Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 30
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Proc Biol Sci ; 285(1885)2018 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30135151

RESUMO

The marine mollusc, Pleurobranchaea californica varies daily in whether it swims and this correlates with whether serotonin (5-HT) enhances the strength of synapses made by the swim central pattern generator neuron, A1/C2. Another species, Tritonia diomedea, reliably swims and does not vary in serotonergic neuromodulation. A third species, Hermissenda crassicornis, never produces this behaviour and lacks the neuromodulation. We found that expression of particular 5-HT receptor subtype (5-HTR) genes in single neurons correlates with swimming. Orthologues to seven 5-HTR genes were identified from whole-brain transcriptomes. We isolated individual A1/C2 neurons and sequenced their RNA or measured 5-HTR gene expression using absolute quantitative PCR. A1/C2 neurons isolated from Pleurobranchaea that produced a swim motor pattern just prior to isolation expressed 5-HT2a and 5-HT7 receptor genes, as did all Tritonia samples. These subtypes were absent from A1/C2 isolated from Pleurobranchaea that did not swim on that day and from Hermissenda A1/C2 neurons. Expression of other receptors was not correlated with swimming. This suggests that these 5-HTRs may mediate the modulation of A1/C2 synaptic strength and play an important role in swimming. Furthermore, it suggests that regulation of receptor expression could underlie daily changes in behaviour as well as evolution of behaviour.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Receptores de Serotonina/genética , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Gastrópodes/genética , Hermissenda/genética , Hermissenda/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Receptores de Serotonina/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Natação , Transcriptoma/fisiologia , Lesma Marinha/genética , Lesma Marinha/fisiologia
2.
J Comp Neurol ; 525(16): 3514-3528, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28726311

RESUMO

Hermissenda crassicornis is a model for studying the molecular and cellular basis for classical conditioning, based on its ability to associate light with vestibular stimulation. We used confocal microscopy to map histamine (HA), FMRF-amide, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) immunoreactivity in the central nervous system (CNS), eyes, optic ganglia and statocysts of the nudibranchs. For HA immunoreactivity, we documented both consistently and variably labeled CNS structures across individuals. We also noted minor differences in GABA immunoreactivity in the CNS compared to previous work on Hermissenda. Contrary to expectations, we found no evidence for GABA inside the visual or vestibular systems. Instead, we found only FMRFamide- and HA immunoreactivity (FMRFamide: 4 optic ganglion cells, 4-5 hair cells; HA: 3 optic ganglion cells, 8 hair cells). Overall, our results can act as basis for comparisons of nervous systems across nudibranchs, and suggest further exploration of intraspecific plasticity versus evolutionary changes in gastropod nervous systems.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , FMRFamida/metabolismo , Hermissenda/anatomia & histologia , Histamina/metabolismo , Vias Visuais/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Animais , Gânglios dos Invertebrados/citologia , Células Ciliadas Vestibulares/metabolismo , Hermissenda/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Nervo Vestibular/metabolismo , Vias Visuais/citologia
3.
PLoS One ; 11(4): e0154265, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27105319

RESUMO

Hermissenda crassicornis is a model organism used in various fields of research including neurology, ecology, pharmacology, and toxicology. In order to investigate the systematics of this species and the presence of cryptic species in H. crassicornis, we conducted a comprehensive molecular and morphological analysis of this species covering its entire range across the North Pacific Ocean. We determined that H. crassicornis constitutes a species complex of three distinct species. The name Hermissensa crassicornis is retained for the northeast Pacific species, occurring from Alaska to Northern California. The name H. opalescens is reinstated for a species occurring from the Sea of Cortez to Northern California. Finally, the name H. emurai is maintained for the northwestern species, found in Japan and in the Russian Far East. These three species have consistent morphological and color pattern differences that can be used for identification in the field.


Assuntos
Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Hermissenda/genética , Histonas/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Alaska , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , California , Geografia , Haplótipos , Hermissenda/anatomia & histologia , Hermissenda/classificação , Japão , Oceano Pacífico , Filogenia , Federação Russa , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
4.
Learn Mem ; 22(12): 617-21, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26572652

RESUMO

The sea slug Hermissenda crassicornis (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia) has been studied extensively in associative learning paradigms. However, lack of genetic information previously hindered molecular-level investigations. Here, the Hermissenda brain transcriptome was sequenced and assembled de novo, producing 165,743 total transcripts. Orthologs of 95 genes implicated in learning were identified. These included genes for a serotonin receptor and a GABA-B receptor subunit that had not been previously described in molluscs, as well as an adenylyl cyclase gene not previously described in gastropods. This study illustrates the Hermissenda transcriptome's potential as an important genetic tool in future learning and memory research.


Assuntos
Hermissenda/metabolismo , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Transcriptoma , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
5.
Mar Drugs ; 13(3): 1255-66, 2015 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25775422

RESUMO

6-Bromohypaphorine (6-BHP) has been isolated from the marine sponges Pachymatisma johnstoni, Aplysina sp., and the tunicate Aplidium conicum, but data on its biological activity were not available. For the nudibranch mollusk Hermissenda crassicornis no endogenous compounds were known, and here we describe the isolation of 6-BHP from this mollusk and its effects on different nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Two-electrode voltage-clamp experiments on the chimeric α7 nAChR (built of chicken α7 ligand-binding and glycine receptor transmembrane domains) or on rat α4ß2 nAChR expressed in Xenopus oocytes revealed no action of 6-BHP. However, in radioligand analysis, 6-BHP competed with radioiodinated α-bungarotoxin for binding to human α7 nAChR expressed in GH4C1 cells (IC50 23 ± 1 µM), but showed no competition on muscle-type nAChR from Torpedo californica. In Ca2+-imaging experiments on the human α7 nAChR expressed in the Neuro2a cells, 6-BHP in the presence of PNU120596 behaved as an agonist (EC50 ~80 µM). To the best of our knowledge, 6-BHP is the first low-molecular weight compound from marine source which is an agonist of the nAChR subtype. This may have physiological importance because H. crassicornis, with its simple and tractable nervous system, is a convenient model system for studying the learning and memory processes.


Assuntos
Hermissenda/metabolismo , Agonistas Nicotínicos/farmacologia , Triptofano/análogos & derivados , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7/agonistas , Animais , Ligação Competitiva , Galinhas , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Peso Molecular , Agonistas Nicotínicos/administração & dosagem , Agonistas Nicotínicos/isolamento & purificação , Oócitos , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Ratos , Receptores Nicotínicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Torpedo , Triptofano/administração & dosagem , Triptofano/isolamento & purificação , Triptofano/farmacologia , Xenopus laevis
6.
J Neurosci ; 33(6): 2709-17, 2013 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23392697

RESUMO

Neuromodulation can dynamically alter neuronal and synaptic properties, thereby changing the behavioral output of a neural circuit. It is therefore conceivable that natural selection might act upon neuromodulation as a mechanism for sculpting the behavioral repertoire of a species. Here we report that the presence of neuromodulation is correlated with the production of a behavior that most likely evolved independently in two species: Tritonia diomedea and Pleurobranchaea californica (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia, Nudipleura). Individuals of both species exhibit escape swimming behaviors consisting of repeated dorsal-ventral whole-body flexions. The central pattern generator (CPG) circuits underlying these behaviors contain homologous identified neurons: DSI and C2 in Tritonia and As and A1 in Pleurobranchaea. Homologs of these neurons also can be found in Hermissenda crassicornis where they are named CPT and C2, respectively. However, members of this species do not exhibit an analogous swimming behavior. In Tritonia and Pleurobranchaea, but not in Hermissenda, the serotonergic DSI homologs modulated the strength of synapses made by C2 homologs. Furthermore, the serotonin receptor antagonist methysergide blocked this neuromodulation and the swimming behavior. Additionally, in Pleurobranchaea, the robustness of swimming correlated with the extent of the synaptic modulation. Finally, injection of serotonin induced the swimming behavior in Tritonia and Pleurobranchaea, but not in Hermissenda. This suggests that the analogous swimming behaviors of Tritonia and Pleurobranchaea share a common dependence on serotonergic neuromodulation. Thus, neuromodulation may provide a mechanism that enables species to acquire analogous behaviors independently using homologous neural circuit components.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Periodicidade , Serotonina/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Animais , Hermissenda , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Pleurobranchaea , Serotonina/farmacologia , Antagonistas da Serotonina/farmacologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Lesma Marinha
7.
J Neurophysiol ; 109(3): 640-8, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23155173

RESUMO

In the nudibranch mollusk Hermissenda, ciliary locomotion contributes to the generation of two tactic behaviors. Light elicits a positive phototaxis, and graviceptive stimulation evokes a negative gravitaxis. Two classes of light-responsive premotor interneurons in the network contributing to ciliary locomotion have been recently identified in the cerebropleural ganglia. Aggregates of type I interneurons receive monosynaptic excitatory (I(e)) or inhibitory (I(i)) input from identified photoreceptors. Type II interneurons receive polysynaptic excitatory (II(e)) or inhibitory (II(i)) input from photoreceptors. The ciliary network also includes type III inhibitory (III(i)) interneurons, which form monosynaptic inhibitory connections with ciliary efferent neurons (CENs). Illumination of the eyes evokes a complex inhibitory postsynaptic potential, a decrease of I(i) spike activity, a complex excitatory postsynaptic potential, and an increase of I(e) spike activity. Here, we characterized the contribution of identified I, II, and III(i) interneurons to the neural network supporting visually guided locomotion. In dark-adapted preparations, light elicited an increase in the tonic spike activity of II(e) interneurons and a decrease in the tonic spike activity of II(i) interneurons. Fluorescent dye-labeled type II interneurons exhibited diverse projections within the circumesophageal nervous system. However, a subclass of type II interneurons, II(e(cp)) and II(i(cp)) interneurons, were shown to terminate within the ipsilateral cerebropleural ganglia and indirectly modulate the activity of CENs. Type II interneurons form monosynaptic or polysynaptic connections with previously identified components of the ciliary network. The identification of a monosynaptic connection between I(e) and III(i) interneurons shown here suggest that they provide a major role in the light-dependent modulation of CEN spike activity underlying ciliary locomotion.


Assuntos
Interneurônios/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Cílios/fisiologia , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores , Gânglios dos Invertebrados/citologia , Gânglios dos Invertebrados/fisiologia , Hermissenda/fisiologia , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Inibidores , Neurônios Eferentes/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Células Fotorreceptoras de Invertebrados/fisiologia , Sinapses/fisiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 7(2): e31737, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22363716

RESUMO

Certain invertebrate neurons can be identified by their behavioral functions. However, evolutionary divergence can cause some species to not display particular behaviors, thereby making it impossible to use physiological characteristics related to those behaviors for identifying homologous neurons across species. Therefore, to understand the neural basis of species-specific behavior, it is necessary to identify homologues using characteristics that are independent of physiology. In the Nudipleura mollusc Tritonia diomedea, Cerebral Neuron 2 (C2) was first described as being a member of the swim central pattern generator (CPG). Here we demonstrate that neurochemical markers, in conjunction with previously known neuroanatomical characteristics, allow C2 to be uniquely identified without the aid of electrophysiological measures. Specifically, C2 had three characteristics that, taken together, identified the neuron: 1) a white cell on the dorsal surface of the cerebral ganglion, 2) an axon that projected to the contralateral pedal ganglion and through the pedal commissure, and 3) immunoreactivity for the peptides FMRFamide and Small Cardioactive Peptide B. These same anatomical and neurochemical characteristics also uniquely identified the C2 homologue in Pleurobranchaea californica (called A1), which was previously identified by its analogous role in the Pleurobranchaea swim CPG. Furthermore, these characteristics were used to identify C2 homologues in Melibe leonina, Hermissenda crassicornis, and Flabellina iodinea, species that are phylogenetically closer to Tritonia than Pleurobranchaea, but do not display the same swimming behavior as Tritonia or Pleurobranchaea. These identifications will allow future studies comparing and contrasting the physiological properties of C2 across species that can and cannot produce the type of swimming behavior exhibited by Tritonia.


Assuntos
Moluscos/anatomia & histologia , Moluscos/química , Neurônios/química , Animais , Hermissenda/anatomia & histologia , Hermissenda/química , Neuroanatomia , Neuroquímica , Filogenia , Pleurobranchaea/anatomia & histologia , Pleurobranchaea/química , Lesma Marinha/anatomia & histologia , Lesma Marinha/química , Lesma Marinha/genética
9.
J Neurophysiol ; 106(5): 2557-69, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21813747

RESUMO

Serotonin (5-HT) has both direct and modulatory actions on central neurons contributing to behavioral arousal and cellular-synaptic plasticity in diverse species. In Hermissenda, 5-HT produces changes in intrinsic excitability of different types of identified interneurons in the circumesophageal nervous system. Using whole cell patch-clamp techniques we have examined membrane conductance changes produced by 5-HT that contribute to intrinsic excitability in two identified classes of interneurons, types I(i) and I(eA). Whole cell currents were examined before and after 5-HT application to the isolated nervous system. A 4-aminopyridine-sensitive transient outward K(+) current [I(K(A))], a tetraethylammonium-sensitive delayed rectifier K(+) current [I(K(V))], an inward rectifier K(+) current [I(K(IR))], and a hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h)) were characterized. 5-HT decreased the amplitude of I(K(A)) and I(K(V)) in both type I(i) and I(eA) interneurons. However, differences in 5-HT's effects on the activation-inactivation kinetics were observed in different types of interneurons. 5-HT produced a depolarizing shift in the activation curve of I(K(V)) and a hyperpolarizing shift in the inactivation curve of I(K(A)) in type I(i) interneurons. In contrast, 5-HT produced a depolarizing shift in the activation curve and a hyperpolarizing shift in the inactivation curve of both I(K(V)) and I(K(A)) in type I(eA) interneurons. In addition, 5-HT decreased the amplitude of I(K(IR)) in type I(i) interneurons and increased the amplitude of I(h) in type I(eA) interneurons. These results indicate that 5-HT-dependent changes in I(K(A)), I(K(V)), I(K(IR)), and I(h) contribute to multiple mechanisms that synergistically support modulation of increased intrinsic excitability associated with different functional classes of identified type I interneurons.


Assuntos
Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/fisiologia , Hermissenda/fisiologia , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Inibidores/fisiologia , Interneurônios/fisiologia , Canais de Potássio de Abertura Dependente da Tensão da Membrana/fisiologia , Serotonina/fisiologia , 4-Aminopiridina/farmacologia , Animais , Canais de Potássio de Retificação Tardia/fisiologia , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Inibidores/efeitos dos fármacos , Interneurônios/classificação , Interneurônios/citologia , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Potássio/farmacologia , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização/fisiologia , Serotonina/farmacologia , Tetraetilamônio/farmacologia
10.
Neuroscience ; 192: 102-11, 2011 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21736919

RESUMO

Changes in cellular and synaptic plasticity related to learning and memory are accompanied by both upregulation and downregulation of the expression levels of proteins. Both de novo protein synthesis and post-translational modification of existing proteins have been proposed to support the induction and maintenance of memory underlying learning. However, little is known regarding the identity of proteins regulated by learning that are associated with the early stages supporting the formation of memory over time. In this study we have examined changes in protein abundance at two different times following one-trial in vitro conditioning of Hermissenda using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), quantification of differences in protein abundance between conditioned and unpaired controls, and protein identification with tandem mass spectrometry. Significant regulation of protein abundance following one-trial in vitro conditioning was detected 30 min and 3 h post-conditioning. Proteins were identified that exhibited statistically significant increased or decreased abundance at both 30 min and 3 h post-conditioning. Proteins were also identified that exhibited a significant increase in abundance only at 30 min, or only at 3 h post-conditioning. A few proteins were identified that expressed a significant decrease in abundance detected at both 30 min and 3 h post-conditioning, or a significant decrease in abundance only at 3 h post-conditioning. The proteomic analysis indicates that proteins involved in diverse cellular functions such as translational regulation, cell signaling, cytoskeletal regulation, metabolic activity, and protein degradation contribute to the formation of memory produced by one-trial in vitro conditioning. These findings support the view that changes in protein abundance over time following one-trial in vitro conditioning involve dynamic and complex interactions of the proteome.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Hermissenda/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Biossíntese de Proteínas/fisiologia , Animais , Memória de Curto Prazo , Proteômica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Eletroforese em Gel Diferencial Bidimensional
11.
Biol Cybern ; 102(5): 389-412, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20237937

RESUMO

The role of relative spike timing on sensory coding and stochastic dynamics of small pulse-coupled oscillator networks is investigated physiologically and mathematically, based on the small biological eye network of the marine invertebrate Hermissenda. Without network interactions, the five inhibitory photoreceptors of the eye network exhibit quasi-regular rhythmic spiking; in contrast, within the active network, they display more irregular spiking but collective network rhythmicity. We investigate the source of this emergent network behavior first analyzing the role of relative input to spike-timing relationships in individual cells. We use a stochastic phase oscillator equation to model photoreceptor spike sequences in response to sequences of inhibitory current pulses. Although spike sequences can be complex and irregular in response to inputs, we show that spike timing is better predicted if relative timing of spikes to inputs is accounted for in the model. Further, we establish that greater noise levels in the model serve to destroy network phase-locked states that induce non-monotonic stimulus rate-coding, as predicted in Butson and Clark (J Neurophysiol 99:146-154, 2008a; J Neurophysiol 99:155-165, 2008b). Hence, rate-coding can function better in noisy spiking cells relative to non-noisy cells. We then study how relative input to spike-timing dynamics of single oscillators contribute to network-level dynamics. Relative timing interactions in the network sharpen the stimulus window that can trigger a spike, affecting stimulus encoding. Also, we derive analytical inter-spike interval distributions of cells in the model network, revealing that irregular Poisson-like spike emission and collective network rhythmicity are emergent properties of network dynamics, consistent with experimental observations. Our theoretical results generate experimental predictions about the nature of spike patterns in the Hermissenda eye.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Hermissenda , Periodicidade , Processos Estocásticos , Algoritmos , Animais , Hermissenda/anatomia & histologia , Hermissenda/fisiologia , Matemática , Modelos Teóricos , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Células Fotorreceptoras de Invertebrados/fisiologia
12.
Neuroscience ; 165(4): 1182-90, 2010 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19961907

RESUMO

Post-translational modifications of proteins are a major determinant of biological function. Phosphorylation of proteins involved in signal transduction contributes to the induction and maintenance of several examples of cellular and synaptic plasticity. In this study we have identified phosphoproteins regulated by Pavlovian conditioning in lysates of Hermissenda nervous systems using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) in conjunction with (32)P labeling, fluorescence based phosphoprotein in-gel staining, and mass spectrometry. Modification of protein phosphorylation regulated by conditioning was first assessed by densitometric analysis of (32)P labeled proteins resolved by 2DE from lysates of conditioned and pseudorandom control nervous systems. An independent assessment of phosphorylation regulated by conditioning was obtained from an examination of 2D gels stained with Pro-Q Diamond phosphoprotein dye. Mass spectrometric analysis of protein digests from phosphoprotein stained analytical gels or Coomassie Blue stained preparative gels provided for the identification of phosphoproteins that exhibited statistically significant increased phosphorylation in conditioned groups as compared to pseudorandom controls. A previously identified cytoskeletal related protein, Csp24 (24 kDa conditioned stimulus pathway phosphoprotein), involved in intermediate-term memory exhibited significantly increased phosphorylation detected 24 h post-conditioning. Our results show that proteins involved in diverse cellular functions such as transcriptional regulation, cell signaling, cytoskeletal regulation, metabolic activity, and protein degradation contribute to long-term post-translational modifications associated with Pavlovian conditioning.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Animais , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Hermissenda , Espectrometria de Massas , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Radioisótopos de Fósforo , Fosforilação , Proteômica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Fatores de Tempo
13.
J Neurophysiol ; 102(6): 3573-95, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19812284

RESUMO

Learning-correlated changes in the excitability and photoresponses of Hermissenda's ocular type B photoreceptors are mediated by reductions in two distinct K(+) currents, I(A) and I(K-Ca). The suppression of these K(+) currents has been linked to conditioning-produced activation of protein kinase C (PKC). The question of whether PKC accounts completely for the changes in excitability and K(+) currents or whether other kinase(s) are involved has received little attention. In the present experiments, we asked whether protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) might also contribute to conditioning-produced alterations in B cells. We found that the PTK inhibitors genistein and lavendustin A greatly reduced cumulative depolarization of type B cells, a short-term correlate of associative learning. This disruption occurred even when PKC activation had been either occluded by preexposure of type B cells to a phorbol ester or otherwise prevented by the pseudosubstrate inhibitor peptide PKC[19-31]. PTK inhibitors also increased the amplitude of the transient (I(A)) and delayed (I(Delayed)) components of voltage-dependent K(+) current that have previously been shown to be selectively reduced by conditioning and to contribute to cumulative depolarization. Genistein partially prevented the reduction of I(A) and I(Delayed) due to in vitro conditioning and blocked the changes in their voltage dependencies. Ionophoresis of pervanadate ion, a potent inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatases, depolarized type B photoreceptors and occluded conditioning-produced cumulative depolarization. Pervanadate also suppressed I(A) and I(Delayed), reduced their voltage dependence, and altered inactivation kinetics for I(A), mimicking conditioning. Western blot analysis using a phosphotyrosine antibody indicated that conditioning increased the phosphotyrosine content of many proteins within the Hermissenda CNS. Collectively, our results suggest that in addition to PKC, one or more PTKs play an important role in conditioning-produced changes in type B cell excitability. PTKs and PKCs converge to effect reductions in B cell K(+) currents during conditioning, apparently through distinct biophysical mechanisms.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Psicológico/fisiologia , Hermissenda/fisiologia , Células Fotorreceptoras de Invertebrados/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Animais , Fenômenos Biofísicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Condicionamento Psicológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Lateralidade Funcional , Genisteína/farmacologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais da Membrana/fisiologia , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Células Fotorreceptoras de Invertebrados/classificação , Potássio/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase C/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia
14.
J Neurophysiol ; 102(5): 2825-33, 2009 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19710377

RESUMO

The sensory neurons (photoreceptors) in the visual system of Hermissenda are one site of plasticity produced by Pavlovian conditioning. A second site of plasticity produced by conditioning is the type I interneurons in the cerebropleural ganglia. Both photoreceptors and statocyst hair cells of the graviceptive system form monosynaptic connections with identified type I interneurons. Two proposed neurotransmitters in the graviceptive system, serotonin (5-HT) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), have been shown to modify synaptic strength and intrinsic neuronal excitability in identified photoreceptors. However, the potential role of 5-HT and GABA in plasticity of type I interneurons has not been investigated. Here we show that 5-HT increased the peak amplitude of light-evoked complex excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs), enhanced intrinsic excitability, and increased spike activity of identified type I(e(A)) interneurons. In contrast, 5-HT decreased spike activity and intrinsic excitability of type I(e(B)) interneurons. The classification of two categories of type I(e) interneurons was also supported by the observation that 5-HT produced opposite effects on whole cell steady-state outward currents in type I(e) interneurons. Serotonin produced a reduction in the amplitude of light-evoked complex inhibitory PSPs (IPSPs), increased spontaneous spike activity, decreased intrinsic excitability, and depolarized the resting membrane potential of identified type I(i) interneurons. In contrast to the effects of 5-HT, GABA produced inhibition in both types of I(e) interneurons and type I(i) interneurons. These results show that 5-HT and GABA can modulate the intrinsic excitability of type I interneurons independent of the presynaptic effects of the same transmitters on excitability and synaptic efficacy of photoreceptors.


Assuntos
Hermissenda/citologia , Interneurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Serotonina/farmacologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/farmacologia , Animais , Biofísica , Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/fisiologia , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Inibidores/efeitos dos fármacos , Interneurônios/classificação , Potenciais da Membrana/fisiologia , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp/métodos , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos
15.
J Neurophysiol ; 101(2): 824-33, 2009 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19073803

RESUMO

A Pavlovian-conditioning procedure may produce modifications in multiple behavioral responses. As an example, conditioning may result in the elicitation of a specific somatomotor conditioned response (CR) and, in addition, other motor and visceral CRs. In the mollusk Hermissenda conditioning produces two conditioned responses: foot-shortening and decreased locomotion. The neural circuitry supporting ciliary locomotion is well characterized, although the neural circuit underlying foot-shortening is poorly understood. Here we describe efferent neurons in the pedal ganglion that produce contraction or extension of specific regions of the foot in semi-intact preparations. Synaptic connections between polysensory type Ib and type Is interneurons and identified foot contractile efferent neurons were examined. Type Ib and type Is interneurons receive synaptic input from the visual, graviceptive, and somatosensory systems. Depolarization of type Ib interneurons evoked spikes in identified tail and lateral foot contractile efferent neurons. Mechanical displacement of the statocyst evoked complex excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and spikes recorded from type Ib and type Is interneurons and complex EPSPs and spikes in identified foot contractile efferent neurons. Depolarization of type Ib interneurons in semi-intact preparations produced contraction and shortening along the rostrocaudal axis of the foot. Depolarization of Is interneurons in semi-intact preparations produced contraction of the anterior region of the foot. Taken collectively, the results suggest that type Ib and type Is polysensory interneurons may contribute to the neural circuit underlying the foot-shortening CR in Hermissenda.


Assuntos
Hermissenda/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Neurônios/classificação , Neurônios/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Animais , Condicionamento Psicológico , Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/fisiologia , Luz , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Células Fotorreceptoras de Invertebrados/fisiologia
16.
J Neurophysiol ; 100(5): 2496-506, 2008 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18768639

RESUMO

Ciliary locomotion in the nudibranch mollusk Hermissenda is modulated by the visual and graviceptive systems. Components of the neural network mediating ciliary locomotion have been identified including aggregates of polysensory interneurons that receive monosynaptic input from identified photoreceptors and efferent neurons that activate cilia. Illumination produces an inhibition of type I(i) (off-cell) spike activity, excitation of type I(e) (on-cell) spike activity, decreased spike activity in type III(i) inhibitory interneurons, and increased spike activity of ciliary efferent neurons. Here we show that pairs of type I(i) interneurons and pairs of type I(e) interneurons are electrically coupled. Neither electrical coupling or synaptic connections were observed between I(e) and I(i) interneurons. Coupling is effective in synchronizing dark-adapted spontaneous firing between pairs of I(e) and pairs of I(i) interneurons. Out-of-phase burst activity, occasionally observed in dark-adapted and light-adapted pairs of I(e) and I(i) interneurons, suggests that they receive synaptic input from a common presynaptic source or sources. Rhythmic activity is typically not a characteristic of dark-adapted, light-adapted, or light-evoked firing of type I interneurons. However, burst activity in I(e) and I(i) interneurons may be elicited by electrical stimulation of pedal nerves or generated at the offset of light. Our results indicate that type I interneurons can support the generation of both rhythmic activity and changes in tonic firing depending on sensory input. This suggests that the neural network supporting ciliary locomotion may be multifunctional. However, consistent with the nonmuscular and nonrhythmic characteristics of visually modulated ciliary locomotion, type I interneurons exhibit changes in tonic activity evoked by illumination.


Assuntos
Hermissenda/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Cílios , Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Junções Comunicantes/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Rede Nervosa/citologia , Periodicidade , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/citologia
17.
J Neurophysiol ; 99(1): 155-65, 2008 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18003872

RESUMO

In a companion paper we showed that random channel and synaptic noise improve the ability of a biologically realistic, GENESIS-based computational model of the Hermissenda eye to encode light intensity. In this paper we explore mechanisms for noise-induced improvement by examining contextual spike-timing relationships among neurons in the photoreceptor network. In other systems, synaptically connected pairs of spiking cells can develop phase-locked spike-timing relationships at particular, well-defined frequencies. Consequently, domains of stability (DOS) emerge in which an increase in the frequency of inhibitory postsynaptic potentials can paradoxically increase, rather than decrease, the firing rate of the postsynaptic cell. We have extended this analysis to examine DOS as a function of noise amplitude in the exclusively inhibitory Hermissenda photoreceptor network. In noise-free simulations, DOS emerge at particular firing frequencies of type B and type A photoreceptors, thus producing a nonmonotonic relationship between their firing rates and light intensity. By contrast, in the noise-added conditions, an increase in noise amplitude leads to an increase in the variance of the interspike interval distribution for a given cell; in turn, this blocks the emergence of phase locking and DOS. These noise-induced changes enable the eye to better perform one of its basic tasks: encoding light intensity. This effect is independent of stochastic resonance, which is often used to describe perithreshold stimuli. The constructive role of noise in biological signal processing has implications both for understanding the dynamics of the nervous system and for the design of neural interface devices.


Assuntos
Olho/citologia , Hermissenda/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Oculares , Células Fotorreceptoras de Invertebrados/fisiologia , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Animais , Artefatos , Simulação por Computador , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Limiar Sensorial/fisiologia , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia
18.
J Neurophysiol ; 99(1): 146-54, 2008 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18003873

RESUMO

Neurons are notoriously noisy devices. Although the traditional view posits that noise degrades system performance, recent evidence suggests that noise may instead enhance neural information processing under certain conditions. Here we report that random channel and synaptic noise improve the ability of a biologically realistic computational model of the Hermissenda eye to encode light intensity. The model was created in GENESIS and is based on a previous model used to examine effects of changes in type B photoreceptor excitability, synaptic strength, and network architecture. The network consists of two type A and three type B multicompartmental photoreceptors. Each compartment contains a population of Hodgkin-Huxley-type ion channels and each cell is stimulated via artificial light currents. We found that the addition of random channel and synaptic noise yielded a significant improvement in the accuracy of the network's encoding of light intensity across eight light levels spanning 3.5 log units (P<0.001, modified Levene test). The benefits of noise remained after controlling for several consequences of randomness in the model. Additionally, improvements were not confined to perithreshold stimulus intensities. Finally, the effects of noise are not present in individual neurons, but rather are an emergent property of the synaptically connected network that is independent of stochastic resonance. These results suggest that noise plays a constructive role in neural information processing, a concept that could have important implications for understanding neural information processing or designing neural interface devices.


Assuntos
Olho/citologia , Hermissenda/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Oculares , Células Fotorreceptoras de Invertebrados/fisiologia , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Animais , Artefatos , Simulação por Computador , Hermissenda/citologia , Canais Iônicos/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Limiar Sensorial/fisiologia , Processos Estocásticos , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia
19.
Neuroscience ; 148(2): 413-20, 2007 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17681698

RESUMO

One-trial conditioning in Hermissenda results in enhanced intrinsic cellular excitability of sensory neurons in the conditioned stimulus pathway, and the phosphorylation of several proteins. Previous results demonstrated that the development of enhanced intrinsic excitability was dependent on the expression of conditioned stimulus pathway phosphoprotein-24 (Csp24), an intracellular protein containing four repeated beta-thymosin homology domains. Consistent with this, antisense oligonucleotide-mediated inhibition of Csp24 expression prevents the reduction in amplitude of the A-type transient K+ current (I(A)) and the depolarized shift in the steady-state activation curve normally produced by one-trial in vitro conditioning of isolated photoreceptors. One-trial conditioning also regulates Csp24 phosphorylation. We now show that purified recombinant Csp24 sequesters G-actin in vitro with an approximate K(d) value of 2.8 microM. We also observed a significant increase in the coprecipitation of actin with Csp24 after one-trial in vitro conditioning using antibodies directed toward either Csp24 or phospho-Csp24. Preincubation with protein kinase C (PKC) selective inhibitors attenuated the increase in Csp24 phosphorylation and coprecipitated actin observed after one-trial conditioning. Our findings indicate that the PKC signaling pathway contributes to the phosphorylation of Csp24 after one-trial conditioning, and that PKC activity modulates an association between Csp24 and actin. These data suggest Csp24 may influence intrinsic excitability by regulating cytoskeletal dynamics.


Assuntos
Actinas/metabolismo , Condicionamento Clássico , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Animais , Condicionamento Clássico/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional/métodos , Esôfago/inervação , Hermissenda , Técnicas In Vitro , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/farmacologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos da radiação , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos Antissenso/farmacologia , Fosfoproteínas/farmacologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação/efeitos da radiação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia
20.
Neurosci Lett ; 424(1): 6-9, 2007 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17709188

RESUMO

Conditioned stimulus pathway protein 24 (Csp24) is a beta-thymosin-like protein that is homologous to other members of the family of beta-thymosin repeat proteins that contain multiple actin binding domains. Actin co-precipitates with Csp24 and co-localizes with it in the cytosol of type-B photoreceptor cell bodies. Several signal transduction pathways have been shown to regulate the phosphorylation of Csp24 and contribute to cellular plasticity. Here, we report the identification of the adapter protein 14-3-3 in lysates of the Hermissenda circumesophageal nervous system and its interaction with Csp24. Immunoprecipitation experiments using an antibody that is broadly reactive with several isoforms of the 14-3-3 family of proteins showed that Csp24 co-precipitates with 14-3-3 protein, and nervous systems stimulated with 5-HT exhibited a significant increase in co-precipitated Csp24 probed with a phosphospecific antibody as compared with controls. These results indicate that post-translational modifications of Csp24 regulate its interaction with 14-3-3 protein, and suggest that this mechanism may contribute to the control of intrinsic enhanced excitability.


Assuntos
Proteínas 14-3-3/metabolismo , Gânglios dos Invertebrados/metabolismo , Hermissenda/metabolismo , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Animais , Gânglios dos Invertebrados/efeitos dos fármacos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Fotorreceptoras de Invertebrados/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/fisiologia , Serotonina/metabolismo , Serotonina/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Timosina/análogos & derivados , Timosina/metabolismo , Ubiquitinas/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...