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1.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1434, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36697477

RESUMO

Exposure to traumatic experiences across lifespan shapes the functioning of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and sets individuals at risk to develop symptoms of depression and anxiety. Particularly, HPA axis regulation and the psychological health of the expectant mother have been of interest, as the health of the unborn child may be affected through changes in gestational biology. The present study investigated the potential associations between lifetime trauma, current symptoms (depression and anxiety) and hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in pregnant women. A total of 149 pregnant women were interviewed in public outpatient clinics with varying gestational age in Greece, Spain and Perú. Lifetime trauma exposure and current symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed. HCC was measured in scalp-near hair segments (2 cm length) reflecting cumulative cortisol secretion of the past two months. Results showed that trauma load is negatively associated with HCC and higher symptoms of depression and anxiety. There was a negative association between HCC and symptoms. The present findings support the notion that cumulative trauma exposure exerts long-lasting effects on the expectant mother's HPA axis activity functioning and mental health and may thereby potentially create risk trajectories for the unborn child via changes in gestational biology.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Gestantes , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Depressão/psicologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Grécia/epidemiologia , Peru , Espanha/epidemiologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , Ansiedade , Cabelo , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
2.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 23(1): 81-84, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36697002

RESUMO

Ambulatory emergency care forms a fundamental part of the strategy of trying to ensure safe and sustainable acute care services. Immune checkpoint inhibitor(ICI)-mediated hypophysitis is an important life-threatening complication of therapy. Patients presenting with clinical features and findings consistent with ICI-mediated hypophysitis were considered in the current study. In the absence of severe features (sodium <125 mmol/L, hypotension, reduced consciousness, hypoglycaemia and/or visual field defect), patients were administered a single intravenous dose of hydrocortisone (100 mg), observed for at least 4 h and then discharged on oral hydrocortisone (20 mg, 10 mg and 10 mg). Patients were then seen urgently in the endocrinology outpatient setting for further management. Fourteen patients (median age 64, 10 male) were managed using the pathway. All patients had biochemically confirmed adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency. Seven of the 14 were treated with combination ICI therapy, with four having pan-anterior hypopituitarism. There were no 30-day readmissions or any associated hypophysitis-related mortality. All patients continued ICI therapy without interruption.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal , Hipofisite , Humanos , Masculino , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Hidrocortisona/uso terapêutico , Hipofisite/induzido quimicamente , Hipofisite/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Adrenal/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Cell Res ; 33(1): 46-54, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36588120

RESUMO

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are regulated by various downstream proteins, of which the melanocortin receptor accessory protein 1 (MRAP1) is closely involved in the regulation of melanocortin receptor 2 (MC2R). Assisted by MRAP1, MC2R responds to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and stimulates glucocorticoid biogenesis and cortisol secretion. MC2R activation plays an essential role in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis that regulates stress response, while its dysfunction causes glucocorticoid insufficiency- or cortisol excess-associated disorders. Here, we present a cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the ACTH-bound MC2R-Gs-MRAP1 complex. Our structure, together with mutagenesis analysis, reveals a unique sharp kink at the extracellular region of MRAP1 and the 'seat-belt' effect of MRAP1 on stabilizing ACTH binding and MC2R activation. Mechanisms of ACTH recognition by MC2R and receptor activation are also demonstrated. These findings deepen our understanding of GPCR regulation by accessory proteins and provide valuable insights into the ab initio design of therapeutic agents targeting MC2R.


Assuntos
Melanocortinas , Receptor Tipo 2 de Melanocortina , Humanos , Receptor Tipo 2 de Melanocortina/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides , Hidrocortisona , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/metabolismo
4.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36623529

RESUMO

Sepsis as a development of an acute infection-related organ dysfunction significantly increases the risk of death for the patient. Therefore, fast and consistent management is required. The sepsis bundle is a convenient algorithm for initial sepsis therapy within the first hour of sepsis diagnosis consisting of blood cultures, lactate measurement, antibiotics, fluid resuscitation, and vasopressor therapy. Cristalloid solutions are first choice for fluid therapy but albumin and gelatine may be considered if colloid solutions are required. Norepinephrine is the vasopressor of first choice. After initial therapy, further fluid resuscitation should be guided by dynamic criteria. Vasopressin may be added as an additional vasopressor. Goal of resuscitation is to achieve lactate clearance. In shock refractory to therapy, addition of hydrocortisone (200 mg/day) should be considered. Further additional therapies such as immunoglobulins, blood purification, and metabolic resuscitation (combination of hydrocortisone, thiamine, vitamine C) are currently not supported by studies and should not be considered as standard therapy.


Assuntos
Sepse , Choque Séptico , Humanos , Choque Séptico/terapia , Hidrocortisona/uso terapêutico , Sepse/terapia , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Hidratação , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico , Ressuscitação , Ácido Láctico/uso terapêutico
5.
Stress ; 26(1): 29-42, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36625303

RESUMO

Psychological stress and its inevitable trajectory toward mental health deteriorations such as clinical and major depression has become an unprecedented global burden. The diagnostic procedures involved in the characterization of mental illnesses commonly follow qualitative and subjective measures of stress, often leading to greater socioeconomic burdens due to misdiagnosis and poor understanding of the severity of such illnesses, further fueled by the stigmatization surrounding mental health. In recent years, the application of cortisol and stress hormone measurements has given rise to an alternative, quantifiable approach for the psychological evaluation of stress and depression. This review comprehensively evaluates the current state-of-the-art technology for measuring cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and their applications within stress monitoring in humans. Recent advancements in these fields have shown the importance of measuring stress hormones for the characterization of stress manifestation within the human body, and its relevance in mental health decline. Preliminary results from studies considering multimodal approaches toward stress monitoring have showcased promising developments, emphasizing the need for further technological advancement in this field, which consider both neurochemical and physiological biomarkers of stress, for global benefit.


Assuntos
Desidroepiandrosterona , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Humanos , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Hidrocortisona , Saúde Mental
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(1)2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36614278

RESUMO

Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common psychiatric condition associated with a high risk of psychiatric comorbidity and impaired social/occupational functioning when not promptly treated. The identification of biological markers may facilitate the diagnostic process, leading to an early and proper treatment. Our aim was to systematically review the available literature about potential biomarkers for SAD. A search in the main online repositories (PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, PsychInfo, etc.) was performed. Of the 662 records screened, 61 were included. Results concerning cortisol, neuropeptides and inflammatory/immunological/neurotrophic markers remain inconsistent. Preliminary evidence emerged about the role of chromosome 16 and the endomannosidase gene, as well as of epigenetic factors, in increasing vulnerability to SAD. Neuroimaging findings revealed an altered connectivity of different cerebral areas in SAD patients and amygdala activation under social threat. Some parameters such as salivary alpha amylase levels, changes in antioxidant defenses, increased gaze avoidance and QT dispersion seem to be associated with SAD and may represent promising biomarkers of this condition. However, the preliminary positive correlations have been poorly replicated. Further studies on larger samples and investigating the same biomarkers are needed to identify more specific biological markers for SAD.


Assuntos
Fobia Social , Humanos , Fobia Social/diagnóstico , Neuroimagem , Biomarcadores , Hidrocortisona , Tonsila do Cerebelo , Ansiedade/psicologia
7.
Nutrients ; 15(1)2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36615866

RESUMO

There is increasing academic and clinical interest in understanding the nature of the relation between diet and response to stress exposure as a risk factor for mental illness. Cross-species evidence shows that conditions of chronic and acute stress increase the intake of, and preference for, caloric-dense palatable foods, a phenomenon thought to be explained by the mitigating effects of comfort foods on the activity of the stress-response network. It is largely unknown whether and how real-world dietary intake of saturated fat and sugars impacts stress responsivity in humans. Therefore, here we examined whether real-world dietary intake of saturated fat and sugars predicted salivary cortisol reactivity following an acute physiological stressor. Multilevel modelling of four salivary cortisol measures collected up to 65 min after the stressor on 54 participants (18-49 years old) were analyzed using a quadratic growth curve model. Sugar intake significantly predicted a weaker cortisol response following the Cold Pressor Test (CPT) controlling for BMI and gender, revealing an inhibitory effect of caloric-dense diets on cortisol reactivity to stress. As the consumption of sugar rose individuals had lower post-stressor cortisol levels, a smaller rate of increase in cortisol 20 and 35 min after the CPT, a lower cortisol peak, and an overall weaker quadratic effect. These observations add to a growing body of evidence reporting suppressive effects of high-energy foods on stress-associated glucocorticoids reactivity and are consistent with the comfort food hypothesis, where people are seen as motivated to eat palatable foods to alleviate the detrimental repercussions of stressor exposure.


Assuntos
Açúcares da Dieta , Hidrocortisona , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Psicológico , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Dieta
8.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280078, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607910

RESUMO

This study had the aim to demonstrate the midterm effects (three weeks) of weaning on foals' welfare. For this purpose, foals' behavioral changes and fecal levels metabolites of cortisol were evaluated. The observations took place at the state stud farm of Baden-Wuerttemberg in Germany. Ten foals (six colts and four fillies) were observed from one day before weaning up until three weeks after weaning. Weaning was divided into three blocks, the first in September, the second in October, and the last in November. The behavioral observation was done during an eight-hour period between 7:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m. The observer documented the exact behavior shown by the foal every five minutes during the eight hours. To scale the stress experienced by the foal, the glucocorticoid metabolite 11,17-dioxoandrostane was measured with the 11-oxoetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay, which allows assessing the foal's plasma cortisol level changes throughout the trail through fecal samples. All foals displayed a distinct hormonal stress response to the weaning process through increased fecal cortisol metabolite levels. Their body posture distribution took a shift from mainly moving before weaning to mainly standing during the three weeks after weaning. Compared with the day before weaning, the foals showed less active behavior and significantly increased their resting behavior. Regarding the overall resting behavior, the weaned foals initially increased their time spent resting in a lying position during daytime and then started to decrease the time lying. After weaning, the foals showed a significant increase in resting while standing. In conclusion, the foals showed an expected behavioral development and an expected curve of cortisol metabolite values throughout the study. However, it seemed that the changes had not returned "back to normal" at three weeks after weaning. Therefore, we suggest that weaned foals need a minimum of three weeks to acclimate to the new situation.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Hidrocortisona , Animais , Cavalos , Feminino , Masculino , Desmame , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Alemanha
9.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 23(1): 6, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With increasing age older patients are at higher risk for cognitive decline after surgery. Even tailored anesthesia procedures in older patients remain a high risk for postoperative cognitive disorder. Additional stress derived from anxiety and anesthesia itself can negatively impact postoperative cognitive outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of general versus regional anesthesia on postoperative cognitive disorder and indicators of perioperative stress in elderly undergoing surgery. METHODS: In this single center prospective study between December 2014 and November 2015, 46 patients aged 50 to 85 years undergoing dermatology surgery were enrolled. Patients were stratified by receiving general versus regional nerve anesthesia. On three consecutive days, saliva cortisol levels were analyzed three times per day. Cognitive function was assessed on the day before and the day after surgery using comprehensive neuropsychological testing of multiple cognitive functions including memory, executive function, attention and processing speed. RESULTS: Comparing the regional anesthesia group (RAG, n = 28) with the general anesthesia group (GAG, n = 18) no significant difference in the postoperative cognitive function was observed. However, patients in the GAG had significantly higher postoperative cortisol levels when compared to patients in the RAG. In both groups, a peak of cortisol value was detected on the day of surgery, which was higher in the GAG in comparison to the RAG. CONCLUSIONS: We did not observe a difference in postoperative cognitive function between patients undergoing regional or general anesthesia for dermatology surgery. However, we found lower cortisol level in the RAG. Based on these findings, future studies should investigate alternatives to reduce stress in a general anesthesia setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02505815.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução , Complicações Cognitivas Pós-Operatórias , Idoso , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Hidrocortisona , Complicações Cognitivas Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Cognição
10.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1148, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36670169

RESUMO

The pathophysiology underlying major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia is related to endocrine system functions and includes changes in the blood levels of cortisol and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). However, these hormones have not been investigated simultaneously in patients with MDD and schizophrenia. We investigated the differences in serum cortisol and IGF-1 levels among patients with MDD and schizophrenia and controls. We included 129 patients with MDD, 71 patients with schizophrenia, and 71 healthy volunteers. Blood tests were performed between 6:00 am and 11:00 am after fasting. Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in patients with schizophrenia than in patients with MDD and controls. Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in patients with MDD than in controls. Serum IGF-1 levels were higher in both patient groups than in controls, whereas there was no significant difference between patients with MDD and schizophrenia. Both cortisol and IGF-1 levels were positively correlated with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score in patients with MDD, whereas cortisol level was positively correlated and IGF-1 level was negatively correlated with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale score in patients with schizophrenia. The differences in the level of these hormones suggest pathophysiological differences between these disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Hidrocortisona , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Jejum
11.
Cells ; 12(2)2023 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36672184

RESUMO

Human spaceflight is associated with several health-related issues as a result of long-term exposure to microgravity, ionizing radiation, and higher levels of psychological stress. Frequent reported skin problems in space include rashes, itches, and a delayed wound healing. Access to space is restricted by financial and logistical issues; as a consequence, experimental sample sizes are often small, which limits the generalization of the results. Earth-based simulation models can be used to investigate cellular responses as a result of exposure to certain spaceflight stressors. Here, we describe the development of an in vitro model of the simulated spaceflight environment, which we used to investigate the combined effect of simulated microgravity using the random positioning machine (RPM), ionizing radiation, and stress hormones on the wound-healing capacity of human dermal fibroblasts. Fibroblasts were exposed to cortisol, after which they were irradiated with different radiation qualities (including X-rays, protons, carbon ions, and iron ions) followed by exposure to simulated microgravity using a random positioning machine (RPM). Data related to the inflammatory, proliferation, and remodeling phase of wound healing has been collected. Results show that spaceflight stressors can interfere with the wound healing process at any phase. Moreover, several interactions between the different spaceflight stressors were found. This highlights the complexity that needs to be taken into account when studying the effect of spaceflight stressors on certain biological processes and for the aim of countermeasures development.


Assuntos
Ausência de Peso , Humanos , Ausência de Peso/efeitos adversos , Hidrocortisona/farmacologia , Simulação de Ausência de Peso , Radiação Ionizante , Cicatrização
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674647

RESUMO

Cortisol is central to several homeostatic mechanisms including the stress and immune response. Adrenal insufficiency and impaired cortisol production leads to severe, potentially fatal disorders. Several fundamental stages of steroidogenesis occur within the mitochondria. These dynamic organelles not only contribute ATP for steroidogenesis, but also detoxify harmful by-products generated during cortisol synthesis (reactive oxygen species). Mutations in nuclear or mitochondrial DNA that impair mitochondrial function lead to debilitating multi-system diseases. Recently, genetic variants that impair mitochondrial function have been identified in people with isolated cortisol insufficiency. This review aimed to clarify the association between mitochondrial diseases and adrenal insufficiency to produce cortisol. Mitochondrial diseases are rare and mitochondrial diseases that feature adrenal insufficiency are even rarer. We identified only 14 cases of adrenal insufficiency in people with confirmed mitochondrial diseases globally. In line with previous reviews, adrenal dysfunction was most prevalent in mitochondrial deletion syndromes (particularly Pearson syndrome and Kearns-Sayre syndrome) and with point mutations that compromised oxidative phosphorylation. Although adrenal insufficiency has been reported with mitochondrial diseases, the incidence reflects that expected in the general population. Thus, it is unlikely that mitochondrial mutations alone are responsible for an insufficiency to produce cortisol. More research is needed into the pathogenesis of adrenal disease in these individuals.


Assuntos
Doenças das Glândulas Suprarrenais , Insuficiência Adrenal , Doenças Mitocondriais , Humanos , Hidrocortisona , Doenças Mitocondriais/genética , Doenças das Glândulas Suprarrenais/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Insuficiência Adrenal/genética
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36675012

RESUMO

Aquaporins (AQPs) are water channels widely distributed in living organisms and involved in many pathophysiologies as well as in cell volume regulations (CVR). In the present study, based on the structural homology existing between mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs), glucocorticoid receptors (GRs), cholesterol consensus motif (CCM) and the extra-cellular vestibules of AQPs, we investigated the binding of corticosteroids on the AQP family through in silico molecular dynamics simulations of AQP2 interactions with cortisol. We propose, for the first time, a putative AQPs corticosteroid binding site (ACBS) and discussed its conservation through structural alignment. Corticosteroids can mediate non-genomic effects; nonetheless, the transduction pathways involved are still misunderstood. Moreover, a growing body of evidence is pointing toward the existence of a novel membrane receptor mediating part of these rapid corticosteroids' effects. Our results suggest that the naturally produced glucocorticoid cortisol inhibits channel water permeability. Based on these results, we propose a detailed description of a putative underlying molecular mechanism. In this process, we also bring new insights on the regulatory function of AQPs extra-cellular loops and on the role of ions in tuning the water permeability. Altogether, this work brings new insights into the non-genomic effects of corticosteroids through the proposition of AQPs as the membrane receptor of this family of regulatory molecules. This original result is the starting point for future investigations to define more in-depth and in vivo the validity of this functional model.


Assuntos
Aquaporina 2 , Aquaporinas , Água/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/farmacologia , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Corticosteroides/farmacologia , Permeabilidade
14.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 188(1)2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651158

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Endogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a severe condition, often diagnosed at a late stage. To reduce mortality, early diagnosis plays an important role. Two screening tools for early identification of patients with CS have been developed in multicentric cohorts, but have not yet been validated in cohorts with different geographic backgrounds. DESIGN: We validated the Spanish score published by Leon-Justel et al. in 2016 and the Italian score by Parasiliti-Caprino et al. published in 2021 in our cohort. METHODS: In the multicentric German Cushing registry, patients with confirmed and expected but ruled out Cushing's syndrome are prospectively diagnosed and followed up. We validated both scores in a cohort of 458 subjects: 176 patients with confirmed CS and 282 patients with suspected, but finally excluded CS. RESULTS: Using the Spanish score, 17.5% of our patients with proven CS biochemical screening would not have been recommended. This concerned patients with pituitary CS (22%) and with adrenal CS (10%). On the contrary, only 14% of patients without CS would have received a recommendation for biochemical screening. Using the Italian score, 29% of patients with proven CS were classified into the low-risk classes not recommended for biochemical screening. This mostly affected patients with adrenal (31%) and pituitary CS (30%). About 12% of subjects without CS would have received a biochemical screening recommendation. CONCLUSIONS: Both scores had limited sensitivity and high specificity in a German validation cohort. Further research is necessary to develop a screening score, which is effective in different healthcare systems and ethnicities.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Cushing , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH , Humanos , Síndrome de Cushing/diagnóstico , Hidrocortisona , Medição de Risco , Alemanha/epidemiologia
15.
Physiol Biochem Zool ; 96(1): 40-52, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36626845

RESUMO

AbstractReproduction represents the most energetically demanding period of life for many organisms. Capital breeders, such as anadromous sea trout (Salmo trutta), provide a particularly interesting group of organisms to study within the context of reproduction because they rely on energy stores accrued before breeding to reproduce and sustain all phenotypic and behavioral changes related to reproduction. Energy allocation into current reproduction therefore cannot be mitigated via food intake, resulting in an important life history trade-off. For this reason, exploring indexes related to energetics in salmonids can provide powerful insights into the physiological costs of reproduction. In this study, we sampled blood from and PIT tagged 232 fish captured in the wild before the spawning season. We recaptured and resampled 74 individuals (53 females and 21 males) at the end of the spawning season. Females were further divided into spawning phases (nonspawned, partially spawned, and spawned individuals), though males could not be classified as such. We compared nutritional correlates (triglycerides, cholesterol, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and total protein), stress correlates (cortisol, sodium, potassium, chloride, and glucose), and indexes of tissue damage (aspartate aminotransferase) between initial capture and recapture as well as among spawning phases in females. We found that nutritional status decreased in all fish throughout the spawning season but that it was substantially lower in females that had spawned. We further found that spawning itself appears stressful, with elevated glucose in partially spawned females and elevated cortisol in male sea trout at recapture. Our findings thus support the idea that the cost of reproduction is energetically high and that incurred stress and a decrease in nutritional status are important physiological costs.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Reprodução , Feminino , Animais , Masculino , Reprodução/fisiologia , Truta/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional , Glucose
16.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 248: 107184, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587591

RESUMO

The definition of new reliable markers for neonatal maturity evaluation is crucial in canine clinical practice. Concerns about the safety of amniotic sampling in pregnant dogs have prevented its collection for diagnostic purposes. Moreover, amniotic fluid had been considered waste material until the latest studies reported amniocentesis as a reliable and safe procedure, even in the canine species. In our study, amniotic fluid (n = 63) collected at birth from ten dogs undergoing elective Caesarean sections at term was analysed to discover new potential indices of canine neonatal maturity. Based on gestational age, mothers and puppies were divided into two groups: the early group (≤65 days from luteinizing hormone (LH) surge, n = 5) and the late group (>65 days from LH surge, n = 5). Amniotic parameters of the lightest and heaviest puppy in individual/each litter, with a birth weight difference of at least 20% among littermates, were also compared. In particular, the content of lecithin, sphingomyelin, surfactant protein A (SP-A), cortisol, and pentraxin 3 (PTX3) in amniotic fluid, which is considered predictive of foetal development in humans, were investigated. Maternal serum SP-A and cortisol were also measured simultaneously. All amniotic parameters were detectable in canine amniotic fluid. Interestingly, the concentrations of different amniotic parameters correlated with each other. Lecithin was positively correlated with sphingomyelin (p < 0.0001), maternal SP-A (p < 0.0005), and the ratio of amniotic and maternal cortisol (p < 0.004). Amniotic SP-A was inversely correlated to maternal SP-A (p < 0.05), lecithin (p < 0.005), and lecithin-sphingomyelin ratio (p < 0.05). A positive correlation was also recorded between amniotic and maternal cortisol (p < 0.008). Considering that all puppies were born alive and mature, these data could provide a potential range of expected amniotic values in full-term new-born dogs. Furthermore, since gestational age was positively correlated with both maternal and amniotic cortisol (p < 0.0001) and amniotic PTX3 (p < 0.05), amniotic fluid seems to be an attractive, innovative, and minimally invasive matrix with potential diagnostic and prognostic utility for the investigation of canine maturity.


Assuntos
Líquido Amniótico , Lecitinas , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Gravidez , Líquido Amniótico/metabolismo , Idade Gestacional , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Parto , Esfingomielinas/análise , Esfingomielinas/metabolismo
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(3): e2117547120, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36623187

RESUMO

Social disturbance in interpersonal relationships is the primary source of stress in humans. Spexin (SPX, SPX1a in cichlid), an evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide with diverse physiological functions, is up-regulated in the brain during chronic social defeat stress in teleost. On the other hand, repeated exposure to social stress can lead to dysregulation of the monoaminergic system and increase the vulnerability of developing depression. Since dysfunction of the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system is associated with social stress and the pathophysiology of depression, the present study investigated the regulatory relationship between the central 5-HT system and SPX1a in the male teleost, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). To identify stress factors that regulate SPX1a gene expression, cortisol, dexamethasone (DEX), and 5-HT were used to treat tilapia brain primary cultures. Our study shows cortisol and DEX treatment had no effect on SPX1a gene expression, but SPX1a gene expression was down-regulated following 5-HT treatment. Anatomical localization showed a close association between 5-HT immunoreactive projections and SPX1a neurons in the semicircular torus. In addition, 5-HT receptors (5-HT2B) were expressed in SPX1a neurons. SPX1a immunoreactive neurons and SPX1a gene expression were significantly increased in socially defeated tilapia. On the other hand, citalopram (antidepressant, 5-HT antagonist) treatment to socially defeated tilapia normalized SPX1a gene expression to control levels. Taken together, the present study shows that 5-HT is an upstream regulator of SPX1a and that the inhibited 5-HT activates SPX1a during social defeat.


Assuntos
Hormônios Peptídicos , Serotonina , Derrota Social , Tilápia , Animais , Masculino , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/farmacologia , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Serotonina/metabolismo , Tilápia/genética , Hormônios Peptídicos/metabolismo
18.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 43(1): 113-123, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36640002

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigated the effects of suspended moxibustion stimulating Shenshu (BL23) and Guanyuan (CV4) acupoints on the amygdala and HPA axis in our rat model and elucidated the possible molecular mechanisms of moxibustion on kidney- deficiency symptom pattern (KYDS). METHODS: Sixty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group ( 12) and an experimental group ( 48). Rats in the experimental group were given intramuscular injections of hydrocortisone to establish a KYDS model. The 48 rats successfully modeled were then randomly divided into a model group (model, 12), a carbenoxolone intraperitoneal injection group (CBX, 12), a moxibustion group (moxi, 12), and a moxi + CBX group ( 12). In the moxi, the Shenshu (BL23) and Guanyuan (CV 4) acupoints were treated with moxibustion for 14 d. After treatment, measures were taken of serum levels of corticosterone (CORT), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). The expression of mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs), glucocorticoid receptors (GRs), 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11ß-HSD1), CRH, and ACTH in the rats' amygdala, hypothalamus, or pituitary (as appropriate) was detected. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: Compared with those of the control group, the serum levels of CRH, ACTH, and CORT; the mRNA and protein expressions of MR, GR, and 11ß-HSD1 in the amygdala; the mRNA and protein expressions of 11ß-HSD1 in the hypothalamus; the CRH mRNA expression in the amygdala and hypothalamus; and the ACTH mRNA expression in the pituitary of the rats in the model group were all significantly decreased (0.05 or 0.01). After treatment with moxibustion, all the aforementioned observation indices except for 11ß-HSD1 mRNA expression were ameliorated compared with those in the model group (0.05 or 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Suspended moxibustion can effectively improve the serum levels of ACTH, CRH, and CORT and can up-regulate the mRNA and protein expressions of MR, GR, 11ß-HSD1, CRH, and ACTH in the amygdala and hypothalamus of KYDS rats. This may be one of the molecular mechanisms with which moxibustion alleviates KYDS.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Moxibustão , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/metabolismo , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/farmacologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/genética , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/metabolismo , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/farmacologia , Corticosterona/metabolismo , Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo
19.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 53(4): 679-688, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36640069

RESUMO

Trazodone is a dose-dependent serotonin antagonist and agonist used to treat anxiety-related conditions. Trauma has been identified as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in several nondomestic ruminant species and can be exacerbated by stress. In a recent study in domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus), trazodone reduced activity levels without adverse effects. Trazodone could allow for safer capture and handling in nondomestic ruminant species. The objectives of this study were to identify a dose of trazodone that decreases activity levels in captive blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) and to evaluate its safety and its effects on serum cortisol levels following a routine veterinary procedure. A pilot study using ethograms identified a group fed 15 mg/kg oral dose of trazodone as effective to reduce activity levels. Over 6 h, this dose resulted in a 111% increase in time spent sleeping or resting (P = 0.0003), a 41% increase in time spent lying down (P = 0.0016), a 64% reduction in time spent moving (P= 0.005), and a 65% reduction in time spent being vigilant (P= 0.026). Systemic absorption of trazodone was identified when plasma concentrations were measured after 2 h (95 ± 48 µg/L). Serum cortisol levels during a routine venipuncture event were not significantly different following trazodone administration (P > 0.05). Mild hyporexia was the only adverse effect noted at 15 mg/kg and was absent at a 12 mg/kg dose. Trazodone appears safe and promising to decrease activity in blue wildebeest and might thus have a positive effect on nondomestic ruminant welfare and the safety of veterinary procedures.


Assuntos
Antílopes , Trazodona , Animais , Trazodona/farmacologia , Hidrocortisona , Projetos Piloto , Comportamento Animal
20.
Anim Sci J ; 94(1): e13809, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36653895

RESUMO

In intensive pig production, the fighting behavior of weaning piglets after merging pens is relatively common. Fighting behavior not only easily causes injury in pigs but also affects the production performance of pigs. To reduce fighting behavior in farms, this study aimed to explore the possible effect of odorous substances on piglet fighting behavior after merging into a large pen. Six different sprays were tested: original creamy, cheese flavor, orange flavor, truffle, vanilla and pigpen flavor. In each experiment, two groups were set (one odor-sprayed and no sprayed control), and 12 pigs were used per group. After mixing, the frequency of occurrence of various piglet behaviors in different pens was recorded. During this period, salivary cortisol levels and skin lesion scores were evaluated. As a result, the piglets sprayed with the original creamy, cheese flavor and vanilla substances obtained significantly higher average daily gain and feed intake and showed a significantly lower incidence of fighting behavior, and the skin lesion score and salivary cortisol of piglets were also reduced significantly. All the other odorous substances had no significant effects on the fighting behavior and production performance of piglets.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Odorantes , Animais , Suínos , Desmame , Ingestão de Alimentos
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