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1.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1986): 20221078, 2022 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322514

RESUMO

An increasing body of archaeological and genomic evidence has hinted at a complex settlement process of the Americas by humans. This is especially true for South America, where unexpected ancestral signals have raised perplexing scenarios for the early migrations into different regions of the continent. Here, we present ancient human genomes from the archaeologically rich Northeast Brazil and compare them to ancient and present-day genomic data. We find a distinct relationship between ancient genomes from Northeast Brazil, Lagoa Santa, Uruguay and Panama, representing evidence for ancient migration routes along South America's Atlantic coast. To further add to the existing complexity, we also detect greater Denisovan than Neanderthal ancestry in ancient Uruguay and Panama individuals. Moreover, we find a strong Australasian signal in an ancient genome from Panama. This work sheds light on the deep demographic history of eastern South America and presents a starting point for future fine-scale investigations on the regional level.


Assuntos
Migração Humana , Homem de Neandertal , Humanos , História Antiga , Animais , Genômica , Genoma Humano , Brasil
2.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364034

RESUMO

Biochemical investigations were carried out on the embalmed head of Nebiri (Museo Egizio, Turin; S-5109)-an 18th Dynasty Ancient Egyptian dignitary-and on the canopic jar containing his lungs (Museo Egizio, Turin; S. 5111/02) with the aim of characterizing the organ's (lung) specific paleo-proteins and of identifying the compounds used in his embalming "recipe". The application of a functionalized film method allowed us to perform a non-invasive sampling. Paleo-proteomics confirmed the presence of lung tissue-specific proteins (organ specific) as well as the presence of proteins linked to severe inflammation. Paleoproteomics and paleometabolomics further allowed the identification of the main components of Nebiri's embalming recipe: animal fats and glue, balms, essential oils, aromatic plants, heated Pistacia, and coniferous resins. Both the use of Pistacia and coniferous resins in an early 18th Dynasty individual confirm Nebiri's high social status. The technique applied offers a targeted approach to the chemical characterization of human tissues, embalming compounds, and organic materials layering in pottery. The ability of the functionalized film method to harvest all types of compounds, from macromolecules (i.e., proteins) to small molecules (i.e., organic acids) opens a new path in the study of ancient material culture; furthermore, it allows to perform untargeted analysis, which is necessary when no a priori information is available.


Assuntos
Múmias , Pistacia , Animais , Humanos , História Antiga , Proteômica , Embalsamamento/métodos , Metabolômica , Resinas Vegetais
3.
Science ; 378(6616): 145, 2022 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36227973

RESUMO

Reverence for old trees sparked early forest conservation efforts, even as ancient woodlands were cut with impunity.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Árvores , Livros , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florestas , História Antiga , Humanos
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(44): e2209117119, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36279453

RESUMO

The Hebrew Bible and other ancient Near Eastern texts describe Egyptian, Aramean, Assyrian, and Babylonian military campaigns to the Southern Levant during the 10th to sixth centuries BCE. Indeed, many destruction layers dated to this period have been unearthed in archaeological excavations. Several of these layers are securely linked to specific campaigns and are widely accepted as chronological anchors. However, the dating of many other destruction layers is often debated, challenging the ability to accurately reconstruct the different military campaigns and raising questions regarding the historicity of the biblical narrative. Here, we present a synchronization of the historically dated chronological anchors and other destruction layers and artifacts using the direction and/or intensity of the ancient geomagnetic field recorded in mud bricks from 20 burnt destruction layers and in two ceramic assemblages. During the period in question, the geomagnetic field in this region was extremely anomalous with rapid changes and high-intensity values, including spikes of more than twice the intensity of today's field. The data are useful in the effort to pinpoint these short-term variations on the timescale, and they resolve chronological debates regarding the campaigns against the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, the relationship between the two kingdoms, and their administrations.


Assuntos
Bíblia , Militares , Humanos , História Antiga , Arqueologia , Israel , Artefatos
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(41): e2205272119, 2022 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191217

RESUMO

Trade and colonization caused an unprecedented increase in Mediterranean human mobility in the first millennium BCE. Often seen as a dividing force, warfare is in fact another catalyst of culture contact. We provide insight into the demographic dynamics of ancient warfare by reporting genome-wide data from fifth-century soldiers who fought for the army of the Greek Sicilian colony of Himera, along with representatives of the civilian population, nearby indigenous settlements, and 96 present-day individuals from Italy and Greece. Unlike the rest of the sample, many soldiers had ancestral origins in northern Europe, the Steppe, and the Caucasus. Integrating genetic, archaeological, isotopic, and historical data, these results illustrate the significant role mercenaries played in ancient Greek armies and highlight how participation in war contributed to continental-scale human mobility in the Classical world.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Militares , Arqueologia/métodos , Europa (Continente) , Grécia , História Antiga , Humanos , Guerra
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(43): e2109321119, 2022 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252033

RESUMO

Exchange networks created by Neolithic pastoral transhumance have been central to explaining the distant transport of obsidian since chemical analysis was first used to attribute Near Eastern artifacts to their volcanic origins in the 1960s. Since then, critical reassessments of floral, faunal, and chronological data have upended long-held interpretations regarding the emergence of food production and have demonstrated that far-traveled, nomadic pastoralists were more myth than reality, at least during the Neolithic. Despite debates regarding their proposed conveyance mechanisms, obsidian artifacts' transport has received relatively little attention compared with zooarchaeological and archaeobotanical lines of investigation. The rise of nondestructive and portable instruments permits entire obsidian assemblages to be traced to their sources, renewing their significance in elucidating connections among early pastoral and agricultural communities. Here we share our findings about the obsidian artifacts excavated from the sites of Ali Kosh and Chagha Sefid in the southern Zagros. In the 1960s and 1970s, 28 obsidian artifacts from the sites were destructively tested, and the remainder were sorted by color. Our results emphasize a dynamic, accelerating connectivity among the Early and Late Neolithic communities. Here we propose and support an alternative model for obsidian distribution among more settled communities. In brief, diversity in the obsidian assemblage accelerated diachronically, an invisible trend in the earlier studies. Our model of increasing population densities is supported by archaeological data and computational simulations, offering insights regarding the Neolithic Demographic Transition in the Zagros, an equivalent of which is commonly thought to have occurred around the world.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Vidro , Agricultura/história , Irã (Geográfico) , História Antiga
8.
Nature ; 609(7927): 547-551, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071168

RESUMO

The prevailing view regarding the evolution of medicine is that the emergence of settled agricultural societies around 10,000 years ago (the Neolithic Revolution) gave rise to a host of health problems that had previously been unknown among non-sedentary foraging populations, stimulating the first major innovations in prehistoric medical practices1,2. Such changes included the development of more advanced surgical procedures, with the oldest known indication of an 'operation' formerly thought to have consisted of the skeletal remains of a European Neolithic farmer (found in Buthiers-Boulancourt, France) whose left forearm had been surgically removed and then partially healed3. Dating to around 7,000 years ago, this accepted case of amputation would have required comprehensive knowledge of human anatomy and considerable technical skill, and has thus been viewed as the earliest evidence of a complex medical act3. Here, however, we report the discovery of skeletal remains of a young individual from Borneo who had the distal third of their left lower leg surgically amputated, probably as a child, at least 31,000 years ago. The individual survived the procedure and lived for another 6-9 years, before their remains were intentionally buried in Liang Tebo cave, which is located in East Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo, in a limestone karst area that contains some of the world's earliest dated rock art4. This unexpectedly early evidence of a successful limb amputation suggests that at least some modern human foraging groups in tropical Asia had developed sophisticated medical knowledge and skills long before the Neolithic farming transition.


Assuntos
Amputação , Restos Mortais , Amputação/história , Bornéu , Carbonato de Cálcio , Cavernas , Criança , História Antiga , Humanos
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(40): e2121821119, 2022 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36161917

RESUMO

Cacao seeds, Theobroma cacao, provide the basis for a ceremonially important Mesoamerican food. Past efforts to identify cacao in ceramics focused on highly decorative vessel forms associated with elite ceremonial contexts, creating assumptions as to how cacao was distributed and who could access it. This study examines 54 archaeological ceramic sherds from El Pilar (Belize/Guatemala) of Late Classic (600 to 900 CE) residential and civic contexts representing a cross-section of ancient Maya inhabitants. Identification of cacao in ancient sherds has depended on the general presence of theobromine; we used the discrete presence of theophylline, a unique key biomarker for cacao in the region. Analysis was done by grinding off all outside surfaces to reduce contamination, pulverizing the inner clay matrix, extracting absorbed molecules, and concentrating the extractions. In order to obtain especially high selectivity and low limits of detection, our study utilized the technique of resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization coupled with laser-desorption jet-cooling mass spectrometry. This technique isolates molecules in the cold gas phase where they can be selectively ionized through a resonant two-photon process. Of the sherds analyzed, 30 samples (56%) were found to contain significant amounts of theophylline and thus test positive for cacao. Importantly, cacao is present in all contexts, common to all Maya residents near and far from centers.


Assuntos
Cacau , Belize , Cacau/anatomia & histologia , Cacau/história , Argila , Guatemala , História Antiga , Sementes/química , Teobromina/análise , Teobromina/história , Teofilina/análise , Teofilina/história
11.
Nature ; 609(7929): 964-968, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36171375

RESUMO

Mandibular teeth and dentitions are features of jawed vertebrates that were first acquired by the Palaeozoic ancestors1-3 of living chondrichthyans and osteichthyans. The fossil record currently points to the latter part of the Silurian period4-7 (around 425 million years ago) as a minimum date for the appearance of gnathostome teeth and to the evolution of growth and replacement mechanisms of mandibular dentitions in the subsequent Devonian period2,8-10. Here we provide, to our knowledge, the earliest direct evidence for jawed vertebrates by describing Qianodus duplicis, a new genus and species of an early Silurian gnathostome based on isolated tooth whorls from Guizhou province, China. The whorls possess non-shedding teeth arranged in a pair of rows that demonstrate a number of features found in modern gnathostome groups. These include lingual addition of teeth in offset rows and maintenance of this patterning throughout whorl development. Our data extend the record of toothed gnathostomes by 14 million years from the late Silurian into the early Silurian (around 439 million years ago) and are important for documenting the initial diversification of vertebrates. Our analyses add to mounting fossil evidence that supports an earlier emergence of jawed vertebrates as part of the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (approximately 485-445 million years ago).


Assuntos
Fósseis , Dente , Vertebrados , Animais , China , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , História Antiga , Filogenia , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Vertebrados/anatomia & histologia , Vertebrados/classificação
12.
Science ; 377(6613): 1371, 2022 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36137029

RESUMO

Genetic study of burials suggests whole families migrated to the island in the first millennium C.E.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração , Brancos , Sepultamento , DNA Antigo , Emigração e Imigração/história , Inglaterra , História Antiga , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Brancos/genética
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13474, 2022 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931723

RESUMO

The aim of the study is to investigate mitochondrial diversity in Neolithic Greece and its relation to hunter-gatherers and farmers who populated the Danubian Neolithic expansion axis. We sequenced 42 mitochondrial palaeogenomes from Greece and analysed them together with European set of 328 mtDNA sequences dating from the Early to the Final Neolithic and 319 modern sequences. To test for population continuity through time in Greece, we use an original structured population continuity test that simulates DNA from different periods by explicitly considering the spatial and temporal dynamics of populations. We explore specific scenarios of the mode and tempo of the European Neolithic expansion along the Danubian axis applying spatially explicit simulations coupled with Approximate Bayesian Computation. We observe a striking genetic homogeneity for the maternal line throughout the Neolithic in Greece whereas population continuity is rejected between the Neolithic and present-day Greeks. Along the Danubian expansion axis, our best-fitting scenario supports a substantial decrease in mobility and an increasing local hunter-gatherer contribution to the gene-pool of farmers following the initial rapid Neolithic expansion. Οur original simulation approach models key demographic parameters rather than inferring them from fragmentary data leading to a better understanding of this important process in European prehistory.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial , Mitocôndrias , Teorema de Bayes , DNA Antigo , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Europa (Continente) , Genética Populacional , Grécia , História Antiga , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Dinâmica Populacional
14.
Curr Biol ; 32(15): R844-R847, 2022 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35944486

RESUMO

The genetic history of Koreans remains poorly understood due to a lack of ancient DNA. A new paleo-genomic study shows that population stratification in 4th-5th century South Korean populations was linked to a varied proportion of indigenous Jomon-related ancestry, which does not survive in present-day Koreans.


Assuntos
Asiáticos , DNA Antigo , Asiáticos/genética , Genética Populacional , Genoma , História Antiga , Humanos , República da Coreia
15.
Science ; 377(6609): 922-923, 2022 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36007032

RESUMO

Storytelling with ancient DNA reveals challenges and potential for writing new histories.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ásia , DNA Antigo , Europa (Continente) , História Antiga , Humanos
16.
Science ; 377(6609): 940-951, 2022 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36007020

RESUMO

Literary and archaeological sources have preserved a rich history of Southern Europe and West Asia since the Bronze Age that can be complemented by genetics. Mycenaean period elites in Greece did not differ from the general population and included both people with some steppe ancestry and others, like the Griffin Warrior, without it. Similarly, people in the central area of the Urartian Kingdom around Lake Van lacked the steppe ancestry characteristic of the kingdom's northern provinces. Anatolia exhibited extraordinary continuity down to the Roman and Byzantine periods, with its people serving as the demographic core of much of the Roman Empire, including the city of Rome itself. During medieval times, migrations associated with Slavic and Turkic speakers profoundly affected the region.


Assuntos
Migração Humana , População , Arqueologia , Ásia , Europa (Continente) , Variação Genética , Grécia , História Antiga , História Medieval , Migração Humana/história , Humanos , População/genética
17.
Science ; 377(6609): 908-909, 2022 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36007048

RESUMO

Studies seek clues to origins of farming, early languages.


Assuntos
Civilização , DNA Antigo , Fazendas , Idioma , Civilização/história , Fazendas/história , História Antiga , Humanos , Idioma/história , Oriente Médio
18.
Science ; 377(6609): 982-987, 2022 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36007054

RESUMO

We present the first ancient DNA data from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic of Mesopotamia (Southeastern Turkey and Northern Iraq), Cyprus, and the Northwestern Zagros, along with the first data from Neolithic Armenia. We show that these and neighboring populations were formed through admixture of pre-Neolithic sources related to Anatolian, Caucasus, and Levantine hunter-gatherers, forming a Neolithic continuum of ancestry mirroring the geography of West Asia. By analyzing Pre-Pottery and Pottery Neolithic populations of Anatolia, we show that the former were derived from admixture between Mesopotamian-related and local Epipaleolithic-related sources, but the latter experienced additional Levantine-related gene flow, thus documenting at least two pulses of migration from the Fertile Crescent heartland to the early farmers of Anatolia.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Fluxo Gênico , Migração Humana , Arqueologia , Armênia , Chipre , DNA Antigo , Fazendeiros/história , História Antiga , Migração Humana/história , Mesopotâmia
19.
Science ; 377(6609): eabm4247, 2022 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36007055

RESUMO

By sequencing 727 ancient individuals from the Southern Arc (Anatolia and its neighbors in Southeastern Europe and West Asia) over 10,000 years, we contextualize its Chalcolithic period and Bronze Age (about 5000 to 1000 BCE), when extensive gene flow entangled it with the Eurasian steppe. Two streams of migration transmitted Caucasus and Anatolian/Levantine ancestry northward, and the Yamnaya pastoralists, formed on the steppe, then spread southward into the Balkans and across the Caucasus into Armenia, where they left numerous patrilineal descendants. Anatolia was transformed by intra-West Asian gene flow, with negligible impact of the later Yamnaya migrations. This contrasts with all other regions where Indo-European languages were spoken, suggesting that the homeland of the Indo-Anatolian language family was in West Asia, with only secondary dispersals of non-Anatolian Indo-Europeans from the steppe.


Assuntos
Fluxo Gênico , Genoma Humano , Migração Humana , Ásia , Península Balcânica , Europa (Continente) , História Antiga , Migração Humana/história , Humanos , Brancos/genética
20.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 47(8): 738-43, 2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36036111

RESUMO

Using the philological method, the comparison was conducted between the internal canals of human body, meaning the four pairs of "phleps" in the ancient Greek medicine, and the eleven "mai" (meridians, vessels, channels) of Mawangdui silk manuscripts. It is believed that they refer to the initial understanding on the connecting passages of the human body in Western medicine and Chinese medicine respectively. Although they have their own unique characteristics, there are many similarities in running courses, related indications, diagnosis and treatment, as well as theoretic foundation. Both of them represent the duality of tangible blood vessels and intangible pathways, reflecting the common cognitive mode of human body and diseases in early human medicine, with the similar characteristics, e.g.analogy, examining the exterior to deduce the conditions in the interior, holistic connection and natural balance. The four pairs of "phleps" of ancient Greek medicine, with the preliminary features of meridians, were substituted by the blood circulation theory afterwards; whereas, the eleven "mai" of Mawangdui silk manuscripts were developed into a twelve-meridian system. These different evolution paths and outcomes may be associated with the distinct medical philosophies and cultural backgrounds between ancient Greek medicine and Chinese medicine. This summary provides a new approach and new perspectives for the study on the regularity of the early human medical origin, especially the origin of meridians.


Assuntos
Meridianos , Seda , Grécia , História Antiga , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
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