) of isolate YF40_aHEV_NG phylogenetic analysis revealed a nucleotide sequence identity between 79.0 and 82.6% and 80.1 and 83.5%, respectively, to other known aHEV strains, indicating that the Nigerian isolate YF40_aHEV_NG belongs to a novel aHEV genotype. This is the first report of co-circulation of aHEV genotypes in chickens in Nigeria.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Genoma Viral , Genótipo , Hepatite Viral Animal/virologia , Hepevirus/classificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/veterinária , Animais , Hepatite Viral Animal/epidemiologia , Hepevirus/genética , Hepevirus/isolamento & purificação , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , RNA Viral
13.
Infect Genet Evol ; 93: 104942, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044191

RESUMO

Rodents including rats are reservoir of several pathogens capable of affecting human health. In this study, faecal and different organ specimens from free-living Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) (N = 18) and faecal samples from laboratory rodents (rats N = 21 and mice N = 20) collected from different geographic areas in Hungary between 2017 and 2020 were investigated by viral metagenomics and conventional RT-PCR methods. The complete genome of three different RNA viruses, rat astrovirus, rat norovirus and rat hepevirus were characterized and analysed in detail. Rat norovirus was detected in faecal (17.6%, 3/17) and kidney (7.1%, 1/14) samples; rat astrovirus in faecal (23.5%, 4/17) and spleen (13.3%, 2/15) samples, and rat hepevirus in 43% to 67% the faecal, liver, kidney, lung, heart, muscle, brain and blood samples from Norway rats, respectively. Rat norovirus was also identifiable in 5% (1/21) of laboratory rats and rat astrovirus in 40% (8/20) of faecal samples from laboratory mice. Co-infections were found in 28% (5/18) wild Norway rats. The highest RNA viral load of astrovirus (1.81 × 108 copy/g) and norovirus (3.49 × 107 copy/g) were measured in faecal samples; while the highest RNA viral load of hepevirus (1.16 × 109 copy/g) was found in liver samples of Norway rats, respectively. This study confirms the wide geographic distribution and high prevalence of astrovirus, norovirus and hepevirus among wild rats in Hungary with confirmation of different organ involvement of as well as the detection of norovirus and astrovirus in laboratory rats and mice, respectively. This finding further strengthens the role of rodents in the spread of viral pathogens especially infecting human.


Assuntos
Astroviridae/isolamento & purificação , Hepevirus/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais de Laboratório , Animais Selvagens , Astroviridae/genética , Infecções por Astroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Astroviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Hepatite Viral Animal/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Animal/virologia , Hepevirus/genética , Hungria/epidemiologia , Norovirus/genética , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/veterinária , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/virologia , Doenças dos Roedores/virologia
14.
Infect Genet Evol ; 92: 104882, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905889

RESUMO

With the background of association of oxidative stress and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in pregnancy complications the present novel study aimed to evaluate the significance of changes in maternal homocysteine levels and the related mechanism(s) in the pathophysiology of HEV related pregnancy complications and negative outcomes. Term delivery (TD, N = 194) and HEV-IgM positive pregnancy cases [N = 109] were enrolled. Serum and placental homocysteine levels were evaluated by ELISA and immunofluorescence and in turn correlated with serum Vitamin B12 levels. Distribution of variant MTHFR C➔T and TYMS1494del6bp genotyping were studied by PCR-RFLP. Differential folate receptor alpha (FR-α) expression in placenta was evaluated by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence respectively. The HEV viral load was significantly higher in both FHF and AVH cases. Higher serum homocysteine levels was associated with preterm delivery (PTD) and fetal death in HEV infected cases and was significantly inversely correlated with serum VitaminB12 levels in HEV cases. Placental homocysteine expression was upregulated in HEV cases, and in cases with negative pregnancy outcome. A Homocysteine level was associated with MTHFR C677T status. Genetic alterations in folate pathway was associated with increased risk of PTD in HEV infected pregnancy cases, disease severity, and negative pregnancy outcome in AVH and FHF groups. FR-α expression was downregulated in placental tissues of HEV infected pregnancy.Placental stress caused by HEV inflicted increased homocysteine due to alterations in maternal vitamin B12 levels and folate pathway components is detrimental mechanism in PTD and negative pregnancy outcome in HEV infected pregnancy cases and holds prognostic and therapeutic significance.


Assuntos
Hepatite E/metabolismo , Hepevirus/fisiologia , Homocisteína/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Hepatite E/virologia , Humanos , Índia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 614115, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33717097

RESUMO

Mucosal immune responses are crucial in protecting against pathogens entering through mucosal surfaces. However, due to poor T-cell responsiveness upon mucosal antigenic stimulation, mucosal immunity remains difficult to obtain through vaccines and requires appropriate adjuvants. We previously demonstrated that administered systemically to healthy macaques or locally expressed in the intestinal mucosa of acutely SIV-infected macaques, interleukin-7 (IL-7) triggers chemokine expression and immune cell homing into mucosae, suggesting its important role in the development of mucosal immune responses. We therefore examined whether local delivery of recombinant glycosylated simian IL-7 (rs-IL-7gly) to the vaginal mucosa of rhesus macaques could prepare the lower female genital tract (FGT) for subsequent immunization and act as an efficient mucosal adjuvant. First, we showed that local administration of rs-IL-7gly triggers vaginal overexpression of chemokines and infiltration of mDCs, macrophages, NKs, B- and T-cells in the lamina propria while MamuLa-DR+ APCs accumulated in the epithelium. Subsequent mucosal anti-DT immunization in macaques resulted in a faster, stronger, and more persistent mucosal antibody response compared to DT-immunization alone. Indeed, we detected robust productions of DT-specific IgAs and IgGs in their vaginal secretions and identified cells secreting DT-specific IgAs in their vaginal mucosa and IgGs in draining lymph nodes. Finally, the expression of chemokines involved in the organization of tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) was only increased in the vaginal mucosa of IL-7-adjuvanted immunized macaques. Interestingly, TLSs developed around PNAd+ high endothelial venules in their lower FGT sampled 2 weeks after the last immunization. Non-traumatic vaginal administration of rs-IL-7gly prepares the mucosa to respond to subsequent local immunization and allows the development of a strong mucosal immune response in macaques, through the chemokine-dependent recruitment of immune cells, the activation of mDCs and the formation of TLSs. The localization of DT-specific IgA+ plasma cells in the upper vaginal mucosa argues for their contribution to the production of specific immunoglobulins in the vaginal secretions. Our results highlight the potential of IL-7 as a potent mucosal adjuvant to stimulate the FGT immune system and elicit vaginal antibody responses to local immunization, which is the most promising way to confer protection against many sexually transmitted diseases.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Interleucina-7/imunologia , Membrana Mucosa/imunologia , Vacinas/imunologia , Vagina/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Biomarcadores , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Hepevirus/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Imunização , Macaca mulatta , Membrana Mucosa/metabolismo , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/imunologia , Vacinas/administração & dosagem
16.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247889, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635917

RESUMO

Avian hepatitis E virus (aHEV) is associated with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome, big liver and spleen disease and hepatic rupture haemorrhage syndrome. However, the knowledge about aHEV in commercial layer chickens in Nigeria is scarce. In this study, 460 serum samples obtained from 36 apparently healthy commercial layer chicken flocks in three states (Ogun, Osun and Oyo States) of southwestern Nigeria were analysed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for the presence of anti-aHEV immunoglobulin Y (IgY) antibodies. In total, the overall seroprevalence of anti-aHEV antibodies was 14.6%. The serological analysis revealed that 75% of the flocks examined were positive for anti-aHEV IgY antibodies from chickens of various ages in all three states. The percentage of the seropositive chickens in the three states varied from flock to flock ranging from 60% to 88.8% and seropositive chickens were detected at any age (24-52 weeks of age) without significant differences between the age groups. This is the first report assessing the presence of aHEV antibodies in chickens from Nigeria. The detection of anti-aHEV antibodies in commercial layer chickens in this study emphasizes the importance of serosurveillance in disease monitoring due to the economic threat posed by aHEV as a result of decreased egg production and increased mortality in affected commercial layer chicken farms. However, further studies are essential to reveal the clinical implications and to assess the real burden of aHEV in Nigeria.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Galinhas/sangue , Galinhas/virologia , Hepatite E/sangue , Hepatite E/veterinária , Hepatite Viral Animal/sangue , Hepevirus/imunologia , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/sangue , Esplenopatias/sangue , Esplenopatias/veterinária , Esplenomegalia/sangue , Esplenomegalia/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Hepatite E/virologia , Hepatite Viral Animal/diagnóstico , Hepatite Viral Animal/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Animal/virologia , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Esplenopatias/epidemiologia , Esplenopatias/virologia , Esplenomegalia/epidemiologia , Esplenomegalia/virologia
17.
Avian Dis ; 65(4): 572-577, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35068100

RESUMO

Hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome is caused by avian hepatitis E virus (aHEV), a nonenveloped, single-stranded RNA virus. The economic importance of this disease in the poultry industry is due to the decline in egg production (10%-40%) and the rise in mortality (1%-4%). In the present study, 1540 serum samples from 33 broiler breeder flocks were analyzed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the presence of an anti-aHEV antibody. In addition, a diagnostic nested reverse transcriptase-PCR was done on all farm samples. In the serologic study, 66.7% (22/33) of the flocks and 28.5% (439/1540) of the chickens were positive. The molecular study showed that three farms were positive, and PCR products were observed for the conserved regions of the aHEV helicase and capsid virus genes as 386 bp and 242 bp, respectively. It should be noted that clinical and pathologic symptoms including decreased egg production, enlarged livers and spleens, and a slight rise in mortality rate were observed in eight farms. To our knowledge, this is the first documented study on the aHEV identification and its antibody detection in broiler breeder farms in Iran.


Evidencia serológica y molecular de una infección diseminada del virus de la hepatitis E aviar en granjas avícolas en Irán. El síndrome de hepatitis-esplenomegalia es causado por el virus de la hepatitis E aviar (aHEV), un virus de ARN de cadena simple sin envoltura. La importancia económica de esta enfermedad en la industria avícola se debe a la disminución en la producción de huevo (10%-40%) y al aumento de la mortalidad (1%-4%). En el presente estudio, se analizaron 1540 muestras de suero de 33 parvadas de reproductores pesados mediante un ensayo de immunoabsorción con enzimas ligadas para determinar la presencia de anticuerpos contra el virus de la hepatitis E aviar. Además, se realizó un método de transcripción reversa y PCR anidado de diagnóstico en todas las muestras de la granja. En el estudio serológico, el 66.7% (22/33) de las parvadas y el 28.5% (439/1540) de los pollos fueron positivos. El estudio molecular mostró que tres granjas fueron positivas, y se observaron productos de PCR para las regiones conservadas de los genes del virus de la cápside y de la helicasa del virus de la hepatitis E aviar con tamaños de 386 pb y 242 pares de bases, respectivamente. Cabe señalar que en ocho granjas se observaron signos clínicos y patológicos como disminución de la producción de huevos, agrandamiento del hígado y del bazo y un ligero aumento en la tasa de mortalidad. Hasta donde se conoce, este es el primer estudio documentado sobre la identificación del virus de la hepatitis E aviar y la detección de anticuerpos en granjas de pollos de engorde en Irán.


Assuntos
Hepatite Viral Animal , Hepevirus , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas , Fazendas , Hepatite Viral Animal/diagnóstico , Hepatite Viral Animal/epidemiologia , Hepevirus/genética , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia
18.
Poult Sci ; 99(12): 6657-6663, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248582

RESUMO

In recent years, the avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been widely spread in China, causing huge economic losses. Several studies have carried out detailed epidemiologic investigations of the avian HEV, but no data were from Jiangxi province. Since early April 2020, diseases similar to hepatic rupture hemorrhage syndrome caused by the avian HEV occurred in a Roman Brown layer farm in Jiangxi province, indicating this virus may also be epidemic there. To make this assumption clear, 20 liver samples were collected from the sick flock and then analyzed by detailed viral detection, which confirmed that the avian HEV should be responsible for the aforementioned disease (6 of 20). Then, the capsid gene of the virus was sequenced to show the molecular characteristics of the strain circulating in the aforementioned flock. Sequence comparison showed that it shared 80.7 to 94.7% identities with 12 published strains, while phylogenetic analysis confirmed that it belongs to a new subtype of genotype 3. Moreover, basing on a 242 bp fragment, the novel also shared high similarities to reference strains identified as genotypes before, revealing the genotype 3 maybe very popular in China and even can be divided into several subgroups. In conclusion, a novel avian HEV strain was identified in this study, which belongs to a new subtype of genotype 3. The analysis makes up for the molecular epidemiologic data of avian HEV and provides a basis for further understanding the spread of avian HEV in China.


Assuntos
Hepatite Viral Animal , Hepevirus , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Infecções por Vírus de RNA , Animais , Galinhas , China , Genótipo , Hepatite Viral Animal/virologia , Hepevirus/classificação , Hepevirus/genética , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/veterinária , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/virologia
19.
Viruses ; 12(10)2020 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050353

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) (family Hepeviridae) is one of the most common human pathogens, causing acute hepatitis and an increasingly recognized etiological agent in chronic hepatitis and extrahepatic manifestations. Recent studies reported that not only are the classical members of the species Orthohepevirus A (HEV-A) pathogenic to humans but a genetically highly divergent rat origin hepevirus (HEV-C1) in species Orthohepevirus C (HEV-C) is also able to cause zoonotic infection and symptomatic disease (hepatitis) in humans. This review summarizes the current knowledge of hepeviruses in rodents with special focus of rat origin HEV-C1. Cross-species transmission and genetic diversity of HEV-C1 and confirmation of HEV-C1 infections and symptomatic disease in humans re-opened the long-lasting and full of surprises story of HEV in human. This novel knowledge has a consequence to the epidemiology, clinical aspects, laboratory diagnosis, and prevention of HEV infection in humans.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Vírus da Hepatite E/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hepatite E/transmissão , Hepatite Viral Animal/transmissão , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Hepevirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Filogenia , Ratos , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia
20.
J Virol Methods ; 283: 113907, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502499

RESUMO

Characterisation of the entire genome of Fowl aviadenoviruses (FAdV) requires isolation and propagation of the virus in chicken embryo liver or kidney cells, a process which is not only time consuming but may occasionally fail to result in viral growth. Furthermore, in a mixed infection, isolation in cell culture may result in the loss of viral strains. In this study, we optimised a FAdV DNA extraction technique directly from affected liver tissues using kaolin hydrated aluminium silicate treatment. The whole genome of FAdV was sequenced directly from extracted DNA without any targetted PCR based enrichment. The extraction method was also tested on avian liver tissues affected with the RNA virus Avian hepatitis E virus and demonstrated to yield sequencing grade RNA. Therefore, the method described here is a simple technique which is potentially useful for the extraction of sequencing grade DNA/RNA from tissues with high fat content.


Assuntos
Aviadenovirus/genética , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Fígado/virologia , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Animais , Aviadenovirus/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas/virologia , Genoma Viral , Hepatite , Hepevirus/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala
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