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2.
Rev. esp. patol ; 55(2): 135-138, abr-jun 2022. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-LC-465

RESUMO

El uraco es un grueso cordón fibroso que aparece a partir del quinto mes de gestación como consecuencia de la obliteración de la alantoides. Los quistes de origen uracal se producen como consecuencia de un defecto en la obliteración de dicho conducto, anomalía que se detecta principalmente en niños y raramente en adultos. Presentamos 3 casos de quistes uracales en adultos, uno de ellos detectado durante el estudio de dolor abdominal y los otros 2 hallados de forma incidental durante el estudio de otras patologías. En ningún caso se sospechó clínicamente la posibilidad de quistes uracales. Histológicamente, estas lesiones se encuentran revestidas por epitelio de tipo urotelial con expresión de CK7, CK20, CK5/6, P63 y GATA3. El diagnóstico de certeza recae en el estudio histopatológico donde la morfología, la inmunohistoquímica y un adecuado correlato clínico-patológico, permiten diferenciarlo de otras lesiones quísticas mucho más frecuentes en el adulto.(AU)


The urachus is a thick fibrous cord that appears in the fifth month of pregnancy as a result of the allantois obliteration. Urachal cysts occur as a result of a defect in the obliteration of the duct, anomaly detected mainly in children and very rarely in adults. We present three cases of urachal cysts in adults, one of them detected during the study of abdominal pain and the other two, found incidentally during the study of other pathologies. In any case the possibility of urachal cysts was clinically suspected. Histologically, these lesions are lined by epithelium of urothelial type with expression of CK7, CK20, CK5/6, P63 and GATA3. The diagnosis of urachal cysts certainty lies in the histopathological study where the morphology, immunohistochemistry and a proper clinical-pathological correlation, allow to differentiate it from other more frequent abdominal cystic lesions in adults.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Cisto do Úraco , Úraco/anormalidades , Histologia , Imuno-Histoquímica
3.
Clin. transl. oncol. (Print) ; 24(3): 446-459, marzo 2022. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-203540

RESUMO

Multidisciplinary care is needed to decide the best therapeutic approach and to provide optimal care to patients with lung cancer (LC). Multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) are optimal strategies for the management of patients with LC and have been associated with better outcomes, such as an increase in quality of life and survival. The Spanish Lung Cancer Group has promoted this review about the current situation of the existing national LC-MDTs, which also offers a set of excellence requirements and quality indicators to achieve the best care in any patient with LC. Time and sufficient resources; leadership; administrative and institutional support; and recording of activity are key factors for the success of LC-MDTs. A set of excellence requirements in terms of staff, resources and organization of the LC-MDT have been proposed. At last, a list of quality indicators has been agreed to achieve and measure the performance of current LC-MDTs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente , Espanha , Histologia
4.
Rev. Enferm. Atual In Derme ; 96(37): 1-16, Jan-Mar. 2022.
Artigo em Português | BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1378443

RESUMO

Objetivo: Identificar e avaliar as evidências científicas relacionadas aos principais achados histopatológicos observados na placenta de gestantes infectadas pelo coronavírus tipo 2 da Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave(SARS-CoV-2). Método:Trata-se de revisão integrativa conduzida nas bases de dados CINAHL, PubMed, Scopus e Web of Science, em fevereiro de 2021. Baseada na estratégia PICO, foi formulada a pergunta norteadora"Quais os achados histopatológicos observados na placenta em gestantes infectadas por SARS-CoV-2?". A busca nasbasesde dados foi realizada, utilizando descritores "Coronavirus Infections" e "Placenta Diseases", palavra-chave "Histopathological" e operador booleano And.Resultados: Das cinco publicações incluídas, 80,0% constavam na PubMede 60,0% tinham sido publicadas em revistas de Patologia. Destacou-se, como acometimento histopatológico placentário, a má perfusão vascular materna.Conclusão:Apesar dos estudos terem sido publicados principalmente em base de dados de relevância e em idioma universal, sua condução se restringiu especialmente em um determinado país, ano e revista especializada, além de adotarem um tipo de pesquisa com baixo nível de evidência. Embora os artigos não tenham se limitado a identificar, explorar e avaliar achados histopatológicos, eles apontaram, como principais fenômenos histopatológicos, a má perfusão vascular materna, infarto viloso, corioamnionite, maturação vilosa acelerada, arteriopatia deciduale deciduíte linfoplasmocitária crônica.


Objective: To identify and evaluate the scientific evidence related to the main histopathological findings observed in the placenta of pregnant women infected with the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome type 2 coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Method:This is an integrative review conducted in the CINAHL, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases, in February 2021. Based on the PICO strategy, the guiding question "What histopathological findings observed in the placenta in pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2?". The search in the databases was performed using the descriptors "Coronavirus Infections" and "Placenta Diseases", keyword "Histopathological" and Boolean operator And. Results:Of the five publications included, 80.0% were in PubMed and 60.0% had been published in journals of Pathology. The poor maternal vascular perfusion was highlighted as placental histopathological involvement. Conclusion:Although the studies were published mainly in a relevant database and in a universal language, their conduct was restricted especially in a specific country, year and specialized journal, in addition to adopting a type of research with a low level of evidence. Although the articles were not limited to identifying, exploring and evaluating histopathological findings, they pointed out, as the main histopathological phenomena, poor maternal vascular perfusion, villous infarction, chorioamnionitis, accelerated villous maturation, decidual arteriopathy and chronic lymphoplasmacytic deciduitis.


Objetivo: Identificar y evaluar la evidencia científica relacionada con los principales hallazgos histopatológicos observados en la placenta de gestantes infectadas por el coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Severo tipo 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Método:Se trata de una revisión integradora realizada en las bases de datos CINAHL, PubMed, Scopus y Web of Science, en febrero de 2021. Con base en la estrategia PICO, la pregunta orientadora "¿Qué hallazgos histopatológicos observados en la placenta en mujeresembarazadas infectadas con SARS-CoV -2? ". La búsqueda en las bases de datos se realizó mediante los descriptores "Infecciones por coronavirus" y "Enfermedades de la placenta", palabra clave "Histopatológico" y operador booleano Y. Resultados:De las cinco publicaciones incluidas, el 80,0% estaban en PubMed y el 60,0% habían sido publicadas en revistas de Patología. La mala perfusión vascular materna se destacó como afectación histopatológica placentaria. Conclusión:si bien los estudios se publicaron principalmente en una base de datos relevante y en un idioma universal, su realización se restringió especialmente en un país, año y revista especializada, además de adoptar un tipo de investigación con bajo nivel de evidencia. Si bien los artículos no se limitaron a identificar, explorar y evaluar hallazgos histopatológicos, señalaron como principales fenómenos histopatológicos la mala perfusión vascular materna, el infarto de vellosidades, la corioamnionitis, la maduración acelerada de las vellosidades, la arteriopatía decidual y la deciduitis linfoplasmocítica crónica.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Patologia , Placenta , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Histologia
5.
Clin Transl Med ; 12(1): e686, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35090076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Protein arginine methylation has emerged a pivotal role in cancer progression. However, the role of protein arginine methyltransferase 3 (PRMT3) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. METHODS: The expression pattern of PRMT3 in HCC was analysed using quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), Western blotting and immunohistochemistry assays. Loss- and gain-of-function experiments were carried out to determine the oncogenic role of PRMT3 in HCC. Glucose consumption and lactate production assays, seahorse bioscience, mass spectrometry, co-immunoprecipitation, metabonomic analysis and site-specific mutation experiments were used to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. Furthermore, a xenograft mouse model was established to investigate the effects of PRMT3 and its inhibitor, SGC707, treatment on tumour growth in vivo. RESULTS: The expression of PRMT3 was significantly upregulated in HCC, with high expression of which correlated with poor prognosis. PRMT3 knockdown led to the decrease in proliferation, glycolysis of HCC cells and tumour growth, whilst its overexpression showed opposite results. The catalytic activity of PRMT3 was important in mediating these biological processes. Mechanistically, our data showed that PRMT3 interacted with and mediated asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) modification of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) at arginine 112 (R112). Compared with LDHA-wild-type (LDHA-WT) cells, LDHA-R112K-mutant-expressing HCC cells exhibited a decrease in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, HCC cell glycolysis and proliferation. Furthermore, the administration of SGC707, a selective inhibitor of PRMT3, disrupted the PRMT3-mediated LDHA methylation and abolished PRMT3-induced HCC glycolysis and tumour growth. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested a novel oncogenic role of PRMT3 in HCC, and it could be a promising therapeutic target for HCC by linking post-translational modification and cancer metabolism.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/farmacologia , Proteína-Arginina N-Metiltransferases/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Histologia/instrumentação , Histologia/tendências , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Metilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Proteína-Arginina N-Metiltransferases/metabolismo
7.
J Dev Orig Health Dis ; 13(1): 61-67, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843571

RESUMO

Intestinal atresia (IA), a common cause of neonatal intestinal obstruction, is a developmental defect, which disrupts the luminal continuity of the intestine. Here, we investigated (i) the process of lumen formation in human embryos; and (ii) how a defective lumen formation led to IA. We performed histological and histochemical study on 6-10 gestation week human embryos and on IA septal regions. To investigate the topology of embryonic intestine development, we conducted 3D reconstruction. We showed that a 6-7th gestation week embryonic gut has no lumen, but filled with mesenchyme cells and vacuoles of a monolayer of epithelial cells. A narrow gut lumen was formed by gestation week-9, the gut was filled with numerous vacuoles of different sizes, some vacuoles were merging with the developing embryonic gut wall. At gestation week-10, a prominent lumen was developed, only few vacuoles were present and were merging with the intestine wall. At IA septal regions, vacuoles were located in the submucous layer, covered by a single layer of epithelium without glandular structure, and surrounded with fibrous tissue. The mucosal epithelium was developed with lamina propria and basement membrane, but the submucosa and the longitudinal smooth muscle layers were not properly developed. Hence, the vacuoles in IA septum could represent a remnant of vacuoles of embryonic gut. In conclusion, the fusion of vacuoles with the developing intestine wall associates with the disappearance of vacuoles and gut lumen formation in human embryos, and perturbation of these developmental events could lead to IA.


Assuntos
Embrião de Mamíferos/anormalidades , Histologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Atresia Intestinal/etiologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/patologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/fisiopatologia , Histologia/instrumentação , Humanos , Atresia Intestinal/patologia , Atresia Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Intestinos/patologia
8.
Histopathology ; 80(3): 538-557, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699612

RESUMO

AIMS: Dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLS) has varying histopathological features, but their significance for the biological behaviour of this disease has not been fully clarified. The aim of this study was to elucidate the prognostic factors for DDLS by clinicopathologically reviewing a large case series. METHODS AND RESULTS: We clinicopathologically reviewed 123 cases of primary de-novo DDLS without preoperative treatment, including 81 in the internal trunk (internal DDLS) and 42 in peripheral sites (peripheral DDLS). Univariate and multivariate analyses of their features were also performed for all cases, the internal DDLS group, and the peripheral DDLS group. The results showed that, in all three groups, distant metastasis was significantly associated with shorter overall survival (OS) (univariate analysis, P < 0.0001, P = 0.0011, and P = 0.0101, respectively), whereas local recurrence showed no significant effect on prognosis. Histopathologically, a high mitotic count and the presence of round tumour cells were significantly associated with shorter OS in multivariate analysis of the internal DDLS group [respectively: P = 0.0022, hazard ratio (HR) 4.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.71-11.28; and P = 0.0014, HR 7.19, 95% CI 2.14-24.16]. In the peripheral DDLS group, necrosis and high-grade histological components were significantly associated with shorter OS (univariate analysis, P = 0.0068 and P = 0.0174, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of round tumour cells may be one of the histological factors associated with a worse prognosis of DDLS patients, as previous studies indicated. This study also suggests that distant metastasis may be predictive of prognosis for both internal and peripheral DDLS, rather than local recurrence.


Assuntos
Histologia , Lipossarcoma/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica , Patologia , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Lipossarcoma/classificação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/metabolismo
9.
Thyroid ; 32(1): 37-45, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779278

RESUMO

Background: While the popularity of lobectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) has increased since the 2015 ATA (American Thyroid Association) guidelines, recent studies reported that adverse histological features (minimal extrathyroidal extension [mETE], multifocality, vascular invasion, and lymph node [LN] metastases) may be found in 30-60% of lobectomy specimens, questioning the validity of this approach. Aim: To assess the prevalence adverse histological features in occult DTC detected in autopsy studies. Methods: Meta-analysis of autopsy studies of the thyroid in subjects without known history of thyroid cancer. Results: Twenty-nine studies including 8750 subjects fulfilled the inclusion criteria, with incidentally discovered DTC in 740 autopsies (8.5%). Age was reported in 17 studies, with a median age of 61 years (range 41-68 years). Multifocality was reported in 27 studies with a calculated event rate of 28.2% ([CI 23.1-33.8], I2 = 46.3%), with bilateral involvement in 18% [CI 12.6-25.1]. mETE was reported in 5 studies, with an event rate of 24.5% ([CI 9.3-50.7], I2 = 88.5%), and the presence of LN metastases were reported in 13 studies with an event rate of 11% ([CI 6.1-19.1], I2 = 69.5%). Vascular invasion was reported in seven studies with an event rate of 16% ([CI 4-47], I2 = 86.8%). Of 25 studies with whole body autopsies (722 subjects), 3 cases of distant metastases were reported, of which 2 had fatal metastatic disease (where thyroid origin was not diagnosed before death), and 1 had occult disease. Conclusions: Adverse histological features including mETE, LN metastases, multifocality, and vascular invasion are common in occult DTC. When minimal in size, these adverse histological features do not seem to be markers of aggressive disease and may not be an indication for completion thyroidectomy or radioiodine therapy.


Assuntos
Autopsia/métodos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Histologia/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/fisiopatologia
10.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2021: 2664-2667, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34891800

RESUMO

Deep learning enabled medical image analysis is heavily reliant on expert annotations which is costly. We present a simple yet effective automated annotation pipeline that uses autoencoder based heatmaps to exploit high level information that can be extracted from a histology viewer in an unobtrusive fashion. By predicting heatmaps on unseen images the model effectively acts like a robot annotator. The method is demonstrated in the context of coeliac disease histology images in this initial work, but the approach is task agnostic and may be used for other medical image annotation applications. The results are evaluated by a pathologist and also empirically using a deep network for coeliac disease classification. Initial results using this simple but effective approach are encouraging and merit further investigation, specially considering the possibility of scaling this up to a large number of users.


Assuntos
Curadoria de Dados , Histologia , Automação
11.
Histol Histopathol ; 36(11): 1169-1178, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477212

RESUMO

Perilipin-2, a lipid droplet (LD) coating protein, has been found to be involved in cancer progression. However, its role in hepatoblastoma (HB) is undefined. We collected 87 HB samples and the corresponding clinical data. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was performed to detect perilipin-2 and the association of the perilipin-2 expression with clinical characteristics and prognosis was analyzed. The expression of perilipin-2 was increased in fetal HB components in comparison to embryonal HB components. The predominant staining pattern was vesicular in fetal HB cells, while it was granular in embryonal HB cells. Furthermore, strong expression of perilipin-2 was associated with the histopathological type of fetal predominant HB. Although event-free survival (EFS) did not differ to a statistically significant extent between the strong and weak expression groups in a univariate survival analysis, a multivariate survival analysis revealed that EFS was significantly improved in the strong perilipin-2 expression group. In conclusion, perilipin-2 is differentially expressed in HB and the strong expression of perilipin-2 predicts a better prognosis.


Assuntos
Hepatoblastoma , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Perilipina-2/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hepatoblastoma/diagnóstico , Hepatoblastoma/patologia , Histologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino
12.
Artif Intell Med ; 119: 102136, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531005

RESUMO

Developing deep learning models to analyze histology images has been computationally challenging, as the massive size of the images causes excessive strain on all parts of the computing pipeline. This paper proposes a novel deep learning-based methodology for improving the computational efficiency of histology image classification. The proposed approach is robust when used with images that have reduced input resolution, and it can be trained effectively with limited labeled data. Moreover, our approach operates at either the tissue- or slide-level, removing the need for laborious patch-level labeling. Our method uses knowledge distillation to transfer knowledge from a teacher model pre-trained at high resolution to a student model trained on the same images at a considerably lower resolution. Also, to address the lack of large-scale labeled histology image datasets, we perform the knowledge distillation in a self-supervised fashion. We evaluate our approach on three distinct histology image datasets associated with celiac disease, lung adenocarcinoma, and renal cell carcinoma. Our results on these datasets demonstrate that a combination of knowledge distillation and self-supervision allows the student model to approach and, in some cases, surpass the teacher model's classification accuracy while being much more computationally efficient. Additionally, we observe an increase in student classification performance as the size of the unlabeled dataset increases, indicating that there is potential for this method to scale further with additional unlabeled data. Our model outperforms the high-resolution teacher model for celiac disease in accuracy, F1-score, precision, and recall while requiring 4 times fewer computations. For lung adenocarcinoma, our results at 1.25× magnification are within 1.5% of the results for the teacher model at 10× magnification, with a reduction in computational cost by a factor of 64. Our model on renal cell carcinoma at 1.25× magnification performs within 1% of the teacher model at 5× magnification while requiring 16 times fewer computations. Furthermore, our celiac disease outcomes benefit from additional performance scaling with the use of more unlabeled data. In the case of 0.625× magnification, using unlabeled data improves accuracy by 4% over the tissue-level baseline. Therefore, our approach can improve the feasibility of deep learning solutions for digital pathology on standard computational hardware and infrastructures.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Celíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Histologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Aprendizado de Máquina
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(34): e27054, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Teaching histology as an image-intensive discipline is a major challenge to medical teachers. We compared knowledge retention and student preference after performing comparison-based and traditional methods of teaching practical histology. METHODS: We performed a crossover randomized controlled trial. Eighty nine first-year and 37 second-year medical students were randomly assigned to comparison-based or traditional classes in which PowerPoint slides were used. Each teaching approach was then switched to another group for a second tissue set. Quantitative assessment was performed using multiple-choice questions and a questionnaire. RESULTS: The first-year students' overall examination scores were significantly higher in the comparison-based approach compared to the traditional approach for both tissue sets, with a large effect size. Interestingly, even for the second-year students, a significantly higher overall score for one set of tissue samples was observed in the comparison-based approach compared to the traditional approach. The students' responses to all the elements in the questionnaire were significantly in favor of the comparison-based approach. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the simple implementation of a few histopathology examples can yield a tremendous improvement in first-year medical students' understanding, enjoyment, and engagement in practical histology classes.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Histologia/educação , Microscopia/métodos , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Ensino
14.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 153, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early-stage lung cancers radiologically manifested as ground-glass opacities (GGOs) have been increasingly identified, among which pure GGO (pGGO) has a good prognosis after local resection. However, the optimal surgical margin is still under debate. Precancerous lesions exist in tumor-adjacent tissues beyond the histological margin. However, potential precancerous epigenetic variation patterns beyond the histological margin of pGGO are yet to be discovered and described. RESULTS: A genome-wide high-resolution DNA methylation analysis was performed on samples collected from 15 pGGO at tumor core (TC), tumor edge (TE), para-tumor tissues at the 5 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm, 20 mm beyond the tumor, and peripheral normal (PN) tissue. TC and TE were tested with the same genetic alterations, which were also observed in histologically normal tissue at 5 mm in two patients with lower mutation allele frequency. According to the difference of methylation profiles between PN samples, 2284 methylation haplotype blocks (MHBs), 1657 differentially methylated CpG sites (DMCs), and 713 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS). Two different patterns of methylation markers were observed: Steep (S) markers sharply changed at 5 mm beyond the histological margin, and Gradual (G) markers changed gradually from TC to PN. S markers composed 86.2% of the tumor-related methylation markers, and G markers composed the other 13.8%. S-marker-associated genes enriched in GO terms that were related to the hallmarks of cancer, and G-markers-associated genes enriched in pathways of stem cell pluripotency and transcriptional misregulation in cancer. Significant difference in DNA methylation score was observed between peripheral normal tissue and tumor-adjacent tissues 5 mm further from the histological margin (p < 0.001 in MHB markers). DNA methylation score at and beyond 10 mm from histological margin is not significantly different from peripheral normal tissues (p > 0.05 in all markers). CONCLUSIONS: According to the methylation pattern observed in our study, it was implied that methylation alterations were not significantly different between tissues at or beyond P10 and distal normal tissues. This finding explained for the excellent prognosis from radical resections with surgical margins of more than 15 mm. The inclusion of epigenetic characteristics into surgical margin analysis may yield a more sensitive and accurate assessment of remnant cancerous and precancerous cells in the surgical margins.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Metilação de DNA/genética , Histologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Margens de Excisão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 28(3): 1-7, 2021-08-11. Ilustraciones
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363276

RESUMO

Background: The bulb of Allium cepa Linnaeus (onion) is used in traditional medicine as an antidiabetic, antioxidant, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, and antihyperlipidemic, among others. The lack of information or little knowledge about the effects of Allium cepa L. on skin lesions, specifically burn wounds, arouses interest in studying its effects on these skin disorders. Objective: This study assessed the wound healing activity of Allium cepa L. on second-degree burns induced in Holtzman rats. Method: Thirty-two albino rats were randomly distributed into four groups of 8 rats each, including the Healthy group, the Control group, the Experimental group (Alliumcepa L.), and the Standard group (1% silver sulfadiazine). Burn wounds were induced, and topical treatments were performed daily for 21 days. The reduction of the burned body area (mm2) was determined during the experimental time. Albino rats were sacrificed with an excess of surgical anesthesia to obtain tissue samples for histopathological analysis. Results: Standard and experimental groups significantly reduced burned body area (p<0.01) compared to the control group. Histopathological studies showed hyperemic chorion in the Control group, fibroblasts, and collagen in the Standard group, and dermis composed of a reticular stratum of fibroblasts, collagen, and few blood vessels in the Experimental group. Conclusion: Allium cepa L. revealed wound-healing activity on burns induced in Holtzman rats and reduced the damage produced by burns


Antecedentes: El bulbo de Alliumcepa L. (cebolla) se utiliza en medicina tradicional como antidiabético, antioxidante, antihipertensivo, antiinflamatorio, anti hiperlipidémico entre otros. La falta de información o muy poco conocimiento acerca de los efectos de Allium. cepa L. en lesiones cutáneas, específicamente en las heridas por quemaduras, despierta el interés por estudiar sus efectos en estas afectaciones cutáneas. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la actividad cicatrizante de Allium. cepa L. en quemaduras de segundo grado inducidas en ratas Holtzman. Método: Se utilizaron treinta y dos ratas albinas distribuidas al azar en cuatro grupos de ocho ratas cada uno, incluyendo el Grupo sano, el Grupo Control, el Grupo Experimental (Allium cepa L.) y el Grupo Estándar (Sulfadiazina de plata al 1%). Se indujo la herida por quemadura, y los tratamientos tópicos se realizaron diariamente durante 21 días. La reducción del área corporal quemada (mm2) se determinó durante el tiempo de experimentación, luego los animales fueron sacrificados con exceso de anestesia quirúrgica para obtener las muestras de tejidos para el estudio histopatológico. Resultados: Los grupos estándar y experimental mostraron reducción significativa en el área corporal quemada (p<0,01) comparadas al grupo control. El estudio histopatológico evidenció corion hiperémico en el grupo control; fibroblastos y colágeno en el grupo estándar y dermis integrada por un estrato reticular de fibroblastos, colágeno y pocos vasos sanguíneos en el grupo experimental. Conclusión: Alliumcepa L. reveló actividad cicatrizante en quemaduras inducidas en ratas Holtzman, y disminuyó el daño producido por las quemaduras


Assuntos
Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Sulfadiazina de Prata , Queimaduras , Cebolas , Histologia
16.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(4): 719-725, 20210000. fig
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291270

RESUMO

Introducción. Los quistes gástricos de duplicación son malformaciones congénitas muy infrecuentes del tracto gastrointestinal. Se definen como una lesión quística tapizada por epitelio gastrointestinal que comparte una capa de músculo liso con la pared gástrica. Se han propuesto diferentes teorías sobre su patogénesis, sin embargo, los eventos embriológicos que conducen a la malformación no han logrado ser dilucidados. Debido a su localización y presentación clínica, el diagnóstico se realiza con mayor frecuencia durante los primeros años de vida y existen pocos casos reportados en adultos, en quienes el hallazgo suele ser incidental. Caso clínico. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 65 años quien consultó por dolor abdominal crónico y síntomas digestivos inespecíficos. Por medio de Tomografía Axial Computarizada se evidenció una lesión quística en contacto con el páncreas y la pared gástrica. Se realizó exploración quirúrgica que, junto con los hallazgos histopatológicos, confirmó el diagnosticó de quiste de duplicación gástrico. Discusión. Los quistes de duplicación gástrica son anomalías excepcionales que se localizan más frecuentemente en la curvatura mayor. Su tratamiento es quirúrgico y la confirmación del diagnóstico se realiza mediante la histología


Introduction. Gastric duplication cysts are very rare congenital malformations of the gastrointestinal tract. They are defined as a cystic lesion lined by gastrointestinal epithelium that shares a layer of smooth muscle with the gastric wall. Different theories have been proposed about its pathogenesis, however, the embryological events that lead to the malformation have not been elucidated. Due to its location and clinical presentation, the diagnosis is made more frequently during the first years of life and there are few cases reported in adults, in whom the finding is usually incidental. Clinical case. We present the case of a 65-year-old woman who consulted for chronic abdominal pain and nonspecific digestive symptoms. A CT scan evidenced a cystic lesion in contact with the pancreas and the gastric wall. A surgical exploration was performed which, along with the histopathological findings, confirmed the diagnosis of a gastric duplication cyst. Discussion. Gastric duplication cysts are exceptional anomalies that are more frequently located in the greater curvature. Its treatment is surgical and the confirmation of the diagnosis is made by histology


Assuntos
Humanos , Cistos , Trato Gastrointestinal , Cirurgia Geral , Histologia
17.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(4): 726-731, 20210000. fig
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291273

RESUMO

Introducción. Los quistes mesoteliales benignos son una entidad poco frecuente, que ocurren especialmente en mujeres en edad reproductiva. Se deben a una proliferación anómala del mesotelio que puede ser originada en varias estructuras intraabdominales e inicialmente es asintomática. Caso clínico. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 20 años con un cuadro sugestivo de neoplasia maligna, en quien se confirmó el diagnóstico de quiste mesotelial originado en la trompa de Falopio derecha. Se realizó tratamiento quirúrgico exitoso. Discusión. A pesar de la estrecha relación de esta entidad con el útero y los ovarios, no se encuentran reportes de quistes mesoteliales originados a partir de las trompas de Falopio. El tratamiento de los quistes mesoteliales es quirúrgico y en el caso de esta paciente se hizo con la finalidad de mejorar los síntomas y erradicar la enfermedad. Las decisiones fueron tomadas basadas en la opinión de expertos en oncología en una junta de tumores gastrointestinales. Conclusiones. Los quistes mesoteliales son neoplasias de baja incidencia, pero se deben tener en cuenta como diagnóstico diferencial de los tumores abdominales. Se presenta el caso de una paciente tratada de forma quirúrgica con resultados exitosos y seguimiento a un año sin recurrencias


Introduction. Benign mesothelial cysts (BMC) are a rare entity that occurs especially in women of reproductive age. It is due to an abnormal proliferation of the mesothelium that can originate from various intra-abdominal structures and it is initially asymptomatic. Clinical case. This is a case of a 20-year-old woman with a suspicious malignant neoplasia, in whom the diagnosis of a mesothelial cyst originating in the right Fallopian tube was confirmed. Successful surgical treatment was achieved. Discussion. Despite the close relationship of this entity with the uterus and ovaries, there are no reports of me-sothelial cysts originating from the Fallopian tubes. The treatment of mesothelial cysts is surgical and in the case of this patient it was performed in order to improve the symptoms and eradicate the disease. The decisions were taken based on the oncologists' expert opinion of the gastrointestinal tumor board. Conclusions. Mesothelial cysts are neoplasms of low incidence, but they should be considered as a differential diagnosis of abdominal tumors. The case of a patient treated surgically with successful results and a one-year follow-up without recurrences is presented


Assuntos
Humanos , Mesotelioma Cístico , Tubas Uterinas , Histologia , Laparotomia , Neoplasias
18.
Histol Histopathol ; 36(11): 1145-1153, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34327701

RESUMO

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a diverse inherited disease affecting 1 in 500 individuals irrespective of gender and ethnicity. A fraction of HCM patients will eventually develop drug refractory dynamic obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract. For such patients, septal myectomy is the procedure of choice to alleviate their symptoms and improve their quality of life. The current histopathological study, the first from the Greek region, aims to examine the hallmark histopathological characteristics of Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy in a population of patients undergoing septal myectomy at a single center over a ten year period. Medical records and histopathology specimens of thirty nine (n=39) patients were evaluated. The sample comprised 22 males (56.4%) and 17 females (43.6%). Mean patient age at myectomy was 53.9±16.7 years, ranging from 12 to 79 years. Maximal IVS thickness on echocardiography was available for 35 patients with a median value of 2.08cm. Peak resting LVOT Pressure Gradient was available for 33 patients with a mean value of 104.88±44.20 mmHg. Central tendency of each histopathological attribute expressed as the median value was: moderate for myocyte hypertrophy, mild for cytoplasmic vacuolization, moderate for subendocardial fibrosis, moderate for interstitial fibrosis, mild for replacement fibrosis, moderate for myofibrillar disarray and mild for capillary stenosis. Myocyte hypertrophy, present in all specimens, was positively correlated with maximal IVS thickness (tau-b=0.43, p=0.002). Replacement fibrosis was positively correlated with the grade of microvascular stenosis (tau-b=0.45, p=0.004). LVEF was negatively correlated with the grade of interstitial fibrosis (tau-b=-0.43, p=0.035) and with the extent of myocardial fiber disarray (tau-b=-0.42, p=0.034). Histopathological attributes were not correlated with patient gender or age thus proving that HCM has a histological phenotype unique to each patient, mainly depending on each specific sarcomeric mutation.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/patologia , Fibrose/patologia , Septos Cardíacos , Histologia , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/genética , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Grécia , Septos Cardíacos/patologia , Septos Cardíacos/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Food Funct ; 12(17): 8007-8016, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269359

RESUMO

Kiwifruit (KF) fiber, a mixture of soluble and insoluble fibers, elicits mucosal changes in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This study aimed to define the nature of these changes in mucosal features throughout the GIT of the growing pig in response to semi-synthetic iso-fiber diets containing cellulose (CEL, low GIT luminal functionality) as the sole fiber source (4.5%), or diets where half of the CEL was replaced by either PSY fiber (PSY husk, high GIT luminal functionality) or KF fiber (consumed as intact fruit). Entire male growing pigs (n = 24, 21 kg bodyweight) received the three diets (n = 8) for 42 d. GIT tissues, digesta, and feces were sampled. The partial replacement of CEL increased (P≤ 0.05) the ileal (KF 22% and PSY 33%) and colonic (PSY 86%) mucus layer thickness, whereas it decreased the rectal crypt depth (KF -26%), and small intestinal (duodenum to ileum) villus length (PSY -17%). The number of duodenal goblet cells was 77% higher (P≤ 0.05) for KF than CEL. Pigs fed the KF-containing diet had greater (P≤ 0.05) apparent ileal organic matter digestibility and apparent total tract organic matter digestibility compared with CEL, but the lowest amount of fermented organic matter in the large intestine. In conclusion, partial substitution of CEL with PSY or KF at a constant, practically-relevant dietary fiber intake, affected several measures of GIT functionality with effects being specific to the added fiber.


Assuntos
Actinidia/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Muco/metabolismo , Psyllium/metabolismo , Suínos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Frutas/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Histologia , Masculino , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 64(Supplement): S127-S135, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both noncirrhotic portal fibrosis (NCPF) and extrahepatic portal venous obstruction (EHPVO) are important causes of noncirrhotic portal hypertension (PH) in the Asian region. In this study, we analyzed the histopathological changes of liver needle-core biopsies from patients with NCPF and EHPVO. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The patients were diagnosed as per the Asia Pacific Association for the Study of Liver (APASL) criteria. Minimum adequacy criteria for liver core biopsies were defined, and finally, 69 liver biopsies from patients with NCPF and 100 liver biopsies from patients with EHPVO were analyzed. All histological parameters were predefined, and three experienced pathologists analyzed the biopsies after reaching consensus. Institute ethics committee clearance was taken. RESULTS: Although some histological features were overlapping, phlebosclerosis of intra-hepatic branches of the portal vein (PV), periportal aberrant vascular channels, remnant portal tracts, and hepatic fibrosis beyond the portal tracts without the formation of complete hepatic nodules (P < 0.001 for all) were common histological characteristics of NCPF on core-needle liver biopsies; while maintained lobular architecture, nonspecific dilatation of PV branches, absence of intra-hepatic PV phlebosclerosis, aberrant vascular channels, and significant fibrosis were characteristics of EHPVO. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the considerable histological overlap between NCPF and EHPVO, careful histological evaluation, supplemented by clinical features, radiological and biochemical findings can help in making a conclusive diagnosis. Patients with NCPF and EHPVO with clinical jaundice show transaminitis, high serum alkaline phosphatase level, more variceal bleed, and histological evidences of nodular regenerative hyperplasia.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Portal/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Veia Porta/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Biópsia , Criança , Técnicas Histológicas , Histologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inclusão em Parafina , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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