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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130558, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284184

RESUMO

Leafy vegetables like lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) naturally have high nitrate content and the European Commission has set maximum level for nitrate in lettuce. Glycinebetaine is an organic osmolyte alleviating plant stress, but its role in leaf nitrate accumulation remains unknown. The uptake of glycinebetaine by lettuce roots, and its potential to regulate lettuce nitrate content and improve plant quality were investigated. Two hydroponic lettuce experiments were conducted with different glycinebetaine application rates (Exp1: 0, 1, 7.5, and 15 mM; Exp2: 0, 1 + 1 + 1, 1 + 10, and 4 mM). Plants were analyzed at varying time points. Root application resulted in glycinebetaine uptake and translocation to the leaves. Glycinebetaine concentrations > 7.5 mM reduced leaf nitrate up to 40% and increased leaf dry matter content. Glycinebetaine showed a positive effect on leaf mineral and amino acid composition. Thus, glycinebetaine could be a novel strategy to reduce the nitrate content in hydroponic lettuce.


Assuntos
Alface , Nitratos , Hidroponia , Nitratos/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Verduras
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126700, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332487

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) are emerging contaminants in terrestrial systems that cause diverse impacts on plants. However, little is known about whether MPs especially micro-sized MPs can be accumulated and translocated in plants particularly food crops. Hereby, a hydroponic experiment was conducted to verify whether nano-sized (80 nm) and micro-sized (1 µm) fluorescently labeled polystyrene (PS) microspheres can enter rice roots and translocate to aerial parts. Plant samples were taken for detection of PS after 14 days and 40 days exposure, respectively. Both nano- and micro-sized PS microspheres were detected in roots, stems, and leaves of rice seedlings by using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Both 80 nm and 1 µm PS microspheres accumulated in the vascular systems of plant tissues, especially root stele, stem vascular bundles and leaf veins, and mostly aggregated on cell walls and in the intercellular regions. These findings imply that both nano- and micro-sized MPs could be absorbed by rice roots and subsequently translocated to aerial parts, and apoplastic transport may be the main pathway. In conclusion, rice seedlings can accumulate nano/microplastics in their roots and translocate them to aboveground tissues, thereby possibly transferring the accumulated nano/microplastics to higher trophic levels through the food chain.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Oryza , Hidroponia , Plásticos , Poliestirenos , Plântula
3.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 4): 132456, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606891

RESUMO

The root uptake and root-shoot translocation of seven organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) and four novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) were assessed in this investigation using hydroponic grown maize plants (Zea mays). Three initial liquid concentrations for each considered compound were examined (i.e., 0.3 µg L-1, 3 µg L-1, 30 µg L-1). The results indicated that the 30 µg L-1 treatments were phytotoxic, as they resulted in a significant decrease in shoot dry weight. Plant-driven removal of the tested FRs decreased with the increasing initial spiking level and were reportedly higher for the NBFRs (range 42%-10%) than OPFRs (range 19%-7%). All the considered FRs were measured in the roots (range 0.020-6.123 µg g-1 dry weight -DW-) and shoots (range 0.012-1.364 µg g-1 DW) of the tested plants, confirming that there was uptake. Linear relationships were identified between the chemical concentrations in the plant parts and the tested hydroponic concentrations. Root concentration factors were positively correlated with the specific lipophilicity (i.e., logKow) of the tested FRs and were determined to be higher for the NBFRs than the OPFRs. The NBFRs had a higher root uptake rate than the OPFRs, and this trend was more significant with the increasing treatment concentrations. Shoot/root concentration factors were found to be lower than the unity value for 10 of the 11 tested compounds. These results can be related to the specific molecular configurations and the occurrence of different functional groups in the tested compounds. The results will help to improve risk assessment procedures and fine tune our understanding of human receptor responses to the ingestion of maize crops grown on agricultural sites irrigated with water contaminated by FRs.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Produtos Agrícolas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Hidroponia , Compostos Organofosforados , Zea mays
4.
J Emerg Manag ; 19(5): 505-511, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812485

RESUMO

Many outdoor gardens are designed for plants to grow in soil. Few gardens are designed for plants to be hydroponically grown outside with energy and water capture technologies. The feasibility of a selfsufficient, adaptive hydroponic garden harnessing energy from multiple renewable energy (solar and wind) and rainwater collection techniques while producing food has been considered. This study's primary objective is to conduct a comparative analysis between a traditional soil garden bed and an outdoor hydroponic system, called Pangea. The study findings suggest no significant statistical difference between the plants grown in traditional soil and a Pangea system. Additional objectives of this study include a comparative analysis of water and energy differentials between a standard garden and Pangea. This study's energy findings suggest that the Pangea system produces 0.05 kWh of energy to 0 kWh of energy production in the classic soil over a month timespan. The water production findings indicate that a Pangea system produces 198.01 L of water and a classic soil of 69 L for a timespan of 1 month, concluding a positive water differential of 288.12 L and a negative water differential of 414 L after 6 months. The study findings suggest the combination of sustainable practices can limit the negative effects of weather-related events to create a positive differential for producing food, water, and energy.


Assuntos
Jardins , Solo , Mudança Climática , Humanos , Hidroponia , Água
5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 740102, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34631651

RESUMO

Background: School-based green space activities have been found to be beneficial to the physical activity level and lifestyle habits of adolescent students. However, their effects on green space use and satisfaction, mental health, and dietary behaviors required further investigation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of school-based hydroponic planting integrated with health promotion activities in improving green space use, competence and satisfaction, healthy lifestyle, mental health, and health-related quality of life (QoL) among early adolescent students in secondary schools. Methods: This study adopted a three-group comparison design (one control and two intervention groups). Secondary school students (N = 553) of grades 7-9 participated in either (1) hydroponic planting (two times per week for 8 months) integrated with health promotion activities; (2) only health promotion activities (one time per week for 6 weeks); or (3) control group. Outcomes assessed by questionnaire included green space use and satisfaction, life happiness, lifestyle, depressive symptoms, and health-related QoL. Results: After adjusting for sex and school grade, the scores in "green space distance and use" and "green space activity and competence" were significantly better in the intervention groups than in the control group. Hydroponic planting integrated with health promotion activities was also associated with better scores in dietary habits and resistance to substance use. Intervention groups had a higher score in "Green space sense and satisfaction" and life happiness when compared with the control group. Conclusions: Our study shows that the school-based hydroponic planting integrated with health promotion activities were feasible and, to a certain extent, useful to improve green space use and competence, dietary habits, and resistance to substance use among early adolescent students in secondary schools in urban areas. Future studies should address the limitations identified, for example, designing a randomized controlled trial that could fit school schedules to generate new evidence for physical and mental health in adolescent communities.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Estudos de Viabilidade , Comportamento Alimentar , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Hidroponia , Parques Recreativos , Satisfação Pessoal , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
6.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0255840, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597303

RESUMO

The root system architectures (RSAs) largely decide the phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) of plants by influencing the phosphorus uptake. Very limited information is available on wheat's RSAs and their deciding factors affecting phosphorus uptake efficiency (PupE) due to difficulties in adopting scoring values used for evaluating root traits. Based on our earlier research experience on nitrogen uptake efficiency screening under, hydroponics and soil-filled pot conditions, a comprehensive study on 182 Indian bread wheat genotypes was carried out under hydroponics with limited P (LP) and non-limiting P (NLP) conditions. The findings revealed a significant genetic variation, root traits correlation, and moderate to high heritability for RSAs traits namely primary root length (PRL), total root length (TRL), total root surface area (TSA), root average diameter (RAD), total root volume (TRV), total root tips (TRT) and total root forks (TRF). In LP, the expressions of TRL, TRV, TSA, TRT and TRF were enhanced while PRL and RAD were diminished. An almost similar pattern of correlations among the RSAs was also observed in both conditions except for RAD. RAD exhibited significant negative correlations with PRL, TRL, TSA, TRT and TRF under LP (r = -0.45, r = -0.35, r = -0.16, r = -0.30, and r = -0.28 respectively). The subclass of TRL, TSA, TRV and TRT representing the 0-0.5 mm diameter had a higher root distribution percentage in LP than NLP. Comparatively wide range of H' value i.e. 0.43 to 0.97 in LP than NLP indicates that expression pattern of these traits are highly influenced by the level of P. In which, RAD (0.43) expression was reduced in LP, and expressions of TRF (0.91) and TSA (0.97) were significantly enhanced. The principal component analysis for grouping of traits and genotypes over LP and NLP revealed a high PC1 score indicating the presence of non-crossover interactions. Based on the comprehensive P response index value (CPRI value), the top five highly P efficient wheat genotypes namely BW 181, BW 103, BW 104, BW 143 and BW 66, were identified. Considering the future need for developing resource-efficient wheat varieties, these genotypes would serve as valuable genetic sources for improving P efficiency in wheat cultivars. This set of genotypes would also help in understanding the genetic architecture of a complex trait like P use efficiency.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Pão/microbiologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genótipo , Hidroponia/métodos , Índia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Componente Principal , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
7.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443479

RESUMO

Cannabis sativa L. has been used for a long time to obtain food, fiber, and as a medicinal and psychoactive plant. Today, the nutraceutical potential of C.sativa is being increasingly reappraised; however, C. sativa roots remain poorly studied, despite citations in the scientific literature. In this direction, we identified and quantified the presence of valuable bioactives (namely, ß-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, friedelin, and epi-friedelanol) in the root extracts of C. sativa, a finding which might pave the way to the exploitation of the therapeutic potential of all parts of the C. sativa plant. To facilitate root harvesting and processing, aeroponic (AP) and aeroponic-elicited cultures (AEP) were established and compared to soil-cultivated plants (SP). Interestingly, considerably increased plant growth-particularly of the roots-and a significant increase (up to 20-fold in the case of ß-sitosterol) in the total content of the aforementioned roots' bioactive molecules were observed in AP and AEP. In conclusion, aeroponics, an easy, standardized, contaminant-free cultivation technique, facilitates the harvesting/processing of roots along with a greater production of their secondary bioactive metabolites, which could be utilized in the formulation of health-promoting and health-care products.


Assuntos
Cannabis/química , Cannabis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hidroponia , Colesterol/análogos & derivados , Colesterol/análise , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Oleanólico/análise , Fitosteróis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sitosteroides/análise , Estigmasterol/análise , Triterpenos/análise
8.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361724

RESUMO

Orchids are rich treasure troves of various important phytomolecules. Among the various medicinal orchids, Ansellia africana stands out prominently in the preparing of various herbal medicines due to its high therapeutic importance. The nodal explants of A. africana were sampled from asymbiotically germinated seedlings on basal Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium and were micropropagated in MS medium supplemented with 3% sucrose and 10 µM meta topolin (mT) + 5 µM naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) +15 µM indole butyric acid (IBA) + 30 µM phloroglucinol (PG). In the present study, the essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and the oleoresins by the solvent extraction method from the micropropagated A. africana. The essential oil and the oleoresins were analysed by Gas Chromatography (GC) and GC/MS (Mass spectrometry). A total of 84 compounds were identified. The most predominant components among them were linoleic acid (18.42%), l-ascorbyl 2,6-dipalmitate (11.50%), linolenic acid (10.98%) and p-cresol (9.99%) in the essential oil; and eicosane (26.34%), n-butyl acetate (21.13%), heptadecane (16.48%) and 2-pentanone, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl (11.13%) were detected in the acetone extract; heptadecane (9.40%), heneicosane (9.45%), eicosane (6.40%), n-butyl acetate (14.34%) and styrene (22.20%) were identified and quantified in the ethyl acetate extract. The cytotoxic activity of essential oil and oleoresins of micropropagated A. africana was evaluated by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium Bromide) assay on Vero cells compared to the standard drug doxorubicin chloride. The present research contains primary information about the therapeutic utility of the essential oil and oleoresins of A. africana with a promising future research potential of qualitative and quantitative improvement through synchronised use of biotechnological techniques.


Assuntos
Citotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Orchidaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Plântula/química , Acrilatos/isolamento & purificação , Alcanos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/isolamento & purificação , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cresóis/isolamento & purificação , Meios de Cultura/química , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hidroponia/métodos , Ácido Linoleico/isolamento & purificação , Extração Líquido-Líquido/métodos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Orchidaceae/metabolismo , Palmitatos/isolamento & purificação , Pentanóis/isolamento & purificação , Pentanonas/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais , Plântula/metabolismo , África do Sul , Estireno/isolamento & purificação , Células Vero , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/isolamento & purificação
9.
Biomolecules ; 11(8)2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439752

RESUMO

Global agricultural intensification has prompted investigations into biostimulants to enhance plant nutrition and soil ecosystem processes. Metal lactates are an understudied class of organic micronutrient supplement that provide both a labile carbon source and mineral nutrition for plant and microbial growth. To gain a fundamental understanding of plant responses to metal lactates, we employed a series of sterile culture-vessel experiments to compare the uptake and toxicity of five metals (Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, and Co) supplied in lactate and chloride salt form. Additionally, primary root growth in plate-grown Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings was used to determine optimal concentrations of each metal lactate. Our results suggest that uptake and utilization of metals in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) when supplied in lactate form is comparable to that of metal chlorides. Metal lactates also have promotional growth effects on A. thaliana seedlings with optimal concentrations identified for Zn (0.5-1.0 µM), Mn (0.5-1.0 µM), Cu (0.5 µM), Ni (1.0 µM), and Co (0.5 µM) lactate. These findings present foundational evidence to support the use of metal lactates as potential crop biostimulants due to their ability to both supply nutrients and stimulate plant growth.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cloretos/química , Lactatos/química , Metais/química , Ácidos/química , Agricultura/métodos , Quelantes , Ecossistema , Hidroponia , Ácido Láctico , Metais Pesados , Micronutrientes/química , Compostos Orgânicos , Plântula , Sementes/metabolismo , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Triticum , Zinco/química
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 800: 149429, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399342

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the uptake, translocation, and subcellular distribution of chlorantraniliprole (Cap) and tetrachlorantraniliprole (Tca) in maize (Zea mays L.) plants using a hydroponic experiment. Tca mainly accumulated in the roots and stems, while Cap showed better acropetal translocation capacity than Tca. The uptake of Cap was positively correlated with Tca uptake, particularly at the effect of plant transpiration force. Transpiration inhibitor treatments significantly reduced the acropetal translocation of Cap and Tca. The absorption of Cap and Tca in the dead and fresh roots showed a good linear relationship and mainly occurred via the apoplastic pathway. Regarding subcellular distribution, the cell wall was the dominant storage compartment for Cap and Tca. In the protoplast, Cap mainly accumulated in cell soluble fractions, while Tca accumulated in the organelles. This study provides information for the accurate application of maize pest management and is of great significance to environmental risk and food safety assessments.


Assuntos
Raízes de Plantas , Zea mays , Transporte Biológico , Hidroponia , ortoaminobenzoatos
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 799: 149424, 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375876

RESUMO

Urban agriculture (UA) is a means for cities to become more resilient in terms of food sovereignty while shortening the distance between production and consumption. However, intensive soilless UA still depends on the use of fertilizers, which relies on depleting non-renewable resources such as phosphorous (P) and causes both local and global impact for its production and application. With the aim to reduce such impacts and encourage a more efficient use of nutrients, this study assesses the feasibility of using struvite precipitated from an urban wastewater treatment plant as the unique source of P fertilizer. To do so, we apply various quantities of struvite (ranging from 1 to 20 g/plant) to the substrate of a hydroponic Phaseolus vulgaris crop and determine the yield, water flows and P balances. The results show that treatments with more than 5 g of struvite per plant produced a higher yield (maximum of 181.41 g/plant) than the control (134.6 g/plant) with mineral fertilizer (KPO4H2). On the other hand, P concentration in all plant organs was always lower when using struvite than when using chemical fertilizer. Finally, the fact that different amounts of struvite remained undissolved in all treatments denotes the importance to balance between a correct P supply to the plant and a decrease of P lost through the leachates, based on the amount of struvite and the irrigated water. The findings of this study show that it is feasible for UA to efficiently use locally recovered nutrients such as P to produce local food.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Fósforo , Agricultura , Hidroponia , Fosfatos , Estruvita
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208600

RESUMO

Coumarins belong to a group of secondary metabolites well known for their high biological activities including antibacterial and antifungal properties. Recently, an important role of coumarins in plant resistance to pathogens and their release into the rhizosphere upon pathogen infection was discovered. It is also well documented that coumarins play a crucial role in the Arabidopsis thaliana growth under Fe-limited conditions. However, the mechanisms underlying interplay between plant resistance, accumulation of coumarins and Fe status, remain largely unknown. In this work, we investigated the effect of both mentioned factors on the disease severity using the model system of Arabidopsis/Dickeya spp. molecular interactions. We evaluated the disease symptoms in Arabidopsis plants, wild-type Col-0 and its mutants defective in coumarin accumulation, grown in hydroponic cultures with contrasting Fe regimes and in soil mixes. Under all tested conditions, Arabidopsis plants inoculated with Dickeya solani IFB0099 strain developed more severe disease symptoms compared to lines inoculated with Dickeya dadantii 3937. We also showed that the expression of genes encoding plant stress markers were strongly affected by D. solani IFB0099 infection. Interestingly, the response of plants to D. dadantii 3937 infection was genotype-dependent in Fe-deficient hydroponic solution.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos/metabolismo , Dickeya/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença , Ferro/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/microbiologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Hidroponia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Estresse Fisiológico
13.
Chemosphere ; 281: 130980, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289626

RESUMO

In this work, the primary focus is given on a mixture of 27 micropollutants (pharmaceuticals, pesticides, herbicides, fungicides and others) and its removal from aqueous solution by phytoremediation. Phytoremediation belongs to technologies, which are contributing on removal of micropollutants from wastewater in constructed wetlands. Constructed wetlands can be used as an additional step for elimination of micropollutants from municipal medium-sized wastewater treatment plants. To our knowledge, such a broad variety of micropollutants was never targeted for removal by phytoremediation before. In this work, we carry out experiments with 3 emergent macrophytes: Phragmites australis, Iris pseudacorus and Lythrum salicaria in hydroponic conditions. The selected plants are exposed to mixture of micropollutants in concentrations 1-14 mg/l for a time period of 30 days. The highest affinity for phytoremediation is detected at groups of fluorosurfactants (removal rate up to 30%), beta-blockers (removal rate up to 50%) and antibiotics (removal rate up to 90%). The leading capability for micropollutant uptake is detected at Lythrum salicaria, where 25 out of 27 compounds are removed with more than 20% efficiency. The results demonstrate well usefulness of this technology e.g. in an additional treatment step, because the mentioned groups of micropollutants are removed with comparable or even higher effectivity, than it is in case of conventional wastewater treatment plants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Biodegradação Ambiental , Hidroponia , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Áreas Alagadas
14.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 166: 887-901, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243016

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for plants, but when present in excess, it induces toxicity. In this study, cuttings of four wine-producing varieties of Vitis vinifera L. were used: 'Tinta Barroca', 'Tinto Cão', 'Malvasia Fina' and 'Viosinho'. The grapevine cuttings were distributed by hydroponic solutions enriched with different Cu concentrations (1, 10, 25 and 50 µM) plus control. At the end of the experiment, the root growth was evaluated, and individual roots were collected, fixed, and used for histological sections and chromosome spreads preparation. The higher Cu concentrations induced toxicity and inhibited root growth. However, the grapevine varieties responded with the thickening of the root exodermis and endodermis. In the chromosome spreads, normal and abnormal interphase and mitotic cells were observed in all varieties and treatments. The increase of Cu concentration decreased the nucleolar activity, as seen by reducing the nucleolar number and area. It increased the frequency of interphase cells with anomalies (ICA), but it did not influence total soluble protein concentration. The augment of Cu concentration also decreased the mitotic index (MI) and increased the percentage of dividing cells with anomalies (DCA). Different types of chromosomal anomalies in all mitotic phases, treatments and varieties were found. Overall, the white wine varieties, 'Malvasia Fina' and 'Viosinho', appeared to be more tolerant to the Cu-induced stress because they showed higher root growth and mean MI and lower mean DCA than the red wine varieties.


Assuntos
Vitis , Vinho , Cobre/toxicidade , Hidroponia , Índice Mitótico , Raízes de Plantas
15.
J Environ Manage ; 297: 113326, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314966

RESUMO

Greenhouse cultivation in the Mediterranean region has undoubtedly enhanced the economic growth and has generated social benefits by making an efficient use of resources. However, these production systems caused undesirable environmental impacts. In order to move towards cleaner production in greenhouse areas, this study has assessed the potential environmental benefits and trade-offs of the integration of an on-farm reverse osmosis system powered by photovoltaic solar energy to recycle the drainage effluents from greenhouses. To that end, we compare the environmental footprint of a greenhouse tomato crop using this technology in a hydroponic system (HS), versus the conventional sanded soil 'enarenado' (CS) with free-drainage to soil. Additionally, for comparison, three independent irrigation sources (desalinated seawater with low electrical conductivity and two different mixes of underground and desalinated water, with moderate and high electrical conductivity, respectively) were evaluated. The use of desalinated seawater can help reduce the overexploitation of aquifers, although if the desalination process is not done with clean energy it also comes with a negative impact on the carbon footprint. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was used to analyse and evaluate six environmental impact indicators associated with these production systems and water treatments. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to explore the potential environmental benefits of increasing the use of renewable energy for desalinated water production, whilst also curbing the common over-fertilisation malpractice reported in the study area. Based on our findings, the HS with leachate treatment technology showed, compared to the CS system, a significant reduction in the eutrophication (72 %), although it did inevitably increase the depletion of fossil fuels (43 %) global warming (37 %) and acidification (32 %) impacts, due to the need for additional infrastructure and equipment. Among the inputs considered for the cultivation systems, the greenhouse structure, and the production of fertilisers and electricity for fertigation represented the highest environmental burdens. When comparing the three irrigation treatments, it was observed that the partial substitution of desalinated seawater by brackish groundwater substantially mitigated (27 %) the global warming footprint. The sensitivity analysis revealed that a significant reduction in the environmental impact is feasible.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum , Energia Solar , Hidroponia , Osmose , Água do Mar
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203955

RESUMO

Cultivation in controlled environmental conditions can provide good quality medicinal herbs with consistent properties. A sensing system that can determine the contents of medicinal substances in plants using spectral characteristics of leaves would be a valuable tool. Viability of such sensing approach for mint had to be confirmed experimentally, as no data correlating contents of medicinal substances with spectral characteristics of leaves are available, to the best of authors' knowledge. In the first stage, presented in this paper, the influence of lighting on mint (Mentha rotundifolia) grown on a small hydroponic plantation was studied. Spectral characteristics of leaves were recorded by a spectrophotometer and colorimetric analysis was used to investigate the relationship between these characteristics and the spectrum of lighting. Dry mass yield was measured to test its dependence on the lighting. Dependence of chromaticity of leaves on the spectrum of light used in the cultivation was confirmed. Averaged spectra of leaves are distinguishable using a spectrophotometer and-in most cases-by a human observer. A partial correlation is observed between dry mass yield and the spectrum of lighting. Obtained results justify further research into the correlation between lighting and the contents of biological substances in medicinal plants using spectral characteristics of leaves.


Assuntos
Mentha , Plantas Medicinais , Humanos , Hidroponia , Iluminação , Folhas de Planta
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12149, 2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234174

RESUMO

Pteris vittata is an arsenic (As) hyperaccumulator plant that accumulates a large amount of As into fronds and rhizomes (around 16,000 mg/kg in both after 16 weeks hydroponic cultivation with 30 mg/L arsenate). However, the sequence of long-distance transport of As in this hyperaccumulator plant is unclear. In this study, we used a positron-emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS) for the first time to obtain noninvasive serial images of As behavior in living plants with positron-emitting 74As-labeled tracer. We found that As kept accumulating in rhizomes as in fronds of P. vittata, whereas As was retained in roots of a non-accumulator plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Autoradiograph results of As distribution in P. vittata showed that with low As exposure, As was predominantly accumulated in young fronds and the midrib and rachis of mature fronds. Under high As exposure, As accumulation shifted from young fronds to mature fronds, especially in the margin of pinna, which resulted in necrotic symptoms, turning the marginal color to gray and then brown. Our results indicated that the function of rhizomes in P. vittata was As accumulation and the regulation of As translocation to the mature fronds to protect the young fronds under high As exposure.


Assuntos
Arsênio/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Pteris/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/ultraestrutura , Autorradiografia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Transporte Biológico , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/ultraestrutura , Hidroponia/métodos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/ultraestrutura , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Pteris/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pteris/ultraestrutura
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15202, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312445

RESUMO

Medicinal plants are considered as one of the most important sources of chemical compounds, so preparing a suitable culture media for medicinal plant growth is a critical factor. The present study is aimed to improve the caffeic acid derivatives and alkylamides percentages of Echinacea purpurea root extract in hydroponic culture media with different perlite particle size and NO3-/NH4+ ratios. Perlite particle size in the growing media was varied as very coarse perlite (more than 2 mm), coarse perlite (1.5-2 mm), medium perlite (1-1.5 mm), fine perlite (0.5-1 mm), and very fine perlite (less than 0.5 mm) in different ratios to peat moss (including pure perlite, 50:50 v/v, 30:70 v/v, and pure peat moss). Two NO3-/NH4+ ratios (90:10 and 70:30) were tested in each growing media. All phytochemical analyses were performed according to standard methods using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). It was found that the E. purpurea grown in the medium containing very fine-grade perlite with 50:50 v/v perlite to peat moss ratio had the maximum caffeic acid derivatives, including chicoric acid (17 mg g-1 DW), caftaric acid (6.3 mg g-1 DW), chlorogenic acid (0.93 mg g-1 DW), cynarin (0.84 mg g-1 DW), and echinacoside (0.73 mg g-1 DW), as well as, alkylamides (54.21%). The percentages of these phytochemical compounds increased by decreasing perlite particle size and increasing of NO3-/NH4+ ratio. The major alkylamide in the E. purpurea root extract was dodeca-2E, 4E, 8Z-10 (E/Z)-tetraenoic acid isobutylamide in all treatments, ranging from 31.12 to 54.21% of total dry weight. It can be concluded that optimizing hydroponic culture media and nutrient solution has significant effects on E. purpurea chemical compounds.


Assuntos
Óxido de Alumínio , Ácidos Cafeicos/metabolismo , Echinacea/metabolismo , Hidroponia , Compostos de Nitrogênio , Dióxido de Silício , Amidas/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura , Echinacea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tamanho da Partícula , Fenóis/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(45): 64652-64665, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34318411

RESUMO

Selenium (Se), iron (Fe), and humic acid (HA) are beneficial fertilizers that inhibit cadmium (Cd) uptake in crops and are crucial for agricultural yields as well as human health. However, the joined effect of Se, Fe, and HA on Cd uptake in rice are still poorly understood. Therefore, a hydroponic culture experiment was established to evaluate the combined effect of Se (Se4+ or Se6+), Fe, and HA on the biomass, Cd uptake, and Cd translocation of/in rice seedlings. Compared to Se6+ application, Se4+ application in most treatments resulted in lower Cd translocations from roots to shoots, leading to a significant decrease in shoot Cd concentrations. Compared to the treatments with Se4+ or Fe2+ application, joined application of Se4+ and Fe2+ inhibited Cd uptake in shoots by decreasing Cd adsorption onto (iron plaque) and uptake by roots, and alleviating Cd translocation from root to shoot. Compared to the treatments with Se6+ or Fe2+ application, joined application of Se6+ and Fe2+ inhibited Cd uptake in shoots by sequestering (retaining) Cd onto root surface (iron plaque). HA inhibited Cd uptake in all treatments by decreasing the bioavailability of Cd in the nutrient solution through complexation. The simultaneous application of Se, Fe, and HA decreased the shoot Cd concentrations the most, followed by the combined application of two fertilizers and their individual application; the mean shoot Cd concentration in the Fe-SeIV-HA2 treatment was the lowest among all the treatments, at only 11.39 % of those in the control treatments. The 3-way ANOVA results indicated that the Cd concentrations in shoots were significantly affected by Se, Fe, HA, and certain of their interactions (Fe×Se and Se×HA) (p< 0.05). The above findings suggest that the joined application of Se, Fe, and HA ameliorated Cd uptake mainly by inhibiting Cd adsorption onto (iron plaque) and uptake by roots and the translocation from roots to shoots (Fe×Se4+), retaining (sequestering) Cd in iron plaque (Fe×Se6+), and decreasing Cd availability in nutrient solution (HA).


Assuntos
Oryza , Selênio , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio , Humanos , Substâncias Húmicas , Hidroponia , Ferro/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Plântula/química
20.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253798, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252095

RESUMO

Anthropogenic activities such as mining, manufacturing, and application of fertilizers release substantial quantities of cadmium (Cd) into the environment. In the natural environment, varying pH may play an important role in the absorption and accumulation of Cd in plants, which can cause toxicity and increase the risk to humans. We conducted a hydroponic experiment to examine the impact of pH on cadmium (Cd) solubility and bioavailability in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under controlled environmental conditions. The results showed that Cd concentration was significantly reduced in wheat with an increase in pH from 5 to 7, while it was dramatically increased at pH ranging from 7 to 9. However, in both cases, a significant reduction in physiological traits was observed. The addition of Cd (20, 50, and 200 µmol L-1) at all pH levels caused a substantial decline in wheat growth, chlorophyll and carotenoids contents, nutrient availability, while elevated cell membrane damage was observed in terms of electrolytic leakage (EL), osmoprotectants, and antioxidants activity. In our findings, the negative effects of acidic pH (5) on wheat growth and development were more pronounced in the presence of Cd toxicities. For instance, Cd concentration with 20, 50, and 200 µmol L-1 at acidic pH (5) reduced shoot dry biomass by 45%, 53%, and 79%, total chlorophyll contents by 26%, 41%, 56% while increased CAT activity in shoot by 109%, 175%, and 221%, SOD activity in shoot by 122%, 135%, and 167%, POD activity in shoot by 137%, 250%, and 265%, MDA contents in shoot by 51%, 83%, and 150%, H2O2 contents in shoot by 175%, 219%, and 292%, EL in shoot by 108%, 165%, and 230%, proline contents in shoot by 235%, 280%, and 393%, respectively as compared to neutral pH without Cd toxicities. On the other hand, neutral pH with Cd toxicities alleviated the negative effects of Cd toxicity on wheat plants by limiting Cd uptake, reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and increased nutrient availability. In conclusion, neutral pH minimized the adverse effects of Cd stress by minimizing its uptake and accumulation in wheat plants.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Solo/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cádmio/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidroponia/métodos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/metabolismo
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