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1.
Afr J Paediatr Surg ; 19(1): 18-22, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34916346

RESUMO

Introduction: Establishing the nature of conditions requiring surgery among children in a particular location may be crucial for policy formulation and implementation as regards paediatric surgery. Objective: This study aimed to describe the pattern and outcome of paediatric surgical cases operated upon in a newly established paediatric surgical unit in Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of all subjects that were operated upon by the paediatric surgery unit over a 28-month period. Data obtained included age, sex, diagnosis, timing of surgery, post-treatment complications and outcome. Diagnoses were categorised based on the International Classification of Diseases 11th revision for morbidity and mortality statistics. Data analysis was done using Stata version 12. Results: A total of 377 procedures were performed on 336 patients with a male-to-female ratio of 2.1:1. The median age at surgery was 36 months. Disorders of the digestive system (184, 48.8%) and developmental anomalies (119, 31.6%) accounted for majority of the cases, with inguinal hernias and hydrocoeles accounting for 17.0% of all cases. Thirty-six per cent of the procedures were emergent ones, and the overall complication rate was 23.6% (89/377). The unplanned re-operation rate was 7.4% (25/336) and mortality rate was 5.1% (17/336). Typhoid ileal perforation was responsible for 4 (23.5%) of the deaths. Conclusion: Congenital anomalies and surgical infections represent a major surgical burden among children in our sub-region of Nigeria. There is, therefore, the need for focused research on these conditions and the integration of children surgery into public health programmes for children in sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Hérnia Inguinal , Hidrocele Testicular , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia
2.
J Pediatr Urol ; 17(5): 706.e1-706.e4, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aquaporins are membrane water channel proteins that are expressed in the epithelium and endothelium. Their primary function is to control the flow of water in the membranes of the cells. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated whether there is increased expression of aquaporin-1 in the tunica vaginalis of hydrocele patients in childhood that do not regress spontaneously an whether it has an effect on the etiology of hydrocele. STUDY DESIGN: Boys who were diagnosed with hydrocele and scheduled for surgery were included and formed the hydrocele group. Boys in the same age range who underwent surgery for inguinal hernia or undescended testicles were included as a control group. Aquaporin-1 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical examination of capillaries in tissue samples taken from the tunica vaginalis during the operation. Aquaporin-1-positive vessels were counted by selecting 5 unrelated areas with the highest vascular density, and the average number of vessels was calculated for each case. RESULTS: A total of 48 male patients were included in the study. Of these, 27 constituted the hydrocele group (mean age 3.51 ± 2.59 years), and 21 constituted the control group (inguinal hernia, n = 17; undescended testicle, n = 4) (mean age 3.95 ± 3.80 years). The mean ages of both groups were statistically similar (p = 0.32). The mean numbers of aquaporin-1-positive vessels at the capillaries in the tunica vaginalis of the patients were 20.74 ± 7.10 in hydrocele group and 17.23 ± 4.07 in the control group. The expression of aquaporin-1 in the hydrocele group was significantly higher (p = 0.037). DISCUSSION: It was shown that aquaporin-1 expression was higher in adult cases with hydrocele. Also an increase in aquaporin-1 expression was detected in tunica vaginalis of children with hydrocele in our study. CONCLUSION: It was thought that aquaporin-1 overexpression may play a role in non-communicating hydroceles in children.


Assuntos
Aquaporina 1/genética , Criptorquidismo , Hérnia Inguinal , Hidrocele Testicular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Hidrocele Testicular/etiologia , Hidrocele Testicular/cirurgia
3.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 19: eGS5920, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287565

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcomes and costs associated with surgery versus sclerotherapy as treatment of hydroceles. METHODS: A total of 53 men consecutively treated for hydrocele at our organization, between December 2015 and June 2019, were retrospectively analyzed (39 with Jaboulay technique and 14 with sclerotherapy). All charts were reviewed, assessing clinical data, ultrasound findings, surgical data, and post-procedure outcomes. The hospital finance department calculated the cost of outpatient evaluation, complementary tests, supplies, drugs, and professionals' costs throughout all procedures. RESULTS: The median age for both groups was similar (58 and 65 years old). Comorbidities were less frequent in the Surgery Group (20; 51%) than in the Sclerotherapy Group (14; 100%, p<0.05). The median length of hospital stay was 34.5±16.3 hours for the Surgery Group and 4 hours for the Sclerotherapy Group. The mean follow-up period was similar for both groups (85.4±114.8 days after surgery, and 60.9±80.1 days after sclerotherapy, p=0.467). No significant complications occurred in any patient. Success rates were 94.8% after surgery and 92.8% after sclerotherapy. The mean cost per patient was US$2,558.69 in the Surgery Group (Hydrocelectomy Group) and US$463.58 in the Sclerotherapy Group (p<0.0001). Costs directly related to in-hospital treatment procedures were significantly higher for surgery versus sclerotherapy (US$2,219.82±US$1,629.06 versus US$130.64±US$249.60; p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: Sclerotherapy is an excellent treatment option for idiopathic hydrocele as compared to traditional Jaboulay. It has a high success rate, low complication rates, fast discharge and patients return quicker to activities of daily living.


Assuntos
Escleroterapia , Hidrocele Testicular , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hidrocele Testicular/terapia
4.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 275, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transumbilical two-port laparoscopic percutaneous extraperitoneal closure for the treatment of processus vaginalis patency in boys has been practising recent years. The applicable instruments and skills are still evolving. In this study, we used a self-made needle assisted by a disposable dissecting forceps to practise this minimal invasive method for patent processus vaginalis in boys. Its safety and effectiveness were studied. The methods for depth and orientation perceptions were analyzed. METHODS: From January 2020 to November 2020, boys characteristic of symtomatic patency of processus vaginalis were performed open surgery consecutively. From December 2020, the authors begun to propose transumbilical two-port laparoscopic percutaneous extraperitoneal closure for this kind of boy patients. The open group included fifteen boys and the laparoscopic group included ten ones. The data of the patients age, constituent ratios of unilateral and bilateral patency, operating time, postoperative stay in hospital, follow-up time, conversion, postoperative complications were assessed. Throughout the laparoscopic process, the parallel and synchronous movements of lens pole and dissecting forceps were maintained. Vas deferens protrude was imagined as one of the point to form the triangular manipulation plane. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant difference between the laparoscopic group and the open group for the following items: age, operating time, the constituent ratios of unilateral or bilateral patency of processus vaginalis (P > 0.05). Postoperative stay in hospital and follow-up time of the laparoscopic group was significantly shorter than that of the open group (P = 0.0000). No laparoscopic case was converted to open surgery. After 10 cases of laparoscopic practice, orientation perception was established. There were no postoperative complications for all the patients. CONCLUSION: Our preliminary experience suggested that umbilical two-port laparoscopic percutaneous extraperitoneal closure is safe and convenient for patent processus vaginalis treatment in boys. It has the advantage of incision-hiding and can be manipulated like a solo-like surgery.


Assuntos
Hérnia Inguinal , Laparoscopia , Hidrocele Testicular , Hérnia Inguinal/cirurgia , Herniorrafia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hidrocele Testicular/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J Pediatr Urol ; 17(4): 537.e1-537.e5, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Varicocele affects 15% of adolescents. The main postoperative complications are recurrence and hydrocele; nerve injury is rarely reported. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study are: to assess the complications after laparoscopic varicocelectomy, namely nerve injury; and to assess if nerve injury is more frequent using "hot" or "cold" ligation. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study of varicocele cases submitted to laparoscopic correction in our department from April 2006 to March 2020. Parameters analyzed were: age, clinical findings, surgical indication, operative technique, and outcomes. Comparison was done between the "cold" versus "hot" vessel section technique. RESULTS: 110 patients, with median age 14-years-old, were included. Most cases were on the left side and grade 3. Fifty patients (45%) presented complications: 21% recurrence; 18% hydrocele; and 3% genitofemoral nerve injury. Nerve injury was independent of the technique used. DISCUSSION: Genitofemoral nerve injury is a complication with unknown cause and all cases are related to laparoscopic technique. It was suggested that "hot" methods of ligation of the vessels can lead to higher incidence of the lesion, but that was not corroborated in our analysis. Possible explanations for its occurrence are: a wide peritoneal window opening created with electrocautery near the internal inguinal ring; and additional dissection required to isolate the testicular veins from the artery. Prospective studies are needed to clarify the real incidence of genitofemoral nerve injury and its causes. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic varicocelectomy seems to be safe and effective, although complications remain frequent regardless of the technique used. Genitofemoral nerve injury is a complication rarely described that may require rehabilitation, and so awareness for this problem is of paramount importance.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Hidrocele Testicular , Varicocele , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Varicocele/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD000479, 2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Varicoceles are associated with male subfertility; however, the mechanisms by which varicoceles affect fertility have yet to be satisfactorily explained. Several treatment options exist, including surgical or radiological treatment, however the safest and most efficient treatment remains unclear.  OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of surgical and radiological treatment of varicoceles on live birth rate, adverse events, pregnancy rate, varicocele recurrence, and quality of life amongst couples where the adult male has a varicocele, and the female partner of childbearing age has no fertility problems. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases on 4 April 2020: the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and CINAHL. We also searched the trial registries and reference lists of articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) if they were relevant to the clinical question posed and compared different forms of surgical ligation, different forms of radiological treatments, surgical treatment compared to radiological treatment, or one of these aforementioned treatment forms compared to non-surgical methods, delayed treatment, or no treatment. We extracted data if the studies reported on live birth, adverse events, pregnancy, varicocele recurrence, and quality of life. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Screening of abstracts and full-text publications, alongside data extraction and 'Risk of bias' assessment, were done dually using the Covidence software. When we had sufficient data, we calculated random-effects (Mantel-Haenszel) meta-analyses; otherwise, we reported results narratively. We used the I2 statistic to analyse statistical heterogeneity. We planned to use funnel plots to assess publication bias in meta-analyses with at least 10 included studies. We dually rated the risk of bias of studies using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool, and the certainty of evidence for each outcome using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 1897 citations after de-duplicating the search results. We excluded 1773 during title and abstract screening. From the 113 new full texts assessed in addition to the 10 studies (11 references) included in the previous version of this review, we included 38 new studies, resulting in a total of 48 studies (59 references) in the review providing data for 5384 participants. Two studies (three references) are ongoing studies and two studies are awaiting classification. Treatment versus non-surgical, non-radiological, delayed, or no treatment Two studies comparing surgical or radiological treatment versus no treatment reported on live birth with differing directions of effect. As a result, we are uncertain whether surgical or radiological treatment improves live birth rates when compared to no treatment (risk ratio (RR) 2.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19 to 26.93; 2 RCTs, N = 204; I2 = 74%, very low-certainty evidence). Treatment may improve pregnancy rates compared to delayed or no treatment (RR 1.55, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.26; 13 RCTs, N = 1193; I2 = 65%, low-certainty evidence). This suggests that couples with no or delayed treatment have a 21% chance of pregnancy, whilst the pregnancy rate after surgical or radiological treatment is between 22% and 48%. We identified no evidence on adverse events, varicocele recurrence, or quality of life for this comparison. Surgical versus radiological treatment We are uncertain about the effect of surgical versus radiological treatment on live birth and on the following adverse events: hydrocele formation, pain, epididymitis, haematoma, and suture granuloma. We are uncertain about the effect of surgical versus radiological treatment on pregnancy rate (RR 1.13, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.70; 5 RCTs, N = 456, low-certainty evidence) and varicocele recurrence (RR 1.31, 95% CI 0.82 to 2.08; 3 RCTs, N = 380, low-certainty evidence). We identified no evidence on quality of life for this comparison. Surgery versus other surgical treatment We identified 19 studies comparing microscopic subinguinal surgical treatment to any other surgical treatment. Microscopic subinguinal surgical treatment probably improves pregnancy rates slightly compared to other surgical treatments (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.36; 12 RCTs, N = 1473, moderate-certainty evidence). This suggests that couples with microscopic subinguinal surgical treatment have a 10% to 14% chance of pregnancy after treatment, whilst the pregnancy rate in couples after other surgical treatments is 10%. This procedure also probably reduces the risk of varicocele recurrence (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.29, 0.79; 14 RCTs, N = 1565, moderate-certainty evidence). This suggests that 0.4% to 1.1% of men undergoing microscopic subinguinal surgical treatment experience recurrent varicocele, whilst 1.4% of men undergoing other surgical treatments do. Results for the following adverse events were inconclusive: hydrocele formation, haematoma, abdominal distension, testicular atrophy, wound infection, scrotal pain, and oedema. We identified no evidence on live birth or quality of life for this comparison. Nine studies compared open inguinal surgical treatment to retroperitoneal surgical treatment. Due to small sample sizes and methodological limitations, we identified neither treatment type as superior or inferior to the other regarding adverse events, pregnancy rates, or varicocele recurrence. We identified no evidence on live birth or quality of life for this comparison. Radiological versus other radiological treatment One study compared two types of radiological treatment (sclerotherapy versus embolisation) and reported 13% varicocele recurrence in both groups. Due to the broad confidence interval, no valid conclusion could be drawn (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.16 to 6.20; 1 RCT, N = 30, very low-certainty evidence). We identified no evidence on live birth, adverse events, pregnancy, or quality of life for this comparison. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on the limited evidence, it remains uncertain whether any treatment (surgical or radiological) compared to no treatment in subfertile men may be of benefit on live birth rates; however, treatment may improve the chances for pregnancy. The evidence was also insufficient to determine whether surgical treatment was superior to radiological treatment. However, microscopic subinguinal surgical treatment probably improves pregnancy rates and reduces the risk of varicocele recurrence compared to other surgical treatments. High-quality, head-to-head comparative RCTs focusing on live birth rate and also assessing adverse events and quality of life are warranted.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica , Infertilidade Masculina/terapia , Escleroterapia/métodos , Varicocele/terapia , Viés , Intervalos de Confiança , Embolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/etiologia , Infertilidade Masculina/cirurgia , Nascido Vivo , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva , Escleroterapia/efeitos adversos , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Hidrocele Testicular/etiologia , Varicocele/complicações , Varicocele/cirurgia
8.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0244664, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hydrocele is a chronic condition in males in which there is an excessive collection of straw-colored fluid, which leads to enlargement of the scrotum. It is a common manifestation of lymphatic filariasis (LF) affecting nearly 25 million men worldwide. Surgery is the recommended treatment for hydrocele and is available free of cost in all government hospitals in Nepal. This research explored patient, provider, and community factors related to accessing hydrocele surgery services by the patients. METHODS: This study employed a qualitative method. The research was conducted in two LF endemic districts, namely Kanchanpur and Dhading, which are reported to have the highest number of hydrocele cases during morbidity mapping conducted in 2016. In addition to five key informant interviews with the LF focal persons (one national and 4 district-level), nine in-depth interviews were conducted with hydrocele patients (5 of whom had undergone surgery and 4 who had not undergone surgery) and with 3 family members, and two focus group discussions with the female community health volunteers. RESULTS: Most of the respondents did not have knowledge of hydrocele as one of the clinical manifestations of LF nor that it is transmitted through a mosquito bite. Although perceived as treatable with surgery, most of the patients interviewed believed in as well as practiced home remedies. Meanwhile, fear of surgery, embarrassment, lack of money, along with no knowledge of the free hydrocele surgery acted as barriers for accessing the surgery. On the other hand, financial support, flexible guidelines enabling the hospital to conduct surgery, decentralization and scaling up of morbidity mapping along with free hydrocele surgery camps in any remaining endemic districts were identified as enablers for accessing surgery. CONCLUSION: Hydrocele surgery coverage could be improved if the program further addresses community awareness. There is a need for more focus on information dissemination about hydrocele and hydrocele surgery.


Assuntos
Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Hidrocele Testicular/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Filariose Linfática/complicações , Filariose Linfática/cirurgia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Participação dos Interessados , Inquéritos e Questionários , Hidrocele Testicular/epidemiologia
9.
Scand J Urol ; 55(5): 404-407, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569989

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Gold standard treatment of symptomatic hydrocele or spermatocele is surgery. Despite a minor procedure, complications such as bleeding and infections leading to reoperations may be devastating for the patients. In autumn 2018, an accumulation of complications was seen in our department. The aim of this study was to investigate the rate and grade of complications and to identify potential means to reduce these. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patient records of all patients undergoing surgical repair of hydrocele or spermatocele from December 2017 to November 2018 were examined. Results were audited to identify potential causes of complications. The focus was on the perioperative hemostasis and postoperative activity restrictions. The outcome was compared to a consecutive patient series operated the following year. RESULTS: Sixty-five men were operated on during the first period. Twenty-two patients contacted the department postoperatively due to swelling or pain, 19 patients were examined at the hospital and six patients were re-operated 1-9 times. The following year, 69 patients were operated on. Of these, 16 patients contacted the department postoperatively (p = 0.17), 13 patients were examined at the hospital, and five patients were re-operated (p = 0.68). There was the same complication rate in patients operated by specialist urologists or supervised younger doctors. However, patients preoperatively examined and informed by a specialized urologist had significantly fewer complications compared to those informed by urological residents and interns (p = 0.012). CONCLUSION: Despite the change in patient information and increased awareness of possible complications, a high proportion of patients still were in need of unplanned contact to the department and reoperation.


Assuntos
Espermatocele , Hidrocele Testicular , Edema , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espermatocele/cirurgia , Hidrocele Testicular/epidemiologia , Hidrocele Testicular/etiologia , Hidrocele Testicular/cirurgia
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(2): e0009075, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Morbidity management and disability prevention (MMDP) services are essential for the management of chronic stages of lymphatic filariasis (LF) infection. However, there is limited information on health beliefs and health seeking behavior towards MMDP services for LF in endemic regions of Zambia. This study sought to document health beliefs and health seeking behavior towards MMDP services for LF in Luangwa District, Zambia. METHODS: This was an exploratory qualitative study conducted with community members including LF patients, community health workers and healthcare providers. Data was collected through a series of four focus group discussions stratified by sex and 26 in-depth interviews. Data was analyzed by thematic analysis using NVivo software. RESULTS: The perceived causes of the chronic manifestations of LF included; contact with animal faeces, use of traditional herbal aphrodisiacs (mutoto), witchcraft and sexual contact with women who were menstruating or had miscarried. LF patients opted to visit traditional healers before going to health facilities. Hydrocele patients were afraid of hydrocelectomies as they were thought to cause infertility or death. Very few community members were able to identify any home and facility-based care strategies for lymphoedema. Health system and cultural barriers to seeking healthcare included; long distances to the health facilities, lack of awareness of existing MMDP services, perceived costs of accessing MMDP services, gender and social norms, and fear of stigmatization. CONCLUSION: Health seeking behavior for LF in the district is mainly driven by negative beliefs about the causes of the disease and lack of awareness of available MMDP services and homecare strategies. Lymphatic filariasis programs should promote strategies that seek to empower patients and community members with the required information to access and use the MMDP services at the health facilities, as well as adhere to self-care practices in their households.


Assuntos
Filariose Linfática/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Medicina Tradicional , Adulto , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/psicologia , Cultura , Pessoas com Deficiência , Filariose Linfática/terapia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Linfedema/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Autocuidado , Hidrocele Testicular/cirurgia , Zâmbia
11.
Andrologia ; 53(4): e13973, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565141

RESUMO

The testis is a potential target organ for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our study intended to investigate any testicular involvement in mild-to-moderate COVID-19 men. We conduct a cross-sectional study in 18 to 55-year-old men hospitalised for confirmed COVID-19. A senior radiologist executed the ultrasound with multi-frequency linear probe in all participants, regardless of any scrotal complaints. Exclusion criteria involved any situation that could impair testicular function. Statistical analysis compared independent groups, classified by any pathological change. Categorical and numerical outcome hypotheses were tested by Fisher's Exact and Mann-Whitney tests, using the Excel for Mac, version 16.29 (p < .05). The sample size was 26 men (mean 33.7 ± 6.2 years; range: 21-42 years), all without scrotal complaints. No orchitis was seen. Eleven men (32.6 ± 5.8 years) had epididymitis (42.3%), bilateral in 19.2%. More than half of men with epididymitis displayed epididymal head augmentation > 1.2 cm (p = .002). Two distinct epididymitis' patterns were reported: (a) disseminated micro-abscesses (n = 6) and (b) inhomogeneous echogenicity with reactional hydrocele (n = 5). Both patterns revealed increased epididymal head, augmented Doppler flow and scrotal skin thickening. The use of colour Doppler ultrasound in mild-to-moderate COVID-19 men, even in the absence of testicular complaints, might be useful to diagnose epididymitis that could elicit fertility complications.


Assuntos
COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Epididimite/diagnóstico por imagem , Hidrocele Testicular/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Doenças Assintomáticas , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Epididimite/epidemiologia , Epididimite/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Hidrocele Testicular/epidemiologia , Hidrocele Testicular/fisiopatologia , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores , Adulto Jovem
12.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 37(2): 293-297, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the risk factors influencing ascending testis following laparoscopic percutaneous extraperitoneal closure (LPEC) for inguinal hernia or hydrocele. METHODS: Boys undergoing LPEC between 2014 and 2018 had their medical records and operative movies reviewed. Group A patients required orchiopexy after LPEC. Group B patients did not. Their baseline characteristics were reviewed. The path of the LPEC needle (not crossing the spermatic duct at first circuit [Not Crossing]), whether the second entry of the LPEC needle was different from the first hole (Different Hole), peritoneal injury requiring re-ligation (Re-ligation), and hematoma (Hematoma) were evaluated. The quantitative factors of significant difference were set as a cut-off value. RESULTS: There were 5 patients (7 sides) in Group A and 162 patients (237 sides) in Group B. Birth weight was lower in Group A (p = 0.035). Not Crossing was 7 sides (100%) in Group A and 97 sides (41%) in Group B (p = 0.002). Hematoma was 2 sides (29%) in Group A and 11 sides (5%) in Group B (p = 0.047). Cut-off value of birth weight was 932 g (AUC 0.78). CONCLUSION: Birth weight < 932 g and operative findings (not crossing over the spermatic duct on the first circuit and hematoma) indicated an increased risk of ascending testis after LPEC.


Assuntos
Hérnia Inguinal/cirurgia , Herniorrafia/métodos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Orquidopexia/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Hidrocele Testicular/cirurgia , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Duração da Cirurgia , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Testiculares/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Gravação em Vídeo
13.
J Pediatr Urol ; 17(2): 192.e1-192.e3, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483293

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: About 0.8% of boys have undescended testes at 1 year of age. However, the overall rate of orchidopexy is 2.5 times that expected. While studies have shown ascending testes accounting for a proportion of such discrepancy, the aetiology of this ascent remains controversial. In this study, intra-operative findings of patients underwent orchidopexy for ascending testes are evaluated to infer aetiology. METHODS: Patients with confirmed ascending testes from a single paediatric surgery unit over a four-year period from June 2015 till June 2019 were included in this observational study. During orchidopexy procedure, intra-operative findings in terms of gubernacular attachment, and the degree of epididymal attachment to the upper pole of the testicle were primarily evaluated. Secondary findings including the presence and length of patent processus vaginalis (PPV), and the presence of any long looping vas or hydatid of morgangi were also noted. RESULTS: Eighty-three children (median age = 79 months [range 38-149]) were included in this study. Two boys had bilateral ascending testes leading to a total of 85 orchidopexy cases performed. All patients were found to have a gubernacular attachment proximal to the junction between the upper lateral wall of scrotum and the medial part of the thigh. PPV was present in all cases, with its length measured from the deep inguinal ring after retracting the conjoint tendon ranging from 4 to 15 mm 84 cases (98.8%) demonstrated complete or partial separation between the head of epididymis and the upper pole of the testicle. Hydatid of morgagni was present in 82 cases (96.4%), and none of the operated testicles demonstrated looping vas. DISCUSSION: The varying degrees of PPV length demonstrated during orchiodpexy for ascending testes in this study casts a doubt on the role of processus vaginalis in such ascent. Also, there is considerably a wide-range of reported incidence (13-78%) in literature for PPV in ascending testes. In this study, intra-operative findings demonstrated an abnormal gubernaculum attachment in all ascending testes in keeping with previous reports, and support the hypothesis that ascending testis has always been undescended, yet acquired more apparent undescended position with child age and growth. CONCLUSION: Patients with ascending testes seem to share similar intra-operative findings with patients who have true undescended testes. The universal abnormal attachment of the gubernaculum and the omnipresent testicular-epididymal fusion anomalies may indicate that ascending testis is a congenital predetermined condition, and that these testes have always been congenitally undescended, yet obtained a more noticeable position with the child growth.


Assuntos
Criptorquidismo , Hidrocele Testicular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Criptorquidismo/cirurgia , Epididimo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Orquidopexia , Testículo/cirurgia
14.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 21, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical effect of minimally invasive surgery for inguinal cryptorchidism. METHODS: The patients were divided into the minimally invasive surgery group (n = 100) and the traditional surgery group (n = 58). In the minimally invasive surgery group, patients with low inguinal cryptorchidism (n = 54) underwent surgery with a transscrotal incision, and patients with high inguinal cryptorchidism (n = 46) underwent laparoscopic surgery. RESULTS: There was no difference in the hospital stay duration or cost between the minimally invasive surgery group and the traditional surgery group (P > 0.05). As for the operative time, minimally invasive surgery of low inguinal cryptorchidism was shorter than traditional surgery (P = 0.033), while minimally invasive surgery of high inguinal cryptorchidism was comparable to traditional surgery (P = 0.658). Additionally, there were no cases of testicular atrophy, testicular retraction, inguinal hernia or hydrocele in either group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of poor wound healing between the two groups (P > 0.05). Although there was no significant difference in the incidence of scrotal hematoma between the two groups (P > 0.05), the incidence in the minimally invasive surgery group was higher than that in the traditional surgery group. CONCLUSIONS: Minimally invasive surgery including a transscrotal incision for low inguinal cryptorchidism and laparoscopic surgery for high inguinal cryptorchidism is as safe and effective as traditional surgery, and could also provide a good cosmetic effect for children.


Assuntos
Criptorquidismo , Hérnia Inguinal , Laparoscopia , Hidrocele Testicular , Criptorquidismo/cirurgia , Hérnia Inguinal/cirurgia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Orquidopexia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escroto/cirurgia , Hidrocele Testicular/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(12)2021 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972783

RESUMO

A 72-year-old man was referred to our urology outpatient department with a left hemi-scrotal swelling increasing in size over a matter of weeks, initially suspicious for a left hydrocoele. Initial investigation with ultrasound (US) identified a heterogenous enlargement of the left testis and epididymis with a soft tissue mass extending through the inguinal canal. Subsequent CT detected this soft tissue mass to extend along the left gonadal vein to the level of the left renal vein. A biopsy of the retroperitoneal mass confirmed a diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Immunohistochemical staining further categorised this lymphoma as double expressor but not double hit.Through multidisciplinary team involvement the patient was treated with combination steroids and chemotherapy. Given the scrotal involvement this was considered a sanctuary site for chemotherapy therefore the patient also received radiotherapy to the scrotum. He recovered well following his treatment. This case highlights how early specialist referral can identify rare variants of disease. Essential preoperative imaging with US prior to treating a presumed hydrocoele prevented inappropriate surgical excision. A multidisciplinary team approach improved the patient's outcome and is hoped to have improved his chances of recurrence-free survival.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B , Hidrocele Testicular , Idoso , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/terapia , Masculino , Escroto , Hidrocele Testicular/diagnóstico , Ultrassonografia
18.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eGS5920, 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286281

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the outcomes and costs associated with surgery versus sclerotherapy as treatment of hydroceles. Methods: A total of 53 men consecutively treated for hydrocele at our organization, between December 2015 and June 2019, were retrospectively analyzed (39 with Jaboulay technique and 14 with sclerotherapy). All charts were reviewed, assessing clinical data, ultrasound findings, surgical data, and post-procedure outcomes. The hospital finance department calculated the cost of outpatient evaluation, complementary tests, supplies, drugs, and professionals' costs throughout all procedures. Results: The median age for both groups was similar (58 and 65 years old). Comorbidities were less frequent in the Surgery Group (20; 51%) than in the Sclerotherapy Group (14; 100%, p<0.05). The median length of hospital stay was 34.5±16.3 hours for the Surgery Group and 4 hours for the Sclerotherapy Group. The mean follow-up period was similar for both groups (85.4±114.8 days after surgery, and 60.9±80.1 days after sclerotherapy, p=0.467). No significant complications occurred in any patient. Success rates were 94.8% after surgery and 92.8% after sclerotherapy. The mean cost per patient was US$2,558.69 in the Surgery Group (Hydrocelectomy Group) and US$463.58 in the Sclerotherapy Group (p<0.0001). Costs directly related to in-hospital treatment procedures were significantly higher for surgery versus sclerotherapy (US$2,219.82±US$1,629.06 versus US$130.64±US$249.60; p<0.0001). Conclusion: Sclerotherapy is an excellent treatment option for idiopathic hydrocele as compared to traditional Jaboulay. It has a high success rate, low complication rates, fast discharge and patients return quicker to activities of daily living.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar resultados e custos associados à cirurgia e à escleroterapia como tratamentos das hidroceles. Métodos: Foram tratados consecutivamente para hidrocele em nossa instituição 53 homens, entre dezembro de 2015 e junho de 2019, os quais foram analisados retrospectivamente (39 pela técnica de Jaboulay e 14 por escleroterapia). Todos os prontuários foram revisados, avaliando dados clínicos, achados de ultrassom, dados cirúrgicos e desfechos pós-procedimento. O departamento financeiro do hospital calculou o custo da avaliação ambulatorial, dos exames complementares, dos insumos, dos medicamentos e dos profissionais em todos os procedimentos. Resultados: A idade mediana foi semelhante nos dois grupos (58 e 65 anos). Comorbidades foram menos frequentes no Grupo Cirurgia (20; 51%) do que no Grupo Escleroterapia (14; 100%; p<0,05). O tempo mediano de internação hospitalar foi 34,5±16,3 horas para o Grupo Cirurgia e 4 horas para Grupo Escleroterapia. O período médio de seguimento foi semelhante nos dois grupos (85,4±114,8 dias após a cirurgia e 60,9±80,1 dias após escleroterapia; p=0,467). Nenhuma complicação significativa ocorreu nos pacientes. As taxas de sucesso foram de 94,8% após a cirurgia e 92,8% após a escleroterapia. O custo médio por paciente foi de US$2,558.69 para Grupo Cirurgia e US$463.58 para Grupo Escleroterapia (p<0,0001). Os custos relacionados aos procedimentos de tratamento hospitalar foram significativamente maiores para cirurgia em relação à escleroterapia (US$2,219.82±US$1,629.06 versus US$130.64±US$249.60; p<0,0001). Conclusão: A escleroterapia é uma excelente opção de tratamento para hidrocele idiopática em comparação com a tradicional Jaboulay. Apresenta alta taxa de sucesso, baixas taxas de complicações e alta rápida, além de os pacientes retornarem mais rapidamente às atividades diárias.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Escleroterapia , Hidrocele Testicular/terapia , Atividades Cotidianas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tempo de Internação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(11): e0008839, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180780

RESUMO

Morbidity burden of lymphatic filariasis (LF) relies on the information from the Mass Drug Administration (MDA) programme where Community Health Volunteers (CHVs) passively report cases identified. Consequently, the exact prevalence of morbidity cases is not always accurate. The use of mobile phone technology to report morbidity cases was piloted in Ghana using a text-based short messaging service (SMS) tool by CHVs. Though successful, illiterate CHVs could not effectively use the SMS tool. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a mobile phone-based Interactive Voice Response System (mIVRS) by CHVs in reporting LF morbidity cases and acute dermatolymphangioadenitis (ADLA) attacks in Ghana. The mIVRS was designed as a surveillance tool to capture LF data in Kassena Nankana Districts of Ghana. One hundred CHVs were trained to identify and report lymphedema and hydrocele cases as well as ADLA attacks by calling a hotline linked to the mIVRS. The system asked a series of questions about the disease condition. The ability of the CHV to report accurately was assessed and the data from the mIVRS were compared with the paper records from the CHVs and existing MDA programme records from the same communities and period. Higher numbers of lymphedema and hydrocele cases were recorded by the CHVs using the mIVRS (n = 590 and n = 103) compared to the paper-based reporting (n = 417 and n = 76) and the MDA records (n = 154 and n = 84). Female CHVs, CHVs above 40 years, and CHVs with higher educational levels were better at paper-based reporting (P = 0.007, P = 0.001, P = 0.049 respectively). The system, when fully developed and linked to national databases, may help to overcome underreporting of morbidity cases and ADLA attacks in endemic communities. The system has the potential to be further expanded to other diseases.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Linfedema/epidemiologia , Hidrocele Testicular/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Notificação de Doenças/métodos , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Wuchereria bancrofti/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
20.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 63(3): 475-477, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769345

RESUMO

Primary mesotheliomas of the tunica vaginalis testis are very rare malignant tumors. They are generally associated with exposure to asbestos. They may manifest as hydrocele, testis tumor, inguinal hernia, or epididymitis. After differential diagnosis, treatment is primarily surgical. Adjuvant therapeutic methods for mesotheliomas of the tunica vaginalis testis, with their high mortality, are controversial. Here, we present a mesothelioma case derived from tunica vaginalis testis acting as long-term pyocele with no known asbestos exposure.


Assuntos
Mesotelioma/patologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico , Testículo/patologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Mesotelioma/diagnóstico , Mesotelioma Maligno , Orquiectomia , Hidrocele Testicular/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Testiculares/patologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/cirurgia , Testículo/cirurgia
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