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1.
Ann Parasitol ; 67(2): 151-159, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331851

RESUMO

The ischnoceran louse, Felicola rohani Werneck, 1956 is reported for the first time from India on the Indian grey mongoose - Herpestes edwardsii (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1818) and the amblyceran louse, Heterodoxus spiniger (Enderlein, 1909) is recorded for the first time from that host species. The lice were collected from freshly accidentally killed specimen of the host, preserved and kept at the Museum of Estuarine Biology Regional Centre, Zoological Survey of India, Gopalpur-on-sea, Ganjam Odisha. Detailed morphological descriptions of the lice, based on light and scanning electron microscopy, are presented in this paper.


Assuntos
Amblíceros , Herpestidae , Infestações por Piolhos , Ftirápteros , Animais , Índia , Infestações por Piolhos/veterinária , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
2.
Ecol Lett ; 24(9): 1966-1975, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176203

RESUMO

Personality traits, such as the propensity to cooperate, are often inherited from parents to offspring, but the pathway of inheritance is unclear. Traits could be inherited via genetic or parental effects, or culturally via social learning from role models. However, these pathways are difficult to disentangle in natural systems as parents are usually the source of all of these effects. Here, we exploit natural 'cross fostering' in wild banded mongooses to investigate the inheritance of cooperative behaviour. Our analysis of 800 adult helpers over 21 years showed low but significant genetic heritability of cooperative personalities in males but not females. Cross fostering revealed little evidence of cultural heritability: offspring reared by particularly cooperative helpers did not become more cooperative themselves. Our results demonstrate that cooperative personalities are not always highly heritable in wild, and that the basis of behavioural traits can vary within a species (here, by sex).


Assuntos
Herpestidae , Animais , Comportamento Cooperativo , Herpestidae/genética , Masculino , Linhagem , Personalidade , Fenótipo
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3717, 2021 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162841

RESUMO

Rawls argued that fairness in human societies can be achieved if decisions about the distribution of societal rewards are made from behind a veil of ignorance, which obscures the personal gains that result. Whether ignorance promotes fairness in animal societies, that is, the distribution of resources to reduce inequality, is unknown. Here we show experimentally that cooperatively breeding banded mongooses, acting from behind a veil of ignorance over kinship, allocate postnatal care in a way that reduces inequality among offspring, in the manner predicted by a Rawlsian model of cooperation. In this society synchronized reproduction leaves adults in a group ignorant of the individual parentage of their communal young. We provisioned half of the mothers in each mongoose group during pregnancy, leaving the other half as matched controls, thus increasing inequality among mothers and increasing the amount of variation in offspring birth weight in communal litters. After birth, fed mothers provided extra care to the offspring of unfed mothers, not their own young, which levelled up initial size inequalities among the offspring and equalized their survival to adulthood. Our findings suggest that a classic idea of moral philosophy also applies to the evolution of cooperation in biological systems.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Herpestidae/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Cruzamento , Feminino , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Gravidez , Predomínio Social
4.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672496

RESUMO

We applied the model-guided fieldwork framework to the Caribbean mongoose rabies system by parametrizing a spatially-explicit, individual-based model, and by performing an uncertainty analysis designed to identify parameters for which additional empirical data are most needed. Our analysis revealed important variation in output variables characterizing rabies dynamics, namely rabies persistence, exposure level, spatiotemporal distribution, and prevalence. Among epidemiological parameters, rabies transmission rate was the most influential, followed by rabies mortality and location, and size of the initial infection. The most influential landscape parameters included habitat-specific carrying capacities, landscape heterogeneity, and the level of resistance to dispersal associated with topography. Movement variables, including juvenile dispersal, adult fine-scale movement distances, and home range size, as well as life history traits such as age of independence, birth seasonality, and age- and sex-specific mortality were other important drivers of rabies dynamics. We discuss results in the context of mongoose ecology and its influence on disease transmission dynamics. Finally, we suggest empirical approaches and study design specificities that would provide optimal contributing data addressing the knowledge gaps identified by our approach, and would increase our potential to use epidemiological models to guide mongoose rabies control and management in the Caribbean.


Assuntos
Herpestidae/virologia , Raiva/veterinária , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Feminino , Herpestidae/fisiologia , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/transmissão , Raiva/virologia , Vírus da Raiva/classificação , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Raiva/fisiologia
5.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1945): 20202104, 2021 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593194

RESUMO

In cooperatively breeding species where rearing effort is shared among multiple group members, increases in group size typically reduce average per capita contributions to offspring care by all group members (load-lightening) but it is not known how changes in group size affect the distribution of workload among group members. The socioeconomic collective action theory suggests that, in larger groups, the incentives for free riding are stronger, leading to greater inequalities in work division among group members. Here, we use the Gini index to measure inequality at the group level in the contributions of helpers to three different cooperative behaviours (babysitting, pup-provisioning and raised guarding) in groups of varying size in wild Kalahari meerkats (Suricata suricatta). In larger groups, inequality in helpers' contributions to cooperative activities and the frequency of free riding both increased. Elevated levels of inequality were generated partly as a result of increased differences in contributions to cooperative activities between helpers in different sex and age categories in larger groups. After controlling for the positive effect of group size on total provisioning, increasing levels of inequality in contributions were associated with reductions in total pup-provisioning conducted by the group. Reductions in total pup-provisioning were, in turn, associated with reductions in the growth and survival of pups (but pup growth and survival were not directly affected by inequality in provisioning). Our results support the prediction of collective action theory described above and show how the Gini index can be used to investigate the distribution of cooperative behaviour within the group.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Herpestidae , Animais , Botsuana
6.
J Anim Ecol ; 90(1): 153-167, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428240

RESUMO

Animal groups are heterogeneous assemblages of individuals with differing fitness interests, which may lead to internal conflict over investment in group territorial defence. Differences between individuals may lead to different behavioural responses to intergroup conflict, particularly between the sexes. These potential impacts have been little studied. We used social network analysis to investigate the impact of simulated intergroup conflicts on social relationships in groups of wild banded mongooses Mungos mungo, in which intergroup fights are more costly for males than females. We predicted that social cohesion (specifically male-to-male and female-to-male grooming) would increase after conflict, and aggression would decrease, to minimize conflict between the sexes. Simulated intergroup conflicts were performed by exposing banded mongoose groups to scents, 'war cry' playbacks, and live intruders from a rival group. All grooming and aggression interactions between individuals were recorded, and grooming and aggression social networks were created for the 2 days preceding a simulated intergroup conflict (pre-conflict network) and the 2 days after (post-conflict network). We found no evidence of an increase in social cohesion after simulated conflicts, measured as grooming eigenvector centrality. Male-to-male, male-to-female and female-to-male grooming strength decreased after simulated intrusions compared to female-to-female grooming strength. However, male-female aggression decreased in intrusion trials compared to other interaction types, consistent with the hypothesis that intergroup encounters reduce the level of intragroup conflict between males and females. Males were more affected socially by intergroup encounters than females, which may be because they are investing in defence rather than internal relationships. Focusing on individual relationship changes, using social network analysis, can reveal changes in the directionality of behaviour in response to intergroup encounters, and highlight how individual responses to conflict may scale up to affect social networks and, potentially, group performance. This study highlights the importance of studying both group-level behaviours and individual relationships to more fully understand responses to intergroup encounters.


Assuntos
Agressão , Herpestidae , Animais , Comportamento Cooperativo , Feminino , Asseio Animal , Masculino , Comportamento Social , Territorialidade
7.
J Anim Ecol ; 90(3): 641-652, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241582

RESUMO

Recent comparative studies show that cooperative breeding is positively correlated with harsh and unpredictable environments and it is suggested that this association occurs because helpers buffer the negative effects of adverse ecological conditions on fitness. In the Kalahari, rainfall varies widely between- and within years, affecting primary production and the availability of the principal prey of cooperatively breeding Kalahari meerkats, Suricata suricatta. Our study aimed to establish whether the presence and number of helpers buffer the negative effects of variation in rainfall on the fecundity and body mass of breeding females, and the survival and growth of pups. We investigate the relationship between group size and variation in rainfall on dominant female fecundity, body mass, and offspring survival and growth using an additive modelling approach on 21 years of individual-based records of the life histories of individual meerkats. We show that breeding female fecundity is reduced during periods of low rainfall but that the effects of low rainfall are mitigated by increases in group size and body mass because heavier females and those in larger groups have increased fecundity and reduced interbirth intervals. Pup growth and survival are also reduced during periods of low rainfall, but only in smaller groups. Our results support the suggestion that cooperative breeding mitigates the detrimental effects of adverse environmental conditions and may enhance the capacity of species to occupy environments where food availability is low and unpredictable.


Assuntos
Herpestidae , Animais , Botsuana , Feminino , Fertilidade , Reprodução
8.
Anim Cogn ; 24(1): 165-175, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955622

RESUMO

Social learning is widespread in the animal kingdom, but individuals can differ in how they acquire and use social information. Personality traits, such as neophobia, may, for example, promote individual learning strategies. Here, we contribute comparative data on social learning strategies in carnivorans by examining whether narrow-striped mongooses (Mungotictis decemlineata), a group-living Malagasy euplerid, learn socially and whether neophobia influences social learning. To this end, we tested seven wild female groups with a two-option artificial feeding box, using a demonstrator-observer paradigm, and conducted novel object tests to assess neophobia. In five groups, one individual was trained as a demonstrator displaying one of the techniques, whereas the other two groups served as control groups. Neophobia did not co-vary with an individual's propensity to seek social information. However, less neophobic individuals, and individuals that tended to seek social information, learned the task faster. Moreover, individuals in demonstrator groups learned the task faster than those in groups without a demonstrator and used the demonstrated technique more often. Hence, narrow-striped mongooses rely on social facilitation and local or stimulus enhancement to solve new problems. Finally, our results suggest that several individual characteristics should be taken into consideration to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of social learning strategies.


Assuntos
Herpestidae , Aprendizado Social , Animais , Feminino , Aprendizagem , Facilitação Social
9.
J Vet Dent ; 37(3): 141-148, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241762

RESUMO

Development of gingival enlargement and periodontitis is described in a young dwarf mongoose. Repeated treatments resulted in gingival resection and histologic evaluation however gingival enlargement was ultimately responsive to extraction of associated teeth. In cases such as these, surgical extraction of teeth associated with severe recurrent gingival enlargement should be considered to avoid the stress and risk of repeated immobilizations.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Gengival , Herpestidae , Periodontite , Animais , Hiperplasia Gengival/veterinária , Gengivectomia/veterinária , Periodontite/veterinária
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(48): 30012-30013, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188089
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(47): 29759-29766, 2020 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168743

RESUMO

Collective conflicts among humans are widespread, although often highly destructive. A classic explanation for the prevalence of such warfare in some human societies is leadership by self-serving individuals that reap the benefits of conflict while other members of society pay the costs. Here, we show that leadership of this kind can also explain the evolution of collective violence in certain animal societies. We first extend the classic hawk-dove model of the evolution of animal aggression to consider cases in which a subset of individuals within each group may initiate fights in which all group members become involved. We show that leadership of this kind, when combined with inequalities in the payoffs of fighting, can lead to the evolution of severe intergroup aggression, with negative consequences for population mean fitness. We test our model using long-term data from wild banded mongooses, a species characterized by frequent intergroup conflicts that have very different fitness consequences for male and female group members. The data show that aggressive encounters between groups are initiated by females, who gain fitness benefits from mating with extragroup males in the midst of battle, whereas the costs of fighting are borne chiefly by males. In line with the model predictions, the result is unusually severe levels of intergroup violence. Our findings suggest that the decoupling of leaders from the costs that they incite amplifies the destructive nature of intergroup conflict.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Herpestidae/psicologia , Liderança , Modelos Psicológicos , Violência/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Animais , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Comportamento Cooperativo , Feminino , Aptidão Genética , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Evolução Social , Gravação em Vídeo
12.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1935): 20192514, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962548

RESUMO

Communication plays a vital role in the social lives of many species and varies greatly in complexity. One possible way to increase communicative complexity is by combining signals into longer sequences, which has been proposed as a mechanism allowing species with a limited repertoire to increase their communicative output. In mammals, most studies on combinatoriality have focused on vocal communication in non-human primates. Here, we investigated a potential combination of alarm calls in the dwarf mongoose (Helogale parvula), a non-primate mammal. Acoustic analyses and playback experiments with a wild population suggest: (i) that dwarf mongooses produce a complex call type (T3) which, at least at the surface level, seems to comprise units that are not functionally different to two meaningful alarm calls (aerial and terrestrial); and (ii) that this T3 call functions as a general alarm, produced in response to a wide range of threats. Using a novel approach, we further explored multiple interpretations of the T3 call based on the information content of the apparent comprising calls and how they are combined. We also considered an alternative, non-combinatorial interpretation that frames T3 as the origin, rather than the product, of the individual alarm calls. This study complements previous knowledge of vocal combinatoriality in non-primate mammals and introduces an approach that could facilitate comparisons between different animal and human communication systems.


Assuntos
Herpestidae , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Comportamento Social
13.
BMC Biol ; 18(1): 119, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ability to recombine smaller units to produce infinite structures of higher-order phrases is unique to human language, yet evidence of animals to combine multiple acoustic units into meaningful combinations increases constantly. Despite increasing evidence for meaningful call combinations across contexts, little attention has been paid to the potential role of temporal variation of call type composition in longer vocal sequences in conveying information about subtle changes in the environment or individual differences. Here, we investigated the composition and information content of sentinel call sequences in meerkats (Suricata suricatta). While being on sentinel guard, a coordinated vigilance behaviour, meerkats produce long sequences composed of six distinct sentinel call types and alarm calls. We analysed recordings of sentinels to test if the order of the call types is graded and whether they contain additional group-, individual-, age- or sex-specific vocal signatures. RESULTS: Our results confirmed that the six distinct types of sentinel calls in addition to alarm calls were produced in a highly graded way, likely referring to changes in the perceived predation risk. Transitions between call types one step up or down the a priory assumed gradation were over-represented, while transitions over two or three steps were significantly under-represented. Analysing sequence similarity within and between groups and individuals demonstrated that sequences composed of the most commonly emitted sentinel call types showed high within-individual consistency whereby adults and females had higher consistency scores than subadults and males respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We present a novel type of combinatoriality where the order of the call types contains temporary contextual information, and also relates to the identity of the caller. By combining different call types in a graded way over long periods, meerkats constantly convey meaningful information about subtle changes in the external environment, while at the same time the temporal pattern of the distinct call types contains stable information about caller identity. Our study demonstrates how complex animal call sequences can be described by simple rules, in this case gradation across acoustically distinct, but functionally related call types, combined with individual-specific call patterns.


Assuntos
Herpestidae/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Vocalização Animal , Acústica , Animais , Feminino , Herpestidae/psicologia , Masculino
14.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000764, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780733

RESUMO

Tissue vibrations in the larynx produce most sounds that comprise vocal communication in mammals. Larynx morphology is thus predicted to be a key target for selection, particularly in species with highly developed vocal communication systems. Here, we present a novel database of digitally modeled scanned larynges from 55 different mammalian species, representing a wide range of body sizes in the primate and carnivoran orders. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we demonstrate that the primate larynx has evolved more rapidly than the carnivoran larynx, resulting in a pattern of larger size and increased deviation from expected allometry with body size. These results imply fundamental differences between primates and carnivorans in the balance of selective forces that constrain larynx size and highlight an evolutionary flexibility in primates that may help explain why we have developed complex and diverse uses of the vocal organ for communication.


Assuntos
Canidae/fisiologia , Felidae/fisiologia , Herpestidae/fisiologia , Laringe/fisiologia , Primatas/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Tamanho Corporal , Canidae/anatomia & histologia , Canidae/classificação , Felidae/anatomia & histologia , Felidae/classificação , Feminino , Herpestidae/anatomia & histologia , Herpestidae/classificação , Laringe/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Mamíferos , Tamanho do Órgão , Filogenia , Primatas/anatomia & histologia , Primatas/classificação , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Sexuais , Som
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238313, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853231

RESUMO

The efficiency of communication between animals is determined by the perception range of signals. With changes in the environment, signal transmission between a sender and a receiver can be influenced both directly, where the signal's propagation quality itself is affected, and indirectly where the senders or receivers' behaviour is impaired, impacting for example the distance between them. Here we investigated how meerkats (Suricata suricatta) in the Kalahari Desert adjust to these challenges in the context of maintaining group cohesion through contact calls. We found that meerkats changed their calling rate when signal transmission was affected indirectly due to increased dispersion of group members as during a drought, but not under typical wet conditions, when signal transmission was directly affected due to higher vegetation density. Instead under these wetter conditions, meerkats remained within proximity to each other. Overall, both direct and indirect environmental effects on signal perception resulted in an increased probability of groups splitting. In conclusion, we provide evidence that social animals can flexibly adjust their vocal coordination behaviour to cope with direct and indirect effects of the environment on signal perception, but these adjustments have limitations.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Herpestidae/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Botsuana , Clima , Meio Ambiente , Comportamento Social
16.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127485, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650164

RESUMO

Sub-lethal toxic impacts of chromium on hematological, biochemical and histological parameters were analyzed in the female small Indian mongoose (Urva auropuctatus) residing contaminated environment of tannery industry. Chromium bioaccumulation in the blood, liver and kidney tissue of the exposed mongooses was found elevated compared to the control mongooses' tissues. Total body weight (75.7%), liver weight (83.6%) as well as HSI (68.1%), RSI (86.2%) and the platelets counts (59.7%) were found significantly elevated, with significantly reduced RBCs (59.6%), and WBCs (64%). LFT and RFT were also found abnormal, moreover, the histopathological injuries had been distinct inside the kidney (>75%) and hepatic (>75%) tissues of exposed animals. Shrinkage and vacuolization (>75%) inside the hepatocyte expanded sinusoidal spaces and nuclear pyknosis (>75%) was evident within the hepatic tissue. Hypertrophy of epithelial cells of renal tubules and inter-renal cells of the head kidney with a reduction in tubular lumens (>75%) and vacuolization of tubules were witnessed within the kidney section. Atrophy inside the kidney inter-renal cells, glomeruli compression within the Bowman's capsules (>75%) following the necrosis in hematopoietic tissues were found in exposed animals. The present findings indicate that chronic exposure to chromium induces severe anemia, decreased serum protein concentration, hepatic and renal tissue histopathology, impairing the vital capabilities of liver, metabolic regulation, excretion, and stress homeostasis maintenance of which within the long-run may posture a severe risk to animal well-being then distress their inhabitants.


Assuntos
Cromo/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Herpestidae/fisiologia , Animais , Cromo/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Poluição Ambiental , Feminino , Herpestidae/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7461, 2020 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366920

RESUMO

Invasive alien species represent one of the major factors of global loss of biodiversity and disruption of natural ecosystems. The small Indian mongoose, Urva auropunctata, is considered one of the wild carnivore species with the greatest negative impact on global biodiversity. Understanding of the factors underpinning the species' distribution and potential dispersion in a context of climate change thus appears crucial in the conservation of native ecosystems. Here we modelled the current and future climatically favourable areas for the small Indian mongoose using Ecological Niche Modelling based on data sets filtrated in environmental spaces. Projections from these models show extensive current favourable geographical areas, covering continental and insular regions within tropical and sub-tropical latitudes. Moreover, predictions for 2050 reveal that climate change is likely to expand current favourable areas north of the current favourable spaces, particularly in Eastern Europe. This climate-induced expansion is particularly worrisome given that the species is already spreading in the Balkan region. Our projections suggest that it is very likely that the small Indian mongoose will have an increasing influence on ecosystems and biodiversity in Europe by 2050.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Herpestidae/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Europa Oriental , Espécies Introduzidas
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365625

RESUMO

The Egyptian mongoose is a carnivore mammal species that in the last decades experienced a tremendous expansion in Iberia, particularly in Portugal, mainly due to its remarkable ecological plasticity in response to land-use changes. However, this species may have a disruptive role on native communities in areas where it has recently arrived due to predation and the potential introduction of novel pathogens. We report reference information on the cultivable gut microbial landscape of widely distributed Egyptian mongoose populations (Herpestes ichneumon, n = 53) and related antimicrobial tolerance across environmental gradients. The panel of isolated species is consistent with the typical protein-based diet of a carnivore: Firmicutes predominate (89% of individuals), while Clostridiales, Enterobacteriales, and Lactobacillales are the major classes. Forty-one individuals (77.4%) harbour Clostridium spp. A spatial influence on mongooses' microbiota is confirmed by nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis, with a significant contribution of municipality to their microbiota composition. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of mongoose commensal bacteria to 28 compounds evidences xenobiotic tolerance of Escherichia coli (E. coli), enterococci, Salmonella Spartel and Mbandaka serotypes and Pseudomonas bacteria, among others. The common isolation of antimicrobial tolerant microbiota from the mongoose's gut suggests this species is exposed to anthropogenic influence and is affected by forestry and agricultural-related practices, reflecting its easy adaptation to ecological gradients across agroecosystems. We thus propose regular microbial and phenotypic resistance profiling of widely distributed mongooses as a sentinel tool for xenobiotics' lifecycle and ecosystem health in Portugal.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Herpestidae/microbiologia , Animais , Resistência a Medicamentos , Ecossistema , Espécies Introduzidas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Portugal
19.
Forensic Sci Int ; 309: 110197, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114190

RESUMO

With research providing conflicting results from different habitats across the globe, the effect of clothing on decomposition is unclear; some studies indicate clothing increases decomposition rate by facilitating increased insect activity, and others conclude clothing prolongs the decay process. In South Africa, such research is lacking, with no data for the Western Cape Province, which suffers from a high murder rate with many unclaimed, unidentified bodies. Improving post-mortem interval (PMI) estimates will increase chances of correct forensic identification of decedents by narrowing the search window for police. Since no current PMI estimation method accounts for the possible influence of clothing, this study was designed to examine the effect of seasonally appropriate common clothing on decomposition rate in the thicketed Cape Flats Dune Strandveld, Cape Town, a forensically significant region. Four ∼60 kg domestic pig carcasses (Sus scrofa domesticus) were used as proxies for human decomposition, two were clothed and two unclothed. The clothing, altered by a seamstress to ensure an appropriate fit, caused a notable decrease in decay rate in this initial sample. Daily weight loss was used as a quantitative measure of decomposition progression, as the clothing prevented the use of visual decomposition scoring systems. Weight loss was closely associated with scavenging activity by the Cape grey mongoose (Galerella pulverulenta), with a clear scavenger preference for unclothed carcasses. This suggests that the effect of clothing on decomposition may be better assessed in this environment by examining how scavengers interact with only a single clothed carcass.


Assuntos
Vestuário , Comportamento Alimentar , Herpestidae , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Animais , Patologia Legal , Humanos , Modelos Animais , Estações do Ano , África do Sul , Suínos
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0007888, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Campylobacter is a common, but neglected foodborne-zoonotic pathogen, identified as a growing cause of foodborne disease worldwide. Wildlife and domestic animals are considered important reservoirs, but little is known about pathogen infection dynamics in free-ranging mammalian wildlife particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. In countries like Botswana, there is significant overlap between humans and wildlife, with the human population having one of the highest HIV infection rates in the world, increasing vulnerability to infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated Campylobacter occurrence in archived human fecal samples (children and adults, n = 122, 2011), feces from free-ranging banded mongooses (Mungos mungo, n = 201), surface water (n = 70), and river sediment samples (n = 81) collected in 2017 from the Chobe District, northern Botswana. Campylobacter spp. was widespread in humans (23.0%, 95% CI 13.9-35.4%), with infections dominantly associated with C. jejuni (82.1%, n = 28, 95% CI 55.1-94.5%). A small number of patients presented with asymptomatic infections (n = 6). While Campylobacter spp. was rare or absent in environmental samples, over half of sampled mongooses tested positive (56%, 95% CI 45.6-65.4%). Across the urban-wilderness continuum, we found significant differences in Campylobacter spp. detection associated with the type of den used by study mongooses. Mongooses utilizing man-made structures as den sites had significantly higher levels of C. jejuni infection (p = 0.019) than mongooses using natural dens. Conversely, mongooses using natural dens had overall higher levels of detection of Campylobacter at the genus level (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that landscape features may have important influences on Campylobacter species exposure and transmission dynamics in wildlife. In particular, data suggest that human-modified landscapes may increase C. jejuni infection, a primarily human pathogen, in banded mongooses. Pathogen circulation and transmission in urbanizing wildlife reservoirs may increase human vulnerability to infection, findings that may have critical implications for both public and animal health in regions where people live in close proximity to wildlife.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Herpestidae/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Botsuana/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/transmissão , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Única , Rios/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
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