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1.
Fungal Biol ; 126(8): 488-497, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35851141

RESUMO

We assessed the potentially pathogenic fungi present in Antarctic permafrost and the overlying active layer on King George, Robert, Livingston and Deception Islands in the South Shetland Islands archipelago, maritime Antarctica. Permafrost and active layer sub-samples were incubated at 37 °C to select fungi able to grow inside the human body. A total of 67 fungal isolates were obtained, 27 from the permafrost and 40 from the active layer. These represented 18 taxa of the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Curvularia, Penicillium, Rhodotorula and Talaromyces. The majority of fungi detected occurred exclusively either in the permafrost or the active layer at each site. Only Aspergillus thermomutatus, Penicillium cf. chrysogenum and Rhodotorula cf. mucilaginosa were present in both permafrost and active layer samples from the same site. The yeast R. cf. mucilaginosa was recovered from both in at least two sites. The genus Penicillium was the most abundant and widely distributed genus in both permafrost and active layer samples across the sites sampled. All fungal isolates were screened using enzymatic, pH and antifungal assays to identify their virulence potential. Aspergillus hiratsukae, A. thermomutatus and R. cf. mucilaginosa, known human opportunistic fungi, were identified, displayed phospholipase, esterase, proteinase and hemolytic activities. All three also displayed the ability to grow at 40°, 45° and/or 50 °C and resistance to fluconazole and itraconazole; additionally, R. cf. mucilaginosa showed resistance to amphotericin B and viability after 100 d at -80 °C. A. thermomutatus UFMGCB 17415 killed the entire larvae of Tenebrio molitor in six days and R. cf. mucilaginosa UFMGCB 17448 and 17473 in three and four days, respectively. The melting of maritime Antarctic permafrost as a result of climate change may threaten the release of wild strains of pathogenic fungi geographically isolated for long time, which may in turn be transported within and beyond Antarctica by different biological and non-biological vectors.


Assuntos
Penicillium , Pergelissolo , Regiões Antárticas , Antifúngicos , Fungos , Humanos , Rhodotorula
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(9): 594, 2022 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857116

RESUMO

The analysis of about 200 samples taken from 42 permafrost-affected soil profiles was carried out on four key sites in different regions of cryolithozone (West Siberia, Central, North, and North-East Yakutia) characterized by different active layer depths and soil lithology. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of different processes of cryogenic mass-exchange on the redistribution and accumulation of major pollutants such as petroleum products, acid-soluble forms of trace elements, polycyclic hydrocarbons, and technogenic radionuclides transferred via atmospheric transport or after the local anthropogenic impact in different soil horizons of Cryosols and in the upper layers of permafrost. Samples were analyzed using modern precise techniques (direct γ-spectrometric measurements with Ge(Li) and NaI(Tl) detectors; fluorometric method; reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography; spectrofluorimetric detection; atomic absorption spectrometry with flame atomization). The study has shown that processes (cryoturbations, frost heaving, gelifluction along with fluvial processes) that strongly affect Cryosols' profile structure can also lead to the active migration and accumulation of local and global pollutants in the middle and lowermost suprapermafrost soil horizons. The accumulation of some pollutants in suprapermafrost horizons of cryogenic soils and in the upper layers of permafrost (in particular, petroleum products and mobile forms of trace elements) can be associated with a combination of factors, such as the relatively light particle size distribution, relatively weak manifestation of cryoturbation processes, and low thickness of the active layer (about 40-60 cm). The integral calculation of the geoaccumulation index values has shown that all of the groups of human-affected soil horizons are moderately to extremely polluted by petroleum hydrocarbons (and at a relatively lower level by trace elements) and the maximum pollution stands for the suprapermafrost horizons as well as in cryoturbated or buried fragments of organogenic matter in some cases. The maxima of the heavy PAH content in permafrost-affected soils can be confined to horizons enriched with anthropogenic inclusions and artifacts (for example, construction slag, coal) and to individual horizons of soils buried as a result of both cryogenic and alluvial processes. The specific activity of the technogenic radionuclide cesium in cryogenic soils revealed its association mainly with the surface organogenic and organomineral horizons of the studied profiles and rarely observed in the cryoturbated fragments of these horizons in the middle and suprapermafrost layers of soil profiles. The necessity of the complex analytical assessment of the permafrost-affected soils has been revealed especially in case of studying of the ecological state of the anthropogenically affected Cryosols.


Assuntos
Pergelissolo , Petróleo , Poluentes do Solo , Oligoelementos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Pergelissolo/química , Petróleo/análise , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Oligoelementos/análise
3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3087, 2022 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35655063

RESUMO

The melting of the cryosphere is among the most conspicuous consequences of climate change, with impacts on microbial life and related biogeochemistry. However, we are missing a systematic understanding of microbiome structure and function across cryospheric ecosystems. Here, we present a global inventory of the microbiome from snow, ice, permafrost soils, and both coastal and freshwater ecosystems under glacier influence. Combining phylogenetic and taxonomic approaches, we find that these cryospheric ecosystems, despite their particularities, share a microbiome with representatives across the bacterial tree of life and apparent signatures of early and constrained radiation. In addition, we use metagenomic analyses to define the genetic repertoire of cryospheric bacteria. Our work provides a reference resource for future studies on climate change microbiology.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Pergelissolo , Mudança Climática , Microbiota/genética , Filogenia , Neve
4.
Glob Chang Biol ; 28(17): 5243-5253, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35652259

RESUMO

Hemiboreal and boreal forests growing at the southern margin of the permafrost distribution are vulnerable to climate warming. However, how climate warming threatens the growth of dominant tree species that are distributed on permafrost remains to be determined, particularly in synchrony with warming-induced permafrost degradation. Tree growth in the permafrost region of southern Siberia was hypothesized to be highly sensitive to temperature increasing and warming-induced permafrost degradation. To test this hypothesis, we sampled the tree ring width of 535 trees of dominant species, larch (including Larix gmelinii and L. sibirica) and white birch (Betula platyphylla), in ten hemiboreal to boreal forest plots within different permafrost zones. The relationships between the tree ring basal area index (BAI) and temperature, precipitation, and the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) were compared among plots located in two permafrost zones. In the isolated permafrost zone, white birch grows better than larch and is not drought-stressed (p < .05). We suggest that the deep-rooted white birch benefits from the water from thawing permafrost, while the growth of the shallow-rooted larch is stressed by drought. In the sporadic discontinuous permafrost zone, both white birch and larch benefited from permafrost melting, but the sensitivity of larch growth to PDSI is still significant (p < .05), indicating drought is still an important climatic factor limiting the growth of larch. Our results imply that the permafrost degradation caused by climate warming affects tree growth by creating the root layer additional water source. In the future, it is necessary to focus on monitoring permafrost degradation to better predict forest dynamics at the southern margin of the permafrost distribution.


Assuntos
Larix , Pergelissolo , Betula , Mudança Climática , Florestas , Sibéria , Árvores , Água
5.
Glob Chang Biol ; 28(17): 5227-5242, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35713970

RESUMO

The northern circumpolar permafrost region is experiencing considerable warming due to climate change, which is allowing agricultural production to expand into regions of discontinuous and continuous permafrost. The conversion of forests to arable land might further enhance permafrost thaw and affect soil organic carbon (SOC) that had previously been protected by frozen ground. The interactive effect of permafrost abundance and deforestation on SOC stocks has hardly been studied. In this study, soils were sampled on 18 farms across the Yukon on permafrost and non-permafrost soils to quantify the impact of land-use change from forest to cropland and grassland on SOC stocks. Furthermore, the soils were physically and chemically fractionated to assess the impact of land-use change on different functional pools of SOC. On average, permafrost-affected forest soils lost 15.6 ± 21.3% of SOC when converted to cropland and 23.0 ± 13.0% when converted to grassland. No permafrost was detected in the deforested soils, indicating that land-use change strongly enhanced warming and subsequent thawing. In contrast, the change in SOC at sites without permafrost was not significant but had a slight tendency to be positive. SOC stocks were generally lower at sites without permafrost under forest. Furthermore, land-use change increased mineral-associated SOC, while the fate of particulate organic matter (POM) after land-use change depended on permafrost occurrence. Permafrost soils showed significant POM losses after land-use change, while grassland sites without permafrost gained POM in the topsoil. The results showed that the fate of SOC after land-use change greatly depended on the abundance of permafrost in the pristine forest, which was driven by climatic conditions more than by soil properties. It can be concluded that in regions of discontinuous permafrost in particular, initial conditions in forest soils should be considered before deforestation to minimize its climate impact.


Assuntos
Pergelissolo , Solo , Agricultura , Carbono/química , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Solo/química
6.
Glob Chang Biol ; 28(17): 5007-5026, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35722720

RESUMO

The physical and chemical changes that accompany permafrost thaw directly influence the microbial communities that mediate the decomposition of formerly frozen organic matter, leading to uncertainty in permafrost-climate feedbacks. Although changes to microbial metabolism and community structure are documented following thaw, the generality of post-thaw assembly patterns across permafrost soils of the world remains uncertain, limiting our ability to predict biogeochemistry and microbial community responses to climate change. Based on our review of the Arctic microbiome, permafrost microbiology, and community ecology, we propose that Assembly Theory provides a framework to better understand thaw-mediated microbiome changes and the implications for community function and climate feedbacks. This framework posits that the prevalence of deterministic or stochastic processes indicates whether the community is well-suited to thrive in changing environmental conditions. We predict that on a short timescale and following high-disturbance thaw (e.g., thermokarst), stochasticity dominates post-thaw microbiome assembly, suggesting that functional predictions will be aided by detailed information about the microbiome. At a longer timescale and lower-intensity disturbance (e.g., active layer deepening), deterministic processes likely dominate, making environmental parameters sufficient for predicting function. We propose that the contribution of stochastic and deterministic processes to post-thaw microbiome assembly depends on the characteristics of the thaw disturbance, as well as characteristics of the microbial community, such as the ecological and phylogenetic breadth of functional guilds, their functional redundancy, and biotic interactions. These propagate across space and time, potentially providing a means for predicting the microbial forcing of greenhouse gas feedbacks to global climate change.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Pergelissolo , Regiões Árticas , Retroalimentação , Pergelissolo/química , Filogenia , Solo/química
7.
Glob Chang Biol ; 28(17): 5200-5210, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35748703

RESUMO

One of the major uncertainties for projecting permafrost carbon (C)-climate feedback is a poor representation of the non-growing season carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions under a changing climate. Here, combining in situ field observations, regional synthesis and a random forest model, we assessed contemporary and future soil respired CO2 (i.e., soil respiration, Rs ) across the Tibetan alpine permafrost region, which has received much less attention compared with the Arctic permafrost domain. We estimated the regional mean Rs of 229.8, 72.9 and 302.7 g C m-2  year-1 during growing season, non-growing season and the entire year, respectively; corresponding to the contemporary losses of 296.9, 94.3 and 391.2 Tg C year-1 from this high-altitude permafrost-affected area. The non-growing season Rs accounted for a quarter of the annual soil CO2 efflux. Different from the prevailing view that temperature is the most limiting factor for cold-period CO2 release in Arctic permafrost ecosystems, precipitation determined the spatial pattern of non-growing season Rs on the Tibetan Plateau. Using the key predictors, model extrapolation demonstrated additional losses of 38.8 and 74.5 Tg C from the non-growing season for a moderate mitigation scenario and a business-as-usual emissions scenario, respectively. These results provide a baseline for non-growing season CO2 emissions from high-altitude permafrost areas and help for accurate projection of permafrost C-climate feedback.


Assuntos
Pergelissolo , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Ecossistema , Estações do Ano , Solo , Tibet
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(14): 10483-10493, 2022 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35748652

RESUMO

Warming-induced permafrost thaw may stimulate soil respiration (Rs) and thus cause a positive feedback to climate warming. However, due to the limited in situ observations, it remains unclear about how Rs and its autotrophic (Ra) and heterotrophic (Rh) components change upon permafrost thaw. Here we monitored variations in Rs and its components along a permafrost thaw sequence on the Tibetan Plateau, and explored the potential linkage of Rs components (i.e., Ra and Rh) with biotic (e.g., plant functional traits and soil microbial diversity) and abiotic factors (e.g., substrate quality). We found that Ra and Rh exhibited divergent responses to permafrost collapse: Ra increased with the time of thawing, while Rh exhibited a hump-shaped pattern along the thaw sequence. We also observed different drivers of thaw-induced changes in the ratios of Ra:Rs and Rh:Rs. Except for soil water status, plant community structure, diversity, and root properties explained the variation in Ra:Rs ratio, soil substrate quality and microbial diversity were key factors associated with the dynamics of Rh:Rs ratio. Overall, these findings demonstrate divergent patterns and drivers of Rs components as permafrost thaw prolongs, which call for considerations in Earth system models for better forecasting permafrost carbon-climate feedback.


Assuntos
Pergelissolo , Processos Autotróficos , Ciclo do Carbono , Respiração , Solo/química
9.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(5): 1405-1412, 2022 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35730100

RESUMO

A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the impacts of freeze-thaw intensity (-5-5 ℃, -10-5 ℃) and frequency (1, 5, 10, 15 times) on the community structure of soil arthropod in permafrost zone, Great Hing'an Mountains with the 5 ℃ as control. A total of 4198 individuals of soil arthropod were extracted, belonging to 4 classes, 9 orders, 24 families and 33 genera. The results showed that the number of individuals and groups of soil arthropod decreased significantly in the treatment with high frost intensity (-10-5 ℃), while the individuals of some taxa increased in the treatment with low frost intensity (-5-5 ℃) after the first freeze-thaw incubation. The group number, Margalef index and Shannon index decreased with the increases of freeze-thaw cycling times in low frost intensity treatment, while did not change regularly in high frost intensity treatment. Larva stage was a kind of survival strategy for arthropod to resist low temperature stress, with Acari showing stronger cold tolerance. Different responses of soil arthropod to freeze-thaw cycles, synergistic effect among species and soil environment were factors affecting the structure of soil arthropod community. This study could provide scientific data and theoretical basis for the research and conservation of soil arthropod diversity in the permafrost zone in mid-high latitudes.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Pergelissolo , Animais , China , Congelamento , Humanos , Solo/química
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7752, 2022 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35562178

RESUMO

Temperature and precipitation changes are crucial for larch trees growing at high-elevation sites covered by permafrost in the Altai-Sayan mountain range (ASMR). To contextualize the amplitude of recent climate fluctuations, we have to look into the past by analyzing millennial paleoclimatic archives recording both temperature and precipitation. We developed annually resolved 1500-year tree-ring cellulose chronologies (δ13Ccell, δ18Ocell), and used these new records to reconstruct the variability in local summer precipitation and air temperature. We combined our new local reconstructions with existing paleoclimatic archives available for the Altai. The data show a strong decreasing trend by ca. 49% in regional summer precipitation, along with a regional summer temperature increase towards the twenty-first century, relative to the preceding 1500 years. Modern dry conditions (1966-2016 CE) in the ASMR are the result of simultaneous summer warming and decreased precipitation. Our new reconstructions also demonstrate that climate change in the ASMR is much stronger compared to the global average.


Assuntos
Larix , Pergelissolo , Mudança Climática , Florestas , Temperatura , Árvores
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 1): 155886, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35569652

RESUMO

An accurate estimation of thaw depth is critical to understanding permafrost changes due to climate warming on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). However, previous studies mainly focused on the interannual changes of active layer thickness (ALT) across the QTP, and little is known about the changes in the seasonal thaw depth. Machine learning (ML) is a critical tool to accurately estimate the ALT of permafrost, but a direct comparison of ML with deep learning (DL) in ALT projection regarding the model performance is still lacking. Here, ML, namely random forest (RF), and DL algorithms like convolutional neural networks (CNN) and long short-term memory (LSTM) neural networks were compared to estimate the interannual changes of ALT and seasonal thaw depth on the QTP. Meteorological series, in-situ collected ALT observations, and geospatial information were used as predictors. The results show that both ML and DL methods are capable of estimating ALT and seasonal thaw depth in permafrost areas. The CNN and LSTM models developed using longer lagging times exhibit better performance in thaw depth prediction while the RF models are either mediocre or sometimes even worse as the lagging time increases. The results show that the ALT from 2003 to 2011 on the QTP exhibits an increasing trend, especially in the northern region. In addition, 68.8%, 88.7%, 52.5%, and 47.5% of the permafrost regions on the QTP have deepened seasonal thaw depth in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. The correlation between air temperature and permafrost thaw depth ranges from 0.65 to 1 with the time lag ranging from 1 to 32 days. This study shows that ML and DL can be effectively used in retrieving ALT and seasonal thaw depth of permafrost, and could present an efficient way to figure out the interannual and seasonal variations of permafrost conditions under climate warming.


Assuntos
Pergelissolo , Memória de Curto Prazo , Redes Neurais de Computação , Estações do Ano , Tibet
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 2): 156045, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35597337

RESUMO

Lakes on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) have notably expanded over the past 20 years. Due to lake water level rise and lake area expansion, the permafrost surrounding these lakes is increasingly becoming submerged by lake water. However, the change process of submerged permafrost remains unclear, which is not conducive to further analyzing the environmental effects of permafrost change. Yanhu Lake, a tectonic lake on the QTP, has experienced significant expansion and water level rise. Field measurement results indicate that the water level of Yanhu Lake increased by 2.87 m per year on average from 2016 to 2019. Cold permafrost, developed in the lake basin, was partially submerged by lake water at the end of 2017. Based on the water level change and permafrost thermal regime, a numerical heat conduction permafrost model was employed to predict future changes in permafrost beneath the lake bottom. The simulated results indicate that the submerged permafrost would continuously degrade because of the significant thermal impact of lake water. By 2100, the maximum talik thicknesses could reach approximately 7, 12, 16, and 19 m under lake-bottom temperatures of +2.0, +4.0, +6.0, and +8.0 °C, respectively. Approximately 291 years would be required to completely melt 47 m of submerged permafrost under the lake-bottom temperature of +4 °C. Note that the permafrost table begins to melt earlier than does the permafrost base, and the decline in the permafrost table occurs relatively fast at first, but then the process is attenuated, after which the permafrost table again rapidly declines. Compared to climate warming, the degradation of the submerged permafrost beneath the lake bottom occurred more rapidly and notably.


Assuntos
Pergelissolo , Clima , Lagos , Tibet , Água
13.
Glob Chang Biol ; 28(12): 3920-3928, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35388942

RESUMO

Black spruce trees growing on warming permafrost lean in all directions due to soil movement, forming a "drunken" forest. Two hypothetical drivers of drunken forest development are (i) loosening of the soil foundation induced by permafrost degradation in warm summers and (ii) mound rising induced by freezing soil in winter. However, no evidence has previously clarified whether recent tree leaning is related to climate warming or is part of a natural hummock formation process. Here, we provide evidence that tree leaning and soil hummock formation have accelerated due to climate warming. We find that trees' leaning events synchronize with the development of soil hummocks as recorded in tree rings with lignin-rich cells. Tree leaning is caused by mound rising in winter due to refreezing of soil following deep thaws in summer, rather than by loosening of the soil foundation in summer. Hummock formation shifted from periodic events before 1960 to continuous mound rising in the warmer succeeding 50 years. Although soil change is generally a slow process, recent permafrost warming has induced rapid hummock formation, which threatens the stability of drunken forests and organic carbon in soil hummocks based on shallow permafrost table.


Assuntos
Pergelissolo , Picea , Clima , Florestas , Solo
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 834: 155227, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421504

RESUMO

Known as the third pole of the world, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has been experiencing rapid permafrost warming and thawing over the last few decades. However, the impact of permafrost distribution and hydrogeology on river hydrochemistry in alpine areas remains unclear. This study conducted four sampling campaigns to reveal the temporal and spatial variations in and factors driving river hydrochemistry in the upper reaches of the Heihe River, the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. We found that the concentrations of major ions and total dissolved solids (TDS) in river water showed substantial seasonal variations; the concentrations were generally lower during the initial thawing and thawed periods than during the initial freezing period. However, solute fluxes during the thawed period were much higher than those during the frozen period. The concentrations of major ions and TDS gradually decreased to a minimum from the permafrost meander (PM) section to the seasonal frost meander (SFM) section and then increased the seasonal frost canyon section. Using the revised forward model, we found that river solutes were contributed by carbonate weathering (mean 38.9%) > sulfide oxidation (22.9%) > evaporite dissolution (20.2%) > atmospheric precipitation (8.7%) > silicate weathering (5.0%) > glacial meltwater (4.3%). The higher TDS, Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+, and SO42- concentrations in the PM section reflected the influence of freeze-out fractionation. The concentrations of major ions and TDS were lowest in the SFM section, indicating that the riparian porous aquifer was essential in regulating river hydrochemistry, thus reducing its spatiotemporal variations in the alpine area. In the mountain glacier-hillslope-riparian porous aquifer-river system, the river was mainly recharged by groundwater with insufficient water-rock interactions due to the rapid flow owing to the high elevation difference and high permeability of the riparian quaternary porous aquifers. Our findings provide insights into the construction of hydrogeochemical models in alpine areas and are practically important for the scientific management of water resources in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.


Assuntos
Pergelissolo , Rios , China , Estações do Ano , Soluções , Tibet , Água
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 834: 155259, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35452733

RESUMO

It is generally believed that there is a vegetation succession sequence from alpine marsh meadow to desert in the alpine ecosystem of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. However, we still have a limited understanding about distribution patterns and community assemblies of microorganisms' response to such vegetation changes. Hence, across a gradient represented by three types of alpine vegetation from swamp meadow to meadow to steppe, the soil bacterial, fungal and archaeal diversity was evaluated and then associated with their assembly processes, and glacier foreland vegetation was also surveyed as a case out of this gradient. Vegetation biomass was found to decrease significantly along the vegetation gradient. In contrast to irregular shifts in alpha diversity, bacterial and fungal beta diversities that were dominated by species replacement components (71.07-79.08%) significantly increased with the decreasing gradient in vegetation biomass (P < 0.05). These trends of increase were also found in the extent of stochastic bacterial and fungal assembly. Moreover, an increase in microbial beta diversity but a decrease in beta nearest taxon index were observed along with increased discrepancy in vegetation biomass (P < 0.001). Stepwise regression analyses and structural equation models suggested that vegetation biomass was the major variable that was related to microbial distribution and community assembly, and there might be associations between the dominance of species replacements and stochastic assembly. These findings enhanced our recognition of the relationship between vegetation and soil microorganisms and would facilitate the development of vegetation-microbe feedback models in alpine ecosystems.


Assuntos
Pergelissolo , Solo , Biomassa , Ecossistema , Pradaria , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Tibet
16.
Glob Chang Biol ; 28(10): 3411-3425, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35285570

RESUMO

In Arctic regions, thawing permafrost soils are projected to release 50 to 250 Gt of carbon by 2100. This data is mostly derived from carbon-rich wetlands, although 71% of this carbon pool is stored in faster-thawing mineral soils, where ecosystems close to the outer boundaries of permafrost regions are especially vulnerable. Although extensive data exists from currently thawing sites and short-term thawing experiments, investigations of the long-term changes following final thaw and co-occurring drainage are scarce. Here we show ecosystem changes at two comparable tussock tundra sites with distinct permafrost thaw histories, representing 15 and 25 years of natural drainage, that resulted in a 10-fold decrease in CH4 emissions (3.2 ± 2.2 vs. 0.3 ± 0.4 mg C-CH4  m-2  day-1 ), while CO2 emissions were comparable. These data extend the time perspective from earlier studies based on short-term experimental drainage. The overall microbial community structures did not differ significantly between sites, although the drier top soils at the most advanced site led to a loss of methanogens and their syntrophic partners in surface layers while the abundance of methanotrophs remained unchanged. The resulting deeper aeration zones likely increased CH4 oxidation due to the longer residence time of CH4 in the oxidation zone, while the observed loss of aerenchyma plants reduced CH4 diffusion from deeper soil layers directly to the atmosphere. Our findings highlight the importance of including hydrological, vegetation and microbial specific responses when studying long-term effects of climate change on CH4 emissions and underscores the need for data from different soil types and thaw histories.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Pergelissolo , Regiões Árticas , Carbono , Metano , Pergelissolo/química , Solo/química
17.
New Phytol ; 235(2): 391-401, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35306671

RESUMO

The rapid development of ancient DNA analysis in the last decades has induced a paradigm shift in ecology and evolution. Driven by a combination of breakthroughs in DNA isolation techniques, high-throughput sequencing, and bioinformatics, ancient genome-scale data for a rapidly growing variety of taxa are now available, allowing researchers to directly observe demographic and evolutionary processes over time. However, the vast majority of paleogenomic studies still focus on human or animal remains. In this article, we make the case for a vast untapped resource of ancient plant material that is ideally suited for paleogenomic analyses: plant remains, such as needles, leaves, wood, seeds, or fruits, that are deposited in natural archives, such as lake sediments, permafrost, or even ice caves. Such plant remains are commonly found in large numbers and in stratigraphic sequence through time and have so far been used primarily to reconstruct past local species presences and abundances. However, they are also unique repositories of genetic information with the potential to revolutionize the fields of ecology and evolution by directly studying microevolutionary processes over time. Here, we give an overview of the current state-of-the-art, address important challenges, and highlight new research avenues to inspire future research.


Assuntos
DNA Antigo , Pergelissolo , Animais , DNA de Plantas/genética , Lagos , Plantas/genética
18.
Astrobiology ; 22(7): 812-828, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35333595

RESUMO

This article describes a study of frozen volcanic deposits collected from volcanoes Tolbachik and Bezymianny on the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia, and Deception Island volcano, Antarctica. In addition, we studied suprasnow ash layers deposited after the 2007 eruptions of volcanoes Shiveluch and Bezymianny on Kamchatka. The main objectives were to characterize the presence and survivability of thermophilic microorganisms in perennially frozen volcanic deposits. As opposed to permafrost from the polar regions, viable thermophiles were detected in volcanic permafrost by cultivation, microscopy, and sequencing. In the permafrost of Tolbachik volcano, we observed methane formation by both psychrophilic and thermophilic methanogenic archaea, while at 37°C, methane production was noticeably lower. Thermophilic bacteria isolated from volcanic permafrost from the Deception Island were 99.93% related to Geobacillus stearothermophilus. Our data showed biological sulfur reduction to sulfide at 85°C and even at 130°C, where hyperthermophilic archaea of the genus Thermoproteus were registered. Sequences of hyperthermophilic bacteria of the genus Caldicellulosiruptor were discovered in clone libraries from fresh volcanic ash deposited on snow. Microorganisms found in volcanic terrestrial permafrost may serve as a model for the alien inhabitants of Mars, a cryogenic planet with numerous volcanoes. Thermophiles and hyperthermophiles and their metabolic processes represent a guideline for the future exploration missions on Mars.


Assuntos
Pergelissolo , Archaea/metabolismo , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Metano/química , Pergelissolo/microbiologia , Erupções Vulcânicas
19.
Glob Chang Biol ; 28(10): 3206-3221, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35243729

RESUMO

Methane (CH4 ) release to the atmosphere from thawing permafrost contributes significantly to global CH4 emissions. However, constraining the effects of thaw that control the production and emission of CH4 is needed to anticipate future Arctic emissions. Here are presented robust rate measurements of CH4 production and cycling in a region of rapidly degrading permafrost. Big Trail Lake, located in central Alaska, is a young, actively expanding thermokarst lake. The lake was investigated by taking two 1 m cores of sediment from different regions. Two independent methods of measuring microbial CH4  production, long term (CH4 accumulation) and short term (14 C tracer), produced similar average rates of 11 ± 3.5 and 9 ± 3.6 nmol cm-3  d-1 , respectively. The rates had small variations between the different lithological units, indicating homogeneous CH4 production despite heterogeneous lithology in the surface ~1 m of sediment. To estimate the total CH4 production, the CH4 production rates were multiplied through the 10-15 m deep talik (thaw bulb). This estimate suggests that CH4  production is higher than emission by a maximum factor of ~2, which is less than previous estimates. Stable and radioactive carbon isotope measurements showed that 50% of dissolved CH4 in the first meter was produced further below. Interestingly, labeled 14 C incubations with 2-14 C acetate and 14 C CO2 indicate that variations in the pathway used by microbes to produce CH4 depends on the age and type of organic matter in the sediment, but did not appear to influence the rates at which CH4  was produced. This study demonstrates that at least half of the CH4 produced by microbial breakdown of organic matter in actively expanding thermokarst is emitted to the atmosphere, and that the majority of this CH4 is produced in the deep sediment.


Assuntos
Pergelissolo , Regiões Árticas , Atmosfera , Lagos , Metano/metabolismo
20.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1329, 2022 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35288572

RESUMO

Estimates of the permafrost-climate feedback vary in magnitude and sign, partly because permafrost carbon stability in warmer-than-present conditions is not well constrained. Here we use a Plio-Pleistocene lacustrine reconstruction of mean annual air temperature (MAAT) from the Tibetan Plateau, the largest alpine permafrost region on the Earth, to constrain past and future changes in permafrost carbon storage. Clumped isotope-temperatures (Δ47-T) indicate warmer MAAT (~1.2 °C) prior to 2.7 Ma, and support a permafrost-free environment on the northern Tibetan Plateau in a warmer-than-present climate. Δ47-T indicate ~8.1 °C cooling from 2.7 Ma, coincident with Northern Hemisphere glacial intensification. Combined with climate models and global permafrost distribution, these results indicate, under conditions similar to mid-Pliocene Warm period (3.3-3.0 Ma), ~60% of alpine permafrost containing ~85 petagrams of carbon may be vulnerable to thawing compared to ~20% of circumarctic permafrost. This estimate highlights ~25% of permafrost carbon and the permafrost-climate feedback could originate in alpine areas.


Assuntos
Pergelissolo , Carbono/análise , Clima , Temperatura
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