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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253083, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360201

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) use efficiency is crucial for sorghum production. P acquisition efficiency is the most important component of P use efficiency. The early-stage evaluation of plant development is a useful tool for identifying P-efficient genotypes. This study aimed to identify sorghum hybrids that are efficient in P use efficiency and assess the genetic diversity among hybrids based on traits related to P acquisition efficiency. Thus, 38 sorghum hybrids and two inbred lines (checks) were evaluated under low and high P in a paper pouch system with nutrient solution. Biomass and root traits related to P efficiency were measured. There was no interaction between genotypes and P levels concerning all evaluated traits. The biomass and root traits, except root diameter, presented smaller means under low P than high P. Efficient and inefficient hybrids under each P level were identified. The genetic diversity assessment grouped these genotypes in different clusters. The hybrids AG1090, MSK326, AG1060, 1G100, AS 4639, DKB 540, and DKB 590 were superior under low-P and high-P. Hybrids SC121, 1236020 e 1167017 presented the lowest means than all other hybrids, under both conditions. The evaluated hybrids showed phenotypic diversity for traits related to P acquisition, such as root length and root surface area, which can be useful for establishing selection strategies for sorghum breeding programs and increasing P use efficiency.


A eficiência do uso do fósforo (P) é fundamental para a produção de sorgo. A avaliação no estágio inicial do desenvolvimento da planta é uma ferramenta útil para a identificação de genótipos eficientes de P. Este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar híbridos de sorgo que sejam eficientes ao uso de P e avaliar a diversidade genética entre os híbridos com base em características relacionadas à eficiência de aquisição de P. Assim, 38 híbridos de sorgo e duas linhagens (testemunhas) foram avaliados sob baixo e alto P em sistema de pastas de papel com solução nutritiva. Características de biomassa e de raiz relacionadas à eficiência de P foram mensuradas. Não houve interação entre genótipos e níveis de P em todas as características avaliadas. As características de biomassa e raiz, exceto o diâmetro da raiz, apresentaram médias menores sob baixo P em comparação com alto P. Híbridos eficientes e ineficientes sob cada nível de P foram identificados e agrupados quanto à diversidade genética. Os híbridos AG1090, MSK326, AG1060, 1G100, AS 4639, DKB 540 e DKB 590 foram superiores sob baixo-P e alto-P. Os híbridos SC121, 1236020 e 1167017 apresentaram as menores médias que todos os outros híbridos, em ambas condições. Os híbridos avaliados apresentaram diversidade fenotípica para características relacionadas à aquisição de P, como comprimento e área superficial da raiz, o que pode ser útil para estabelecer estratégias de seleção para programas de melhoramento de sorgo e aumentar a eficiência de uso do P.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Variação Genética , Hidroponia , Sorghum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 943, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36653392

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the effect of hydroponic barley (HB) by substituting control diet with 25% HB with or without enzymes on rabbit performance, nutrient digestibility, and economic efficiency. A total number of 60 growing male HyPlus rabbits (average body weight 669 ± 12 g, 30 days of age) were utilized in the present study. The rabbits were randomly assigned to three groups (n = 20 rabbits per group). The first group served as a control (C). The other two groups were fed the control diet substituted with 25% hydroponic barley HB (group CHB), and the control diet substituted with 25% HB added with 0.5 g/kg enzymes (CHBE). The experiment lasted for 56 days. The results revealed that daily body weight gain improved (P < 0.05) by 18.64% and 23.94%, and feed conversion ratio improved by 3.74% and 17.91% than control, respectively, during 30-86 days of age in CHB and CHBE groups. The economic efficiency was improved (P < 0.05) by 32.17% and 39.60% in CHB and CHBE diets, respectively, compared to control; and nutrient digestibility, and mineral retention of growing rabbits were also improved (P < 0.05) by substituting HB with or without enzymes compared to control diet. Overall, the best rabbit performances were observed in both CHB and CHBE groups. In conclusion, these results suggest that substituting 25% of concentrated control diet by hydroponic barley with or without enzymes have positive effects in a sustainable way on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and economic efficiency of growing rabbits.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Animais , Masculino , Coelhos , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Peso Corporal , Dieta , Digestão , Hidroponia
3.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677964

RESUMO

The unique and tailorable physicochemical features of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) synthesized from green sources make them attractive for use in cancer treatment. Hydroponic-cultured ginseng-root-synthesized ZnO-NPs (HGRCm-ZnO NPs) were coated with O-carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) polymer, which stabilized and enhanced the biological efficacy of the nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The flower-shaped nanoparticles were crystalline in nature with a particle size of 28 nm. To evaluate if these NPs had anti-lung cancer activity, analysis was performed on a human lung carcinoma cell line (A549). HGRCm-ZnO nanoparticles showed less toxicity to normal keratinocytes (HaCaTs), at concentrations up to 20 µg/mL, than A549 cancer cells. Additionally, these NPs showed dose-dependent colony formation and cell migration inhibition ability, which makes them more promising for lung cancer treatment. Additionally, Hoechst and propidium iodide dye staining also confirmed that the NP formulation had apoptotic activity in cancer cells. Further, to evaluate the mechanism of cancer cell death via checking the gene expression, HGRCm ZnO NPs upregulated the BAX and Caspase 3 and 9 expression levels but downregulated Bcl-2 expression, indicating that the nanoformulation induced mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. Moreover, these preliminary results suggest that HGRCm ZnO NPs can be a potential candidate for future lung cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Neoplasias , Panax , Óxido de Zinco , Humanos , Óxido de Zinco/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Regulação para Baixo , Hidroponia , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Panax/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Difração de Raios X , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química
4.
Molecules ; 28(1)2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36615566

RESUMO

The urgent need to increase the sustainability of crop production has pushed the agricultural sector towards the use of biostimulants based on natural products. The current work aimed to determine whether the preharvest application of two commercial formulations, based on a Fabaceae enzymatic hydrolysate or a blend of nitrogen sources including fulvic acids, and two lab-made aqueous extracts from Moringa oleifera leaves (MLEs), could improve yield, quality, and storability of lettuce grown in a hydroponic system, as compared to an untreated control. Lettuce plants treated with the MLEs showed significantly improved quality parameters (leaf number, area, and color), total phenolic content and antioxidant activity, and resistance against the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, comparable to that obtained with commercial formulates, particularly those based on the protein hydrolysate. A difference between the M. oleifera extracts was observed, probably due to the different compositions. Although further large-scale trials are needed, the tested MLEs seem a promising safe and effective preharvest means to improve lettuce agronomic and quality parameters and decrease susceptibility to rots.


Assuntos
Moringa oleifera , Alface , Hidroponia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(1)2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36617048

RESUMO

Heavy metal concentrations that must be maintained in aquaponic environments for plant growth have been a source of concern for many decades, as they cannot be completely eliminated in a commercial set-up. Our goal was to create a low-cost real-time smart sensing and actuation system for controlling heavy metal concentrations in aquaponic solutions. Our solution entails sensing the nutrient concentrations in the hydroponic solution, specifically calcium, sulfate, and phosphate, and sending them to a Machine Learning (ML) model hosted on an Android application. The ML algorithm used in this case was a Linear Support Vector Machine (Linear-SVM) trained on top three nutrient predictors chosen after applying a pipeline of Feature Selection methods namely a pairwise correlation matrix, ExtraTreesClassifier and Xgboost classifier on a dataset recorded from three aquaponic farms from South-East Texas. The ML algorithm was then hosted on a cloud platform which would then output the maximum tolerable levels of iron, copper and zinc in real time using the concentration of phosphorus, calcium and sulfur as inputs and would be controlled using an array of dispensing and detecting equipments in a closed loop system.


Assuntos
Alface , Metais Pesados , Hidroponia , Cálcio , Ferro , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 862: 160684, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36481150

RESUMO

The extensive use of per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) and their substitutes has resulted in their frequent detections in environmental matrices. However, limited information is known about their uptake into vegetables and health risk through diet, particularly for those emerging alternatives. In this study, a total of 17 PFASs (namely 12 legacy PFASs and 5 of their alternatives) were compared for their accumulation into four staple vegetables (lettuce, Chinese cabbage, chrysanthemum coronarium, and cucumber) in hydroponic system with single PFAS concentration being 10 µg/L, except for 8:2 chlorinated polyfluoroalkyl ether sulfonate (Cl-PFESA) as 0.5 µg/L. The sum concentrations of 17 PFASs in edible parts were in the order of Chinese cabbage leaf (13,456 ng/g) > lettuce leaf (5996 ng/g) > cucumber fruit (4115 ng/g) >chrysanthemum coronarium stem (3999 ng/g). For perfluorooctanoate acid (PFOA) and its alternatives, hexafluoropropylene oxide trimer acid (HFPO-TA) preferentially accumulated in roots than PFOA with root concentration factors being 35.7-99.9. Translocation to edible parts was more remarkable for hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (HFPO-DA) compared with PFOA in lettuce and cucumber. For perfluorooctanesulfonate acid (PFOS) and its alternatives, roots of all the four vegetables were found to more readily accumulate 8:2 Cl-PFESA than PFOS, but 8:2 Cl-PFESA was hardly translocated to the aerial parts. Significantly (p < 0.05) higher edible concentrations of 8:2 and 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acids (FTSA) than that of PFOS were observed for cucumber.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Brassica , Fluorcarbonetos , Verduras , Hidroponia , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Alcanossulfonatos , Éteres , Éter , China
7.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 126: 138-152, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36503743

RESUMO

The OsLCD gene, which has been implicated in cadmium (Cd) accumulation in rice, might be a useful target for CRISPR/Cas9 editing. However, the effects of OsLCD gene editing on Cd accumulation, plant growth, and yield traits remain unknown. Here, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to generate oslcd single mutants from indica and japonica rice cultivars. We also generated osnramp5 single mutants and oslcd osnramp5 double mutants in the indica background. When grown in Cd-contaminated paddy soils, all oslcd single mutants accumulated less Cd than the wild types (WTs). Consistent with this, oslcd single mutants grown in Cd-contaminated hydroponic culture accumulated significantly less Cd in the shoots as compared to WTs. This decrease in accumulation probably resulted from the reduction of Cd translocation under Cd stress. Oxidative damage also decreased, and plant growth increased in all oslcd single mutant seedlings as compared to WTs in the presence of Cd. Plant growth and most yield traits, as well essential element concentrations in rice seedling shoots, brown rice, and rice straw, were similar between oslcd single mutants and WTs. In the presence of Cd, Cd concentrations in the brown rice and shoots of oslcd osnramp5 double mutants were significantly decreased compared with WTs as well as osnramp single mutants. Our results suggested that OsLCD knockout may reduce Cd accumulation alone or in combination with other knockout mutations in a variety of rice genotypes; unlike OsNramp5 mutations, OsLCD knockout did not reduce essential element contents. Therefore, OsLCD knockout might be used to generate low-Cd rice germplasms.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Oryza , Cádmio/toxicidade , Oryza/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Plântula , Hidroponia
8.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 126: 602-611, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36503786

RESUMO

Salt-tolerant rice (sea rice) is a key cultivar for increasing rice yields in salinity soil. The co-existence of salinity and cadmium (Cd) toxicities in the plant-soil system has become a great challenge for sustainable agriculture, especially in some estuaries and coastal areas. However, little information is available on the Cd accumulating features of sea rice under the co-stress of Cd and salinity. In this work, a hydroponic experiment with combined Cd (0, 0.2, 0.8 mg/L Cd2+) and saline (0, 0.6%, and 1.2% NaCl, W/V) levels and a pot experiment were set to evaluate the Cd toxic risks of sea rice. The hydroponic results showed that more Cd accumulated in sea rice than that in the reported high-Cd-accumulating rice, Chang Xianggu. It indicated an interesting synergistic effect between Cd and Na levels in sea rice, and the Cd level rose significantly with a concomitant increase in Na level in both shoot (r = 0.54, p < 0.01) and root (r = 0.66, p < 0.01) of sea rice. Lower MDA content was found in sea rice, implying that the salt addition probably triggered the defensive ability against oxidative stress. The pot experiment indicated that the coexistent Cd and salinity stress further inhibited the rice growth and rice yield, and the Cd concentration in rice grain was below 0.2 mg/kg. Collectively, this work provides a general understanding of the co-stress of Cd and salinity on the growth and Cd accumulation of sea rice. Additional work is required to precisely identify the phytoremediation potential of sea rice in Cd-polluted saline soil.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Oryza , Cádmio/toxicidade , Salinidade , Hidroponia , Solo
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 71(1): 710-720, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36574360

RESUMO

Short-term nitrogen limitation and continuous lighting (red/blue = 3:1) were applied individually and in combination to butterhead and red oak leaf lettuce for 1, 2, or 3 days before harvest to assess their effects on improving the nutritional value and sweet taste and reducing nitrate content and bitterness of lettuce. The results suggested that a 3-day nitrogen limitation combined with continuous lighting reduced the lettuce content of nitrate and sesquiterpene lactones and improved the quantities of soluble sugar, soluble protein, anthocyanins, and phenolic compounds without reducing the fresh weight of lettuce. In addition, in vitro simulated digestion results suggested that the 3-day nitrogen limitation combined with continuous lighting significantly improved the sweetness and reduced the bitterness of lettuce compared to the control. In conclusion, nitrogen limitation combined with continuous lighting for 3 days before harvest effectively enhanced the quality and taste of lettuce, showing great potential for its use in hydroponic lettuce production.


Assuntos
Alface , Iluminação , Alface/metabolismo , Nitratos/metabolismo , Hidroponia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
10.
J Environ Manage ; 328: 116974, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36516714

RESUMO

To overcome the scarcity of fresh water, concerned authorities worldwide are bound to think about remediation and reuse of domestic and industrial effluents. The present review study on integrated vermifiltrationwith hydroponic system explains mechanism followed in system and presently the reutilization and remediation of domestic and industrial effluents. It explains the result of integrated vermifiltration and recognizes factors such as clogging, hydraulic loading rate or rain on bed, salinity, and sunlight affect the efficiency of system. The study also focuses on limitations associated with vermifiltration and also suggestions have been made for enhancing the sustainability and performance of existing practices. After literature review, integrated vermifiltration with hydroponic system considered as a natural and eco-friendly method for treating polluted water. Active zone of vermifilter remove organics, nitrate from nitrogen, total and dissolved phosphorus from wastewater. The vermifiltration and integrated vermifiltration with macrophyte able remove chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the range (53.7%-64.4%) and (75.5%-82.8%) respectively. The integrated system reduces land consumption and wastewater can be reutilized in cultivation.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos , Hidroponia , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Nitratos , Nitrogênio , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos
11.
Environ Res ; 219: 115020, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36521539

RESUMO

Hydroponic effluent (HE) contains a reasonable amount of residual nutrients. Therefore, HE could be used as a low-cost growth media for microalgae mediated resource recovery and water recycling. However, the presence of root exudates (particularly, benzoic acid) may lead to toxicity in microalgae.In the present study, the allelopathic effects of benzoic acid on microalgal growth was tested. During 96 h batch growth, Chlorella pyrenoidosa showed the highest biomass concentration (0.064-0.037 g.L-1) compared to Chlorella sorokiniana (0.09-0.26 g.L-1) at the tested benzoic acid doses. Moreover, both the species showed growth stimulation and growth inhibition up to certain benzoic acid doses. Hence, both the microalgal species showed allelopathic behaviour at different doses of benzoic acid. Further, the observed half effective concentration (96 h EC50) were 65.10 mg.L-1 and 105.27 mg.L-1, respectively, for Chlorella pyrenoidosa and C. sorokiniana with 95% confidence limits. Further, Haldane's model best fitted with experimental data of both the microalgae (r âˆ¼ 0.99). Overall, the study reveals that the HE with low benzoic acid dose may serve as a suitable growth media for microalgae. However, further in-depth research interventions using real HE are desirable to determine its real-world applicability.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Microalgas , Hidroponia , Água , Biomassa
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(20): 5502-5507, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36471966

RESUMO

The present study explored the physiological mechanism of the effects of different pH treatments on the growth, physiological characteristics, and stachydrine biosynthesis of Leonurus japonicus to provide references for the cultivation and quality control of L. japonicus. Under hydroponic conditions, different pH treatments(pH 5,6,7,8) were set up. The growth, physiology, and the content of stachydrine and total alkaloids of L. japonicus, as well as the content of key intermediate products in stachydrine biosynthesis pathway(i.e., pyruvic acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, glutamic acid, and ornithine) were monitored to explore the physiological mechanism of the effects of pH on the growth and active components of L. japonicus. The results showed that L. japonicus. could grow normally in the pH 5-8 solution. The pH treatment of neutral acidity was more conducive to the accumulation of photosynthetic pigments and the increase in soluble protein in leaves of L. japonicus. to promote its growth and yield. However, since stachydrine is a nitrogen-containing pyrrolidine alkaloid, its synthesis involves the two key rate-limiting steps of nitrogen addition: reductive ammoniation reaction and Schiff base formation reaction. High pH treatments promote the synthesis and accumulation of substrates and products of the above two reactions, indicating that the alkaline environment can promote the nitrogen addition reaction, thereby promoting the biosynthesis and accumulation of stachydrine.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Leonurus , Leonurus/química , Hidroponia , Nitrogênio , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36554374

RESUMO

The phytoextraction ability and responses of sunn hemp, sunflower, and marigold plants were investigated toward carbaryl insecticide at 10 mg L-1 and its degradative product (1-naphthol). All test plants exhibited significant carbaryl removal capability (65-93%) with different mechanisms. Marigold had the highest translocation factor, with carbaryl taken up, translocated and accumulated in the shoots, where it was biotransformed into 1-naphthol. Consequently, marigold had the least observable toxicity symptoms caused by carbaryl and the highest bioconcentration factor (1848), indicating its hyperaccumulating capability. Sunflower responded to carbaryl exposure differently, with the highest carbaryl accumulation (8.7 mg kg-1) in roots within 4 days of cultivation, leading to a partial toxicity effect. Sunn hemp exhibited severe toxicity, having the highest carbaryl accumulation (91.7 mg kg-1) that was biotransformed to 1-naphthol in the sunn hemp shoots. In addition, the different models were discussed on plant hormone formation in response to carbaryl exposure.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Helianthus , Hidroponia , Carbaril/toxicidade , Plantas
14.
Molecules ; 27(24)2022 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36558107

RESUMO

Soilless cultivation of saffron (Crocus sativus) in a controlled environment represents an interesting alternative to field cultivation, in order to obtain a standardized high-quality product and to optimize yields. In particular, pharma-grade saffron is fundamental for therapeutic applications of this spice, whose efficacy has been demonstrated in the treatment of macular diseases, such as Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD). In this work, a hydroponic cultivation system was developed, specifically designed to meet the needs of C. sativus plant. Various cultivation recipes, different in spectrum and intensity of lighting, temperature, photoperiod and irrigation, have been adopted to study their effect on saffron production. The experimentation involved the cultivation of corms from two subsequent farm years, to identify and validate the optimal conditions, both in terms of quantitative yield and as accumulation of bioactive metabolites, with particular reference to crocins and picrocrocin, which define the 'pharma-grade' quality of saffron. Through HPLC analysis and chromatography it was possible to identify the cultivation parameters suitable for the production of saffron with neuroprotective properties, evaluated by comparison with an ISO standard and the REPRON® procedure. Furthermore, the biochemical characterization was completed through NMR and high-resolution mass spectrometry analyses of saffron extracts. The whole experimental framework allowed to establish an optimized protocol to produce pharma-grade saffron, allowing up to 3.2 g/m2 harvest (i.e., more than three times higher than field production in optimal conditions), which meets the standards of composition for the therapy of AMD.


Assuntos
Crocus , Crocus/química , Fazendas , Hidroponia , Agricultura Molecular , Agricultura , Extratos Vegetais/química
15.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2022: 1984297, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36425880

RESUMO

Agricultural land has been converted into settlements following the population growth in various parts of the country. The productivity of horticulture, particularly pagoda mustard (Brassica narinosa L), decreases with the narrowing of fields. The main milestone as a promising solution to overcoming this issue is applying the hydroponic technique. This study aims to analyze the potential of hydroponic kit-based growing on a self-fertigation system for pagoda mustard production. In contrast to general hydroponic, the proposed hydroponic kit is supported by a smart valve component as a unique novelty used for the automatic distribution of nutrients without electrical power (zero energy). The mustard seeds were sown on rockwool for two to three days in a dark room and placed in the sun for seventeen days. A total of 50 pagoda mustard seeds were arranged evenly on a self-fertigation system tray following a zig-zag planting pattern for forty days. The seed has the following morphological characteristics: average height of 22.88 cm, biomass width of 26.42 cm, root length of 23.4 cm, and weight of 241.5 g. Furthermore, the production requires a total fertigation consumption of 186 L (equal to 0.0935 L/plant day-1) with an actual crop coefficient between 0.01 and 0.54. The proposed system shows good performance for mustard growth with a uniformity value between 80 and 89%. Finally, hydroponic kit-based growing on a self-fertigation system can be applied in various areas to produce and maintain a sustainable food supply.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Mostardeira , Hidroponia , Agricultura/métodos , Sementes
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(22)2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36433502

RESUMO

The world population is on the rise, which demands higher food production. The reduction in the amount of land under cultivation due to urbanization makes this more challenging. The solution to this problem lies in the artificial cultivation of crops. IoT and sensors play an important role in optimizing the artificial cultivation of crops. The selection of sensors is important in order to ensure a better quality and yield in an automated artificial environment. There are many challenges involved in selecting sensors due to the highly competitive market. This paper provides a novel approach to sensor selection for saffron cultivation in an IoT-based environment. The crop used in this study is saffron due to the reason that much less research has been conducted on its hydroponic cultivation using sensors and its huge economic impact. A detailed hardware-based framework, the growth cycle of the crop, along with all the sensors, and the block layout used for saffron cultivation in a hydroponic medium are provided. The important parameters for a hydroponic medium, such as the concentration of nutrients and flow rate required, are discussed in detail. This paper is the first of its kind to explain the sensor configurations, performance metrics, and sensor-based saffron cultivation model. The paper discusses different metrics related to the selection, use and role of sensors in different IoT-based saffron cultivation practices. A smart hydroponic setup for saffron cultivation is proposed. The results of the model are evaluated using the AquaCrop simulator. The simulator is used to evaluate the value of performance metrics such as the yield, harvest index, water productivity, and biomass. The values obtained provide better results as compared to natural cultivation.


Assuntos
Crocus , Hidroponia , Agricultura/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas , Biomassa
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(19)2022 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36236490

RESUMO

The use of automation, Internet-of-Things (IoT), and smart technologies is being rapidly introduced into the development of agriculture. Technologies such as sensing, remote monitoring, and predictive tools have been used with the purpose of enhancing agriculture processes, aquaponics among them, and improving the quality of the products. Digital twinning enables the testing and implementing of improvements in the physical component through the implementation of computational tools in a 'twin' virtual environment. This paper presents a framework for the development of a digital twin for an aquaponic system. This framework is validated by developing a digital twin for the grow beds of an aquaponics system for real-time monitoring parameters, namely pH, electroconductivity, water temperature, relative humidity, air temperature, and light intensity, and supports the use of artificial intelligent techniques to, for example, predict the growth rate and fresh weight of the growing crops. The digital twin presented is based on IoT technology, databases, a centralized control of the system, and a virtual interface that allows users to have feedback control of the system while visualizing the state of the aquaponic system in real time.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Produtos Agrícolas , Inteligência Artificial , Hidroponia/métodos , Água
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(19)2022 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36236778

RESUMO

Aquaponic health is a very important in the food industry field, as currently there is a huge amount of fishing farms, and the demands are growing in the whole world. This work examines the process of developing an innovative aquaponics health monitoring system that incorporates high-tech back-end innovation sensors to examine fish and crop health and a data analytics framework with a low-tech front-end approach to feedback actions to farmers. The developed system improves the state-of-the-art in terms of aquaponics life cycle monitoring metrics and communication technologies, and the energy consumption has been reduced to make a sustainable system.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Água , Animais , Pesqueiros , Hidroponia
19.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e262664, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36197402

RESUMO

The excess of salts present in the water can limit the hydroponic cultivation of melon in semi-arid regions of the Brazilian Northeast, making it necessary to use strategies that allow the use of these waters. Among these strategies, the use of elicitor substances stands out, such as salicylic acid. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of foliar application of salicylic acid in mitigating the harmful effects of salt stress on the morphophysiology and production of 'Gaúcho' melon cultivated in a hydroponic system. A completely randomized design was adopted in a split-plot scheme, with four levels of electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution - ECsn (2.1, 3.2, 4.3, and 5.4 dS m-1) considered the plots and four salicylic acid concentrations - SA (0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 mM), the subplots, with six replications. The foliar application of salicylic acid concentrations did not mitigate the deleterious effects of salt stress on the morphophysiology and yield of melon grown in hydroponic system. The concentration of 4.5 mM of salicylic acid intensified the harmful effects of the salinity of the nutrient solution on gas exchange and fresh weight of hydroponic melon.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae , Ácido Salicílico , Hidroponia , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Estresse Salino , Sais , Água
20.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275710, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36197903

RESUMO

Germination and seedling establishment for transplanting into hydroponics often uses porous substrates, but fine roots grow into these substrates, and they cannot be removed without damaging these roots. Seedlings transplanted without removal of substrates can cause interactions with solution chemistry or addition of particulates to the nutrient solution. Germination of seeds on slant boards is clean, uniform, and reduces the time to transplanting. Slant boards facilitate development of long roots, which maximize exposure of the primary root to the nutrient solution after transplanting. The "boards" are made from thin acrylic or polycarbonate sheets with germination paper on top. Seeds are held in place by covering with thin paper before vertical placement of the boards in the container. Four to twelve days later, the seedlings with long roots can be removed from the paper without damage and transplanted into the hydroponic system. Here we describe slant board construction and procedures for rapid germination and transplanting in hydroponics.


Assuntos
Germinação , Plântula , Hidroponia , Raízes de Plantas , Sementes
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