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1.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(43): 3581-3587, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808752

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the molecular mechanism of oxaliplatin-induced chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathic pain (CIPNP). Methods: A total of 16 male Sprague-Dawley rats of specific pathogen-free grade were randomly divided into two groups: oxaliplatin experimental group (2.4 mg/kg oxaliplatin dissolved in 5.0% glucose solution, n=8) and control group (equal volume 5% glucose solution, n=8). The rat model of CIPNP was established by continuous administration with oxaliplatin. In addition, mechanical allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia and cold hyperalgesia were measured and compared between the two groups. To explore the molecular mechanism of oxaliplatin-induced CIPNP, the gene expression of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from the rat model of CIPNP was analyzed using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). Results: Mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity was exhibited on day 7 and a stronger hypersensitivity was observed on day 14. A total of 20 152 genes were quantified by RNA-Seq, and 379 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained with absolute fold change cut-offs ≥ 2 and P value<0.05. There were 7 genes (Npy, Car3, Cdkn1a, Nts, Prc1, Ms4a7 and Ecel1) that were involved in peripheral nerve injury-related neuropathic pain. Gene ontology (GO) functional enrichment analyses indicated that the DEGs induced by oxaliplatin were involved in oxygen transport, cell division, intermediate, centromere, oxygen transporter activity, oxygen binding. Moreover, the result of Kyoto Encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) analyses highlighted that the DEGs induced by oxaliplatin were involved in malaria, African trypanosomiasis, primary immunodeficiency, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway. Conclusion: Oxaliplatin induces CIPNP via pain-related genes and signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Neuralgia , Animais , Gânglios Espinais , Hiperalgesia/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Neuralgia/induzido quimicamente , Oxaliplatina , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
2.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 38(12): 1230-1241, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Remifentanil is an effective drug in peri-operative pain therapy, but it can also induce and aggravate hyperalgesia. Supplemental administration of N2O may help to reduce remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of 35 and 50% N2O on hyperalgesia and pain after remifentanil infusion. DESIGN: Single site, phase 1, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised crossover study. SETTING: University Hospital, Germany from January 2012 to April 2012. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-one healthy male volunteers. INTERVENTIONS: Transcutaneous electrical stimulation induced spontaneous acute pain and stable areas of hyperalgesia. Each volunteer underwent the following four sessions in a randomised order: 50 to 50% N2-O2 and intravenous (i.v.) 0.9% saline infusion (placebo); 50 to 50% N2-O2 and i.v. remifentanil infusion at 0.1 µg kg-1 min-1 (remifentanil); 35 to 15 to 50% N2O-N2-O2 and i.v. remifentanil infusion at 0.1 µg kg-1 min-1 (tested drug) and 50 to 50% N2O-O2 and i.v. remifentanil infusion at 0.1 µg kg-1 min-1 (gas active control). Gas mixtures were inhaled for 60 min; i.v. drugs were administered for 30 min. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Areas of pin-prick hyperalgesia, areas of touch-evoked allodynia and pain intensity on a visual analogue scale were assessed repeatedly for 160 min. RESULTS: Data from 20 volunteers were analysed. There were significant treatment and treatment-by-time effects regarding areas of hyperalgesia (P < 0.001). After the treatment period, the area of hyperalgesia was significantly reduced (P < 0.001) in the tested drug and in the gas active control (30.6 ±â€Š9.25 and 24.4 ±â€Š7.3 cm2, respectively) compared with remifentanil (51.0 ±â€Š17.0 cm2). There was also a significant difference between the gas active control and the tested drug sessions (P < 0.001). For the area of allodynia and pain rating, results were consistent with the results for hyperalgesia. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of 35% N2O significantly reduced hyperalgesia, allodynia and pain intensity induced after remifentanil. It might therefore be suitable in peri-operative pain relief characterised by hyperalgesia and allodynia, such as postoperative pain, and may help to reduce opioid demand. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT-No.: 2011-000966-37.


Assuntos
Óxido Nitroso , Piperidinas , Analgésicos Opioides , Método Duplo-Cego , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Hiperalgesia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperalgesia/diagnóstico , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Dor Pós-Operatória , Piperidinas/efeitos adversos , Remifentanil
3.
Alcohol Res ; 41(1): 13, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729286

RESUMO

People living with pain report drinking alcohol to relieve pain. Acute alcohol use reduces pain, and chronic alcohol use facilitates the emergence or exaggeration of pain. Recently, funding agencies and neuroscientists involved in basic research have turned their attention to understanding the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie pain-alcohol interactions, with a focus on circuit and molecular mediators of alcohol-induced changes in pain-related behavior. This review briefly discusses some examples of work being done in this area, with a focus on reciprocal projections between the midbrain and extended amygdala, as well as some neurochemical mediators of pain-related phenotypes after alcohol exposure. Finally, as more work accumulates on this topic, the authors highlight the need for the neuroscience field to carefully consider sex and age in the design and analysis of pain-alcohol interaction experiments.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Hiperalgesia , Alcoolismo/complicações , Tonsila do Cerebelo , Humanos , Hiperalgesia/induzido quimicamente , Mesencéfalo , Peptídeos
4.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 54(12): e11071, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730678

RESUMO

Kahweol is a compound derived from coffee with reported antinociceptive effects. Based on the few reports that exist in the literature regarding the mechanisms involved in kahweol-induced peripheral antinociceptive action, this study proposed to investigate the contribution of the endocannabinoid system to the peripheral antinociception induced in rats by kahweol. Hyperalgesia was induced by intraplantar injection of prostaglandin E2(PGE2) and was measured with the paw pressure test. Kahweol and the drugs to test the cannabinoid system were administered locally into the right hind paw. The endocannabinoids were purified by open-bed chromatography on silica and measured by LC-MS. Kahweol (80 µg/paw) induced peripheral antinociception against PGE2-induced hyperalgesia. This effect was reversed by the intraplantar injection of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist AM251 (20, 40, and 80 µg/paw), but not by the CB2 cannabinoid receptor antagonist AM630 (100 µg/paw). Treatment with the endocannabinoid reuptake inhibitor VDM11 (2.5 µg/paw) intensified the peripheral antinociceptive effect induced by low-dose kahweol (40 µg/paw). The monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitor, JZL184 (4 µg/paw), and the dual MAGL/fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor, MAFP (0.5 µg/paw), potentiated the peripheral antinociceptive effect of low-dose kahweol. Furthermore, kahweol increased the levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide, but not of the other endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol nor of anandamide-related N-acylethanolamines, in the plantar surface of the rat paw. Our results suggested that kahweol induced peripheral antinociception via anandamide release and activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors and this compound could be used to develop new drugs for pain relief.


Assuntos
Diterpenos , Endocanabinoides , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Café , Hiperalgesia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide
5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 760076, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722345

RESUMO

In recent years, increasing studies have been conducted on the mechanism of gut microbiota in neuropsychiatric diseases and non-neuropsychiatric diseases. The academic community has also recognized the existence of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Chronic pain has always been an urgent difficulty for human beings, which often causes anxiety, depression, and other mental symptoms, seriously affecting people's quality of life. Hyperalgesia is one of the main adverse reactions of chronic pain. The mechanism of gut microbiota in hyperalgesia has been extensively studied, providing a new target for pain treatment. Enterochromaffin cells, as the chief sentinel for sensing gut microbiota and its metabolites, can play an important role in the interaction between the gut microbiota and hyperalgesia through paracrine or neural pathways. Therefore, this systematic review describes the role of gut microbiota in the pathological mechanism of hyperalgesia, learns about the role of enterochromaffin cell receptors and secretions in hyperalgesia, and provides a new strategy for pain treatment by targeting enterochromaffin cells through restoring disturbed gut microbiota or supplementing probiotics.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Encéfalo , Células Enterocromafins , Humanos , Hiperalgesia , Qualidade de Vida
6.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 12(20): 3855-3863, 2021 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610235

RESUMO

Local tissue ischemic hypoxia is a peripheral process that can be targeted with topical treatment to alleviate pain under chronic pain conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and peripheral neuropathic pain. We recently reported three novel salts and a co-crystal composed of vasoactive agents and antioxidant nutraceuticals, all of which produced potent topical anti-allodynic effects in the chronic postischemic pain (CPIP) rat model of CRPS. One of the products, pentx-pca, is a co-crystal synthesized from pentoxifylline (pentx) and protocatechuic acid (pca). Pentx-pca exhibited potent topical anti-allodynic effects in CPIP and rats with chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve exceeding effects produced individually by pentx and pca. We hypothesized that the anti-allodynic effects of pentx-pca in CPIP rats were due to its impact on local tissue oxygenation and subsequent oxygen-dependent mitochondrial respiration. Percutaneous tissue oxygen saturation (SaO2) measurements taken from the hind paw of the CPIP rats revealed that anti-allodynic doses of topical pentx-pca increased local tissue SaO2. Moreover, assessment of the oxygen-dependent mitochondrial function using a triphenyl tetrazolium chloride assay revealed that mitochondrial dysfunction significantly declined in the plantar muscle collected from CPIP rats topically treated with anti-allodynic doses of pentx-pca as compared to vehicle-treated CPIP rats. Furthermore, time-dependent resolution of plantar muscle mitochondrial dysfunction, that occurred in the CPIP rats at 6-week post procedure, paralleled the loss of the anti-allodynic response to topical treatment with pentx-pca. Our results indicated that pentx-pca produced potent anti-allodynic effects in the CPIP rat model of CRPS by alleviating peripheral tissue ischemia/hypoxia and downstream hypoxia-driven mitochondrial dysfunction.


Assuntos
Síndromes da Dor Regional Complexa , Neuralgia , Pentoxifilina , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hidroxibenzoatos , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipóxia , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Pentoxifilina/farmacologia , Ratos
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638592

RESUMO

The development of neuropathy and of mood alterations is frequent after chemotherapy. These complications, independent from the antitumoral mechanism, are interconnected due to an overlapping in their processing pathways and a common neuroinflammatory condition. This study aims to verify whether in mice the treatment with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (BTZ), at a protocol capable of inducing painful neuropathy, is associated with anxiety, depression and supraspinal neuroinflammation. We also verify if the therapeutic treatment with the antagonist of the prokineticin (PK) system PC1, which is known to contrast pain and neuroinflammation, can prevent mood alterations. Mice were treated with BTZ (0.4 mg/kg three times/week for 4 weeks); mechanical allodynia and locomotor activity were evaluated over time while anxiety (dark light and marble burying test), depression (sucrose preference and swimming test) and supraspinal neuroinflammation were checked at the end of the protocol. BTZ treated neuropathic mice develop anxiety and depression. The presence of mood alterations is related to the presence of neuroinflammation and PK system activation in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus with high levels of PK2 and PKR2 receptor, IL-6 and TNF-α, TLR4 and an upregulation of glial markers. PC1 treatment, counteracting pain, prevented the development of supraspinal inflammation and depression-like behavior in BTZ mice.


Assuntos
Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Bortezomib/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteassoma/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular Derivado de Glândula Endócrina/metabolismo , Animais , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperalgesia/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/metabolismo , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
J Vis Exp ; (175)2021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661570

RESUMO

Scalding water is the most common cause of burn injury in both elderly and young populations. It is one of the major clinical challenges because of the high mortality and sequelae in low- and middle-income countries. Burns frequently induce intense spontaneous pain and persistent allodynia as well as life-threatening problem. More importantly, excessive pain is often accompanied by depression, which may significantly decrease the quality of life. This article shows how to develop an animal model for the study of burn-induced pain and depression-like behavior. After anesthesia, burn injury was induced by dipping one hind paw of the mouse into hot water (65 °C ± 0.5 °C) for 3 s. The von Frey test and automated gait analysis were performed every 2 days after burn injury. In addition, depression-like behavior was examined using the forced swimming test, and the rota-rod test was performed to differentiate the abnormal motor function after burn injury. The main purpose of this study is to describe the development of an animal model for the study of burn injury-induced pain and depression-like behavior in mice.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Qualidade de Vida , Animais , Depressão/etiologia , Hiperalgesia , Camundongos , Dor/etiologia
9.
Eur J Neurosci ; 54(10): 7409-7421, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618385

RESUMO

The activation of spinal astrocytes and release of neuroinflammatory mediators are important events in neuropathic pain (NP) pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated the role of Wnt10a/ß-catenin signalling in kindlin-1-mediated astrocyte activation using a chronic constriction injury (CCI) NP rat model. Using kindlin-1 overexpression and knockdown plasmids, we assessed hyperalgesia, changes in spinal astrocyte activation and the release of inflammatory mediators in a NP rat model. We also performed coimmunoprecipitation, Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to characterize the underlying mechanisms of kindlin-1 in astrocyte cultures in vitro. Kindlin-1 was significantly upregulated in CCI rats and promoted hyperalgesia. Moreover, we observed increased kindlin-1, Wnt10a and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP; biomarker for astroglial injury) levels and the release of inflammatory mediators in NP rats (p < 0.05). Inhibiting GFAP in vitro led to decreased kindlin-1 levels, prevented astrocyte activation, decreased Wnt10a level and the release of inflammatory mediators (p < 0.05). Coimmunoprecipitation showed that kindlin-1 can interact with Wnt10a. We showed that kindlin-1-mediated astrocyte activation was associated with Wnt10a/ß-catenin signalling and the downstream release of inflammatory mediators in a CCI NP rat model. Our findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of kindlin-1-mediated astrocyte activation after CCI.


Assuntos
Astrócitos , Neuralgia , Animais , Hiperalgesia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteínas Wnt , beta Catenina
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638704

RESUMO

The microtubule, a major constituent of cytoskeletons, was shown to bind and interact with transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), and serves a pivotal role to produce thermal hyperalgesia in inflammatory pain. Nogo-A is a modulator of microtubule assembly and plays a key role in maintaining the function of TRPV1 in inflammatory heat pain. However, whether the microtubule dynamics modulated by Nogo-A in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons participate in the inflammatory pain is not elucidated. Here we reported that the polymerization of microtubules in the DRG neurons, as indicated by the acetylated α-tubulin, tubulin polymerization-promoting protein 3 (TPPP3), and microtubule numbers, was significantly elevated in the complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) induced inflammatory pain. Consistent with our previous results, knock-out (KO) of Nogo-A protein significantly attenuated the heat hyperalgesia 72 h after CFA injection and decreased the microtubule polymerization via up-regulation of phosphorylation of collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) in DRG. The colocalization of acetylated α-tubulin and TRPV1 in DRG neurons was also reduced dramatically in Nogo-A KO rats under inflammatory pain. Moreover, the down-regulation of TRPV1 in DRG of Nogo-A KO rats after injection of CFA was reversed by intrathecal injection of paclitaxel, a microtubule stabilizer. Furthermore, intrathecal injection of nocodazole (a microtubule disruptor) attenuated significantly the CFA-induced inflammatory heat hyperalgesia and the mechanical pain in a rat model of spared nerve injury (SNI). In these SNI cases, the Nogo-A and acetylated α-tubulin in DRG were also significantly up-regulated. We conclude that the polymerization of microtubules promoted by Nogo-A in DRG contributes to the development of inflammatory heat hyperalgesia mediated by TRPV1.


Assuntos
Gânglios Espinais/metabolismo , Hiperalgesia/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Proteínas Nogo/metabolismo , Dor/metabolismo , Animais , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Hiperalgesia/genética , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Proteínas Nogo/genética , Dor/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ratos Transgênicos , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo
11.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 46(19): 1287-1294, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517396

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal experimental study. OBJECTIVE: We evaluate the effect of dapsone on tactile allodynia and mechanical hyperalgesia and to determine its anti-oxidant effect in a spinal cord injury (SC) model in rats. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Neuropathic pain (NP) as result of traumatic spinal cord injury is a deleterious medical condition with temporal or permanent time-course. Painful stimuli trigger a cascade of events that activate the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, inducing an increase in oxidative stress. Since there is no effective treatment for this condition, dapsone (4,4'diaminodiphenylsulfone) is proposed as potential treatment for NP. Its anti-oxidant, neuroprotective, and anti-inflammatory properties have been documented, however, there is no evidence regarding its use for treatment of NP induced by SCI. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the anti-allodynic and anti-hyperalgesic effect of dapsone as preventive or acute treatment after NP was already established. Furthermore, participation of oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring lipid peroxidation (LP) and glutathione concentration (GSH) in rats with SCI. RESULTS: Acute treatment with dapsone (3.1-25 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased nociceptive behaviors in a dose-dependent manner, decreased LP, and increased GSH in the injured tissue 15 days after the injury was produced. On the other hand, preventive treatment (3 h post-injury, once daily for 3 days) with dapsone (3.1-25 mg/kg, i.p.) yielded similar results. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that the anti-nociceptive effect of dapsone is regulated through the decrease of oxidative stress and the excitotoxicity is associated with the activation of NMDA receptors.Level of Evidence: N/A.


Assuntos
Neuralgia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Animais , Dapsona/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperalgesia/etiologia , Hiperalgesia/prevenção & controle , Estresse Oxidativo , Estudos Prospectivos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Medula Espinal , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/complicações , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Phytomedicine ; 92: 153734, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain has been shown to be modulated by the activation of the chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 12 (CXCL12)/chemokine CXC receptor 4 (CXCR4) dependent nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. Loganin, an iridoid glycoside, was proven to prevent neuropathic pain, but its underlying mechanisms related to NLRP3 activation are still unknown. PURPOSE: This study investigated the underlying mechanisms of loganin's effect on chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the spinal cord. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham, CCI, sham + loganin, and CCI + loganin. Loganin (5 mg/kg/day) was administered intraperitoneally starting the day after surgery. Paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and latency (PWL) were assessed before CCI and on days 1, 3, 7 and 14 after CCI. Spinal cords were collected for western blots and immunofluorescence studies. RESULTS: Loganin prevented CCI-attenuated PWT and PWL, suggesting improved mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. The expression of CXCL12, CXCR4, thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), NLRP3 inflammasome (NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1), IL-1ß, and IL-18 were enhanced on day 7 after CCI, and all were reduced after loganin treatment. Dual immunofluorescence also showed that increased CXCL12, CXCR4, and NLRP3 were colocalized with NeuN (neuronal marker), GFAP (astrocyte marker), and Iba1 (microglial marker) on day 7 in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn (SDH). These immunoreactivities were attenuated in loganin-treated rats. Moreover, loganin decreased the assembly of NLRP3/ASC inflammasome after CCI in the ipsilateral SDH. Loganin appears to attenuate CCI-induced neuropathic pain by suppressing CXCL12/CXCR4-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that loganin might be a suitable candidate for managing CCI-provoked neuropathic pain.


Assuntos
Inflamassomos , Neuralgia , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Iridoides , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores CXCR4 , Receptores de Quimiocinas , Medula Espinal
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17971, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504248

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease associated with advanced joint dysfunction. Madhuca indica J. F. Gmel, from the family Sapotaceae, is an Indian medicinal plant reported to have an array of pharmacological properties. The aim of present investigation was to determine the anti-arthritic potential of an isolated phytoconstituent from methanolic leaf extract of Madhuca indica (MI-ALC) against FCA-induced experimental arthritis. Polyarthritis was induced in female rats (strain: Wistar) via an intradermal injection of FCA (0.1 mL) into the tail. Polyarthritis developed after 32 days of FCA administration. Then rats were treated orally with an isolated phytoconstituent from MI-ALC at doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg. Findings suggested that High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography, Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry spectral analyses of the phytoconstituent isolated from MI-ALC confirmed the structure as 3,5,7,3',4'-Pentahydroxy flavone (i.e., QTN). Treatment with QTN (10 and 20 mg/kg) showed significant (p < 0.05) inhibition of increased joint diameter, paw volume, paw withdrawal threshold, and latency. The elevated synovial oxidative stress (Superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde) and protein levels of Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and Interleukin (ILs) were markedly (p < 0.05) reduced by QTN. It also effectively (p < 0.05) ameliorated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), Nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells (NF-kß) and its inhibitor-α (Ikßα), and ATP-activated P2 purinergic receptors (P2X7) protein expressions as determined by western blot analysis. In conclusion, QTN ameliorates FCA-induced hyperalgesia through modulation of elevated inflammatory release (NF-kß, Ikßα, P2X7, and COX-2), oxido-nitrosative stress, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (ILs and TNF-α) in experimental rats.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Madhuca/química , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Plantas Medicinais/química , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Administração Oral , Animais , Antirreumáticos/química , Antirreumáticos/isolamento & purificação , Artrite Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Artrite Experimental/metabolismo , Artrite Reumatoide/induzido quimicamente , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Adjuvante de Freund/efeitos adversos , Hiperalgesia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperalgesia/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Nitrosativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Mol Pain ; 17: 17448069211042117, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain is an unpleasant sensory experience that usually plays a protective role. Inflammatory pain is often severe and stubborn, which has a great impact on the quality of life of patients. However, there has been no breakthrough in the treatment strategy and mechanism of inflammatory pain. METHODS: This study investigated the analgesic effect of tetrahydropalmatine (THP) in rats injected with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain. Allodynia and gait analysis of rats were used to evaluate the analgesic effect at different time points before and after operation. THP (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally once daily for 7 days post Day 3. The expression levels of TNF-α and IL-1ß in the spinal cord were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The activation of astrocytes and microglial cells in the spinal cord was tested by western blot before and after THP treatment. The apoptosis of glial cells was tested by flow cytometry after treatment with THP in the primary cultured glial cell model. RESULTS: CFA treatment induced significant allodynia and caused abnormal gait in rats. Administration of THP at 10 mg/kg significantly alleviated CFA-induced inflammatory pain behaviors. Moreover, CFA-induced activation of glial cells and the increased levels of TNF-α and IL-1ß were inhibited by THP administration. In addition, THP promotes apoptosis in primary cultured glial cells. This study suggests the possible clinical utility of THP in the treatment of inflammatory pain. CONCLUSION: THP plays an analgesic role by inhibiting the activation of glial cells and promoting apoptosis.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Alcaloides de Berberina/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Neuroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Adjuvante de Freund/efeitos adversos , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperalgesia/metabolismo , Masculino , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Dor/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Medula Espinal/metabolismo
15.
Mol Pain ; 17: 17448069211045211, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517736

RESUMO

Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines secreted by infected cells that can interfere with viral replication. Besides activating antiviral defenses, type I IFNs also exhibit diverse biological functions. IFN-ß has been shown to have a protective effect against neurotoxic and inflammatory insults on neurons. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the possible role of IFN-ß in reducing mechanical allodynia caused by Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) injection in rats. We assessed the antinociceptive effect of intrathecal IFN-ß in naïve rats and the rats with CFA-induced inflammatory pain. After the behavioral test, the spinal cords of the rats were harvested for western blot and immunohistochemical double staining. We found that intrathecal administration of IFN-ß in naïve rats can significantly increase the paw withdrawal threshold and paw withdrawal latency. Further, the intrathecal injection of a neutralizing IFN-ß antibody can reduce the paw withdrawal threshold and paw withdrawal latency, suggesting that IFN-ß is produced in the spinal cord in normal conditions and serves as a tonic inhibitor of pain. In addition, intrathecal injection of IFN-ß at dosages from 1000 U to 10000 U demonstrates a significant transient dose-dependent inhibition of CFA-induced inflammatory pain. This analgesic effect is reversed by intrathecal naloxone, suggesting that IFN-ß produces an analgesic effect through central opioid receptor-mediated signaling. Increased expression of phospho-µ-opioid receptors after IFN-ß injection was observed on western blot, and immunohistochemical staining showed that µ-opioids co-localized with IFN-α/ßR in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. The findings of this study demonstrate that the analgesic effect of IFN-ß is through µ-opioid receptors activation in spial cord.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon beta/metabolismo , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperalgesia/metabolismo , Injeções Espinhais/métodos , Masculino , Dor/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(30): 5060-5075, 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic stress during pregnancy may increase visceral hyperalgesia of offspring in a sex-dependent way. Combining adult stress in offspring will increase this sensitivity. Based on the evidence implicating estrogen in exacerbating visceral hypersensitivity in female rodents in preclinical models, we predicted that chronic prenatal stress (CPS) + chronic adult stress (CAS) will maximize visceral hyperalgesia; and that estrogen plays an important role in colonic hyperalgesia. AIM: The aim was to illuminate the role of estrogen in colonic hyperalgesia and its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: We established a CPS plus CAS rodent model in which the balloon was used to distend the colorectum. The single-fiber recording in vivo and patch clamp experiments in vitro were used to monitor the colonic neuron's activity. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunofluorescence were used to study the effects of CPS and CAS on colon primary afferent sensitivity. We used ovariectomy and letrozole to reduce estrogen levels of female rats respectively in order to assess the role of estrogen in female-specific enhanced primary afferent sensitization. RESULTS: Spontaneous activity and single fiber activity were significantly greater in females than in males. The enhanced sensitization in female rats mainly came from low-threshold neurons. CPS significantly increased single-unit afferent fiber activity in L6-S2 dorsal roots in response. Activity was further enhanced by CAS. In addition, the excitability of colon-projecting dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons increased in CPS + CAS rats and was associated with a decrease in transient A-type K+ currents. Compared with ovariectomy, treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole significantly reduced estrogen levels in female rats, confirming the gender difference. Moreover, mice treated with letrozole had decreased colonic DRG neuron excitability. The intrathecal infusion of estrogen increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels and contributed to the response to visceral pain. Western blotting showed that nerve growth factor protein was upregulated in CPS + CAS mice. CONCLUSION: This study adds to the evidence that estrogen-dependent sensitization of primary afferent colon neurons is involved in the development of chronic stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity in female rats.


Assuntos
Dor Visceral , Animais , Colo , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Feminino , Gânglios Espinais , Hiperalgesia/etiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Neurônios , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Dor Visceral/etiologia
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17418, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465829

RESUMO

Hyperalgesia has become a major problem restricting the clinical application of tooth bleaching. We hypothesized that transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a pain conduction tunnel, plays a role in tooth hyperalgesia and inflammation after bleaching. Dental pulp stem cells were seeded on the dentin side of the disc, which was cut from the premolar buccal tissue, with 15% (90 min) or 40% (3 × 15 min) bleaching gel applied on the enamel side, and treated with or without a TRPA1 inhibitor. The bleaching gel stimulated intracellular reactive oxygen species, Ca2+, ATP, and extracellular ATP in a dose-dependent manner, and increased the mRNA and protein levels of hyperalgesia (TRPA1 and PANX1) and inflammation (TNFα and IL6) factors. This increment was adversely affected by TRPA1 inhibitor. In animal study, the protein levels of TRPA1 (P = 0.0006), PANX1 (P < 0.0001), and proliferation factors [PCNA (P < 0.0001) and Caspase 3 (P = 0.0066)] increased significantly after treated rat incisors with 15% and 40% bleaching gels as detected by immunohistochemistry. These results show that TRPA1 plays a critical role in sensitivity and inflammation after tooth bleaching, providing a solid foundation for further research on reducing the complications of tooth bleaching.


Assuntos
Polpa Dentária/patologia , Hiperalgesia/patologia , Inflamação/patologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/patologia , Clareadores Dentários/efeitos adversos , Clareamento Dental/efeitos adversos , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Polpa Dentária/efeitos dos fármacos , Polpa Dentária/metabolismo , Géis/efeitos adversos , Hiperalgesia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperalgesia/metabolismo , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575835

RESUMO

Cancer pain may be the consequence of physical nerve compression by a growing tumor. We employed a murine model to study whether gabapentin was able to regulate tumor growth, in addition to controlling hyperalgesic symptoms. A fluorescent melanoma cell line (B16-BL6/Zs green) was inoculated into the proximity of the sciatic nerve in male C57BL/6 mice. The tumor gradually compressed the nerve, causing hypersensitivity. Tumor growth was characterized via in vivo imaging techniques. Every other day, gabapentin (100 mg/Kg) or saline was IP administered to each animal. In the therapeutic protocol, gabapentin was administered once the tumor had induced increased nociception. In the preventive protocol, gabapentin was administered before the appearance of the positive signs. Additionally, in vitro experiments were performed to determine gabapentin's effects on cell-line proliferation, the secretion of the chemokine CCL2, and calcium influx. In the therapeutically treated animals, baseline responses to noxious stimuli were recovered, and tumors were significantly reduced. Similarly, gabapentin reduced tumor growth during the preventive treatment, but a relapse was noticed when the administration stopped. Gabapentin also inhibited cell proliferation, the secretion of CCL2, and calcium influx. These results suggest that gabapentin might represent a multivalent strategy to control cancer-associated events in painful tumors.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Dor do Câncer/tratamento farmacológico , Gabapentina/farmacologia , Animais , Dor do Câncer/diagnóstico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma Experimental , Camundongos , Manejo da Dor , Medição da Dor , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
19.
Exp Brain Res ; 239(11): 3397-3404, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499186

RESUMO

Our objective of this study is to determine the molecular mechanism of MAPKs (mitogen activated protein kinase systems) on TRPV4 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 4)-mediated trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Partial chronic constriction injury of the infraorbital nerve (CCI-ION) ligation model was used in this research. When treated with antagonists of p38, JNK or ERK, the mechanical hyperalgesia threshold, nerve fiber disorder, myelinoclasis, and Schwann cells proliferation could be reversed. RT-PCR (real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction), Western blot and IHC (immunohistochemistry) showed that TRPV4 mRNA and protein levels, TRPV4-positive cells and small positive neurons decreased remarkably in TN group treated with antagonists of p38, JNK or ERK. ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) was performed to discover inhibition of MAPK pathway can down-regulate the expression of HATs (histone acetyltransferases), and up-regulate the expression of HDACs (histone deacetylases) in TN, thus inhibiting histone acetylation. Finally, Western blot was performed to identify the phosphorylation status of p38, JNK and ERK, finding decreased phosphorylation forms in antagonists treated TN groups compared with TN groups. Based on the above investigation method, on a whole, our study showed that down-regulation of MAPK pathway could alleviate TRPV4-mediated trigeminal neuralgia, via inhibiting the activation of histone acetylation.


Assuntos
Neuralgia do Trigêmeo , Acetilação , Animais , Regulação para Baixo , Histonas , Hiperalgesia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo/tratamento farmacológico
20.
FASEB J ; 35(10): e21852, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499774

RESUMO

Postoperative pain and delayed healing in surgical wounds, which require complex management strategies have understudied complicated mechanisms. Here we investigated temporal changes in behavior, tissue structure, and transcriptomic profiles in a rat model of a surgical incision, using hyperalgesic behavioral tests, histological analyses, and next-generation RNA sequencing, respectively. The most rapidly (1 hour) expressed genes were the chemokines, Cxcl1 and Cxcl2. Consequently, infiltrating leukocytes were abundantly observed starting at 6 and peaking at 24 hours after incising which was supported by histological analysis and appearance of the neutrophil markers, S100a8 and S100a9. At this time, hyperalgesia was at a peak and overall transcriptional activity was most highly activated. At the 1-day timepoint, Nppb, coding for natriuretic peptide precursor B, was the most strongly upregulated gene and was localized by in situ hybridization to the epidermal keratinocytes at the margins of the incision. Nppb was basically unaffected in a peripheral inflammation model transcriptomic dataset. At the late phase of wound healing, five secreted, incision-specific peptidases, Mmp2, Aebp1, Mmp23, Adamts7, and Adamtsl1, showed increased expression, supporting the idea of a sustained tissue remodeling process. Transcripts that are specifically upregulated at each timepoint in the incision model may be potential candidates for either biomarkers or therapeutic targets for wound pain and wound healing. This study incorporates the examination of longitudinal temporal molecular responses, corresponding anatomical localization, and hyperalgesic behavioral alterations in the surgical incision model that together provide important and novel foundational knowledge to understand mechanisms of wound pain and wound healing.


Assuntos
Hiperalgesia/patologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/patologia , Placa Plantar/fisiologia , RNA-Seq/métodos , Ferida Cirúrgica/complicações , Transcriptoma , Cicatrização , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Edema/etiologia , Edema/metabolismo , Edema/patologia , Hiperalgesia/etiologia , Hiperalgesia/metabolismo , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
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