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1.
Vaccine ; 40(31): 4135-4141, 2022 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35667916

RESUMO

Vaccination, health psychology and mental health make for three well-established and prestigious topoi in medical history. An in-depth look at their historical intersections remains forthcoming, however. Vaccinology's psychological turns merit historians' attention, all the more in the light of more recent, post-psychological and infodemiological, perspectives in vaccine acceptance research. Historiography at this point may help appreciating the present, and future, standing of psychological profiling in terms of its explanatory merits and policy uses. Of specific, critical interest is the motif of mental illness historically shared by vaccine advocates and contrarians. Mock-psychiatric nosology was a favored framing device for vaccination polemicists early on, indeed before vaccines were called vaccines and before psychiatry came to be called psychiatry. Though long anticipated, substantive historical-sociological and empirical approaches to vaccine non-acceptance were seen only from the 1920s and 1930s, respectively. Today, spirited animosity over vaccination continues to invite both professional and public debate about the founding concepts, the basic tenets, and the defining boundaries, of the mental health sciences.


Assuntos
Historiografia , Transtornos Mentais , Metanfetamina , Psiquiatria , Vacinas , Humanos , Vacinação/psicologia
2.
Science ; 376(6600): 1387, 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35737792

RESUMO

The origins of the world's chief writing system come to life in an illuminating historiography.


Assuntos
Historiografia , História do Século XX
3.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 44(2): 22, 2022 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35614290

RESUMO

The aim of this paper is to make a comparison and build up a dialogue between two different philosophical approaches to values in evolutionary biology. First, I present the approach proposed by Alexander Rosenberg and Daniel McShea in their contribution to the contemporary debate on organic progress. i.e. the idea that there has been some kind of improvement concerning organisms over the history of life. Discussing organic progress raises the question of what "better" exactly means. This requires an explicit clarification on what legitimately means to speak about "good" in evolutionary biology, thus to speak about values. Second, I move on to present an approach to values that has been proposed by Georges Canguilhem in the context of a different philosophical tradition (i.e. the "continental" tradition). Canguilhem's original theses are conceived in a Darwinian framework and clearly relate to the question of values in evolutionary biology. I shall then propose a comparison between these two heterogeneous perspectives on values by critically evaluating their common points and main differences. I will argue that both perspectives agree that the question of values in evolutionary biology takes on its full meaning with respect to the relationship between the organism and the environment. However, the framework for conceptualizing values in evolutionary biology provided by Rosenberg and McShea neglects a significant point highlighted by Canguilhem, i.e. the active role that the organism can play in evaluating the environment. In line with recent developments of biology (e.g. niche construction), this point can be easily integrated into Rosenberg and McShea's framework. Finally, I will point out some main differences between the two perspectives relative to the specificity of Canguilhem's biological philosophy.


Assuntos
Historiografia , Filosofia , Evolução Biológica , Biologia
4.
Hell J Nucl Med ; 25(1): 2-4, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503555

RESUMO

It could be argued that the first medical historian in the Western Medical Tradition, is the author of the treatise On Ancient Medicine, included in the Hippocratic Corpus, in all probability, Hippocrates himself. In our time, the domain of the history of medicine is inhabited by two factions, often indifferent towards each other's contributions, if not occasionally confrontational. One faction is represented by medical practitioners who, usually upon retirement from clinical care, research and seek to understand the practice and evolution of their craft in the recent and distant past. They are the medical historians. The other, by academic historians with a background in humanities who view and research the history of medicine from a different perspective. Historiography, the philosophy of science, philological concerns, the provenance of manuscripts, textual scrutiny, the cultural and social parameters relevant to their historical subject, are the focus of the work of these historians of medicine. Rarely, researchers of the history of medicine combine optimally humanities with a medical background. Many will recognize Sir William Osler (1849-1919) as the best representative of this happy cohabitation. The opportunity now arises for a fruitful collaboration between medical historians and historians of medicine in recording the unprecedented times and the global challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic. Now is the time for truce.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Historiografia , Medicina Nuclear , História do Século XX , Humanos , Pandemias , Filosofia
5.
Ann Sci ; 79(2): 215-258, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35420536

RESUMO

In the 1760s, the international debate on the solution to determining longitude at sea is at its acme. Two solutions emerge, the mechanical and the astronomical ones. The Portuguese mathematician and astronomer José Monteiro da Rocha (1734-1819) is well aware of that debate. For him, Harrison's No. 4 marine timekeeper cannot be seen as a solution. The desirable solution could only be astronomical. In a manuscript from c. 1765, which unfortunately he fails to publish, Monteiro da Rocha is very critical of Lacaille's lunar-distance method (1759) and proposes another one. In this paper, we intend to analyse Monteiro da Rocha's criticisms and proposals, trying to understand how this manuscript fits into the international longitude debate and the Portuguese scientific scenario at the time. Concurrently, we will re-examine the classical historiography around the English vs. French priority proposal of the lunar-distance method, purging it from its mythologies to shift it towards a more open, less linear history.


Assuntos
Astronomia , Historiografia , Humanos , Masculino
6.
Ber Wiss ; 45(1-2): 112-134, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35266169

RESUMO

This article offers a canine history of the "critical period" concept, situating its emergence within a growing, interdisciplinary network of canine behavior studies that connected eugenically minded American veterinarians, behavioral geneticists, and dog lovers with large institutional benefactors. These studies established both logistical and conceptual foundations for large-scale science with dogs while establishing a lingering interdependence between American dog science and eugenics. The article emphasizes the importance of dogs as subjects of ethological study, particularly in the United States, where some of the earliest organized efforts to analyze canine behavior began. Further, the article argues that the "critical period" is important not only for its lasting prominence in multiple fields of scientific inquiry, but also as a historiographical tool, one that invites reflection on the tendency of historians to emphasize a particular narrative structure of scientific advancement.


Assuntos
Historiografia , Médicos Veterinários , Animais , Período Crítico Psicológico , Cães , Eugenia (Ciência) , Humanos , Estados Unidos
7.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 92: 60-70, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35134732

RESUMO

Despite a growing body of literature that attempts to draw a line between legitimate and illegitimate forms of presentism in academic history, 'avoid presentism' is still often preached as the first rule of historiography. Distinct from other forms of presentism is selective presentism - the practice of taking some present-day activity, event, idea, or problem as a starting point in our selection of historical facts. Throughout the paper I examine the relation of some of the most popular selection criteria - selection by actor intentionality, selection by later effect, and selection by problem - to presentist practices and draw three conclusions. First, each of these selection criteria can produce presentist or non-presentist histories depending on the past of which specific activity, idea, or problem the historian is interested in. Second, the historiographic legitimacy of these selection criteria is independent from their presentist or non-presentist applications; importantly, selective presentism is not among the 'bad' forms of presentism and is not to be avoided. Finally, various selection criteria are best understood as complementary; pluralist history invites a variety of selection criteria that help shed light on different aspects of the past, and thus - collectively - enrich our understanding of it.


Assuntos
Historiografia , Diversidade Cultural , Progressão da Doença , História do Século XX , Humanos
8.
J Lesbian Stud ; 26(2): 133-147, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35103551

RESUMO

This essay asks after the possibility of making the transsexual lesbian signify as a historical mode of sexuality, as a contribution to an anti-TERF method in trans and lesbian studies. What logics of mid twentieth century gender and sexuality are responsible for the opacity of transsexual and transvestite lesbians prior to the 1970s, despite the ample evidence that desire between femmes played a central role in trans social life? To move towards such a historiography and method, the author considers two paradigmatically difficult cases. First, Louise Lawrence, a well-known trans women in the San Francisco Bay Area who transitioned entirely do-it-yourself in 1944, and whose long term relationship with a partner, Gay Elkins, is high opaque in the archival record. Second, the essay considers the compulsory heterosexuality embedded in the medical logic of transsexuality in the 1960s, arguing that the medical ontology of the transsexual vagina was itself dependent upon the avowal of its immediate and exclusive use for penetration by straight men, making transsexual lesbians implausible despite their evident existence.


Assuntos
Historiografia , Homossexualidade Feminina , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Sonhos , Feminino , Feminismo , Homossexualidade Feminina/história , Humanos , Masculino
10.
12.
Can Bull Med Hist ; 38(S1): S143-S174, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739761

RESUMO

In Quebec's historiography, the history of pharmacies and pharmacists straddles the history of medicine, doctors and health, on the one side, and the history of small business and consumerism, on the other. Too much of a hybrid to fit neatly in either of those fields of study, it has largely flown under the historians' radar. This duality is nonetheless fascinating. Not only is it at the very heart of pharmacies' trajectory and evolution in Quebec, but it explicitly highlights the fact that health, medication, and consumerism have historically close ties. Having given the background to an important investigation held in 1899, the paper illustrates the tension between commerce and profession from the mid-19th century to the economic and identity crisis facing pharmacists in the Sixties and Seventies.


Dans l'historiographie québécoise, l'histoire de la pharmacie et des pharmaciens se situe en quelque sorte entre l'histoire de la médecine, des médecins et de la santé, d'un côté, et l'histoire du petit commerce et de la consommation de l'autre. Sans doute trop hybride pour s'inscrire fermement dans l'un ou l'autre de ces champs d'études, elle n'a que très peu attiré l'attention des historiens à ce jour. Cette hybridité n'en demeure pas moins fascinante. Non seulement est-elle au cœur de la trajectoire et de l'évolution de la pharmacie au Québec, mais elle met en évidence de manière explicite le fait que santé, médicament et consommation sont historiquement étroitement liés. Après avoir brossé le contexte qui mène à une importante enquête menée en 1899, l'article déroulera le fil rouge de cette tension entre commerce et profession du milieu du XIXe siècle jusqu'à la crise économique et identitaire à laquelle feront face les pharmaciens dans les années 1960 et 1970.


Assuntos
Historiografia , Médicos , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Quebeque
13.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 90: 247-264, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740148

RESUMO

It has now been more than thirty years since Joan Wallach Scott (1986) argued that gender is a legitimate and necessary category of historical analysis that applies to all fields, including genetics. In the intervening years, a substantial body of work has appeared that adds women to the historiography of genetics. While this is a necessary component for including gender as a category of analysis in genetics, it is not sufficient. Gender analysis involves the broader goal of integrating gender into the interrogation of how social factors within research practices and institutional organization influence scientific work and knowledge production in genetics. This article argues for the imperative for inclusion-including both women and gender analysis-which, taken together, not only provide a more equitable and informative picture of the discipline's development, but also yield a historiography that more faithfully reflects the activity of doing science.


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Historiografia , Feminino , Humanos
14.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 90: 86-101, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597895

RESUMO

Diagnosing Darwin's health problems has a long history. Innumerable diagnoses have been proffered in letters, articles, and a handful of dedicated books. Diagnostic speculation has exhibited contrasting somatogenic or psychogenic preferences. Psychogenic accounts dominated mid-century but were soon challenged by somatic explanations citing specific infectious or toxic aetiologies. This tension remains, although psychogenic accounts have tended to be swamped by an array of somatogenic diagnoses championed by biomedical specialists. As a whole, this parade of diagnoses has a striking syndrome du jour quality. Successive conjectures speak of the preoccupations and diagnostic fads of their particular age. Moreover, for many participants in this diagnostic game, unconscious presentism combined with self-serving projection, turning the question of what ailed Darwin into something of a Rorschach test. Never far from the surface was a sometimes-fraught tussle over the man's reputation, animated by the moral valences of the conjectures in play. In a broader sense, this diagnostic game has shaped biographical accounts of Darwin and his career in some significant ways.


Assuntos
Historiografia , Evolução Biológica , Livros , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Princípios Morais
15.
Hist Psychol ; 24(3): 215-222, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516186

RESUMO

Introducing the concept of motivated historiography, we seek to answer the question of what constitutes a good history of psychology and of German Critical Psychology (CP) in particular. It is suggested that one needs to include questions about the purpose of historiography, the background and horizon of the historiographer, the quality and originality of the thesis, the quality of the material, selected and omitted, and the quality of interpretations. We submit that the article by Schönpflug (2021) does not accomplish a realistic account of CP. We conclude that the two original main theses in the article on links of CP to communism and Nazism reflect motivated historiography and are remnants of political and cultural struggles in Germany in the 1970s. We suggest that more important than just denouncing an innovative program is to do justice to the sociopolitical, academic, and theoretical entanglements, the historical contributions and the intellectual legacies of CP, while also accounting for shortcomings. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Historiografia , Alemanha , Testamentos
16.
Hist Psychol ; 24(3): 223-227, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516187

RESUMO

Teo et al. (2021, p. 217) have asked me "to locate [myself] epistemologically and politically and identify [my] position in…institutional and departmental struggles…to allow a reader to contextualize [my] reconstructions." Therefore, I provide information on my political and scientific orientation, my position at the Free University of Berlin, and my relationship to Klaus Holzkamp. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Historiografia , Motivação , Humanos , Autorrelato
17.
Br J Hist Sci ; 54(4): 423-441, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490840

RESUMO

This essay explores the research practice of French geometer Michel Chasles (1793-1880), from his 1837 Aperçu historique up to the preparation of his courses on 'higher geometry' between 1846 and 1852. It argues that this scientific pursuit was jointly carried out on a historiographical and a mathematical terrain. Epistemic techniques such as the archival search for and comparison of manuscripts, the deconstructive historiography of past geometrical methods, and the epistemologically motivated periodization of the history of mathematics are shown to have played a crucial role in the shaping of Chasles's own theories. In particular, we present Chasles's approach to the 'material history' of algebraic symbolism and argue that it motivated and informed his subsequent invention of a novel notational technology for the writing of geometrical proofs and propositions. In return, this technology allowed Chasles to carry out a programme for the modernization of geometry in keeping with epistemic requirements he had also delineated via a form of historical writing.


Assuntos
Historiografia , Arquivos , História do Século XX , Matemática , Simbolismo , Tecnologia
18.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 89: 164-176, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455259

RESUMO

String theorists are certain that they are practicing physicists. Yet, some of their recent critics deny this. This paper argues that this conflict is really about who holds authority in making rational judgment in theoretical physics. At bottom, the conflict centers on the question: who is a proper physicist? To illustrate and understand the differing opinions about proper practice and identity, we discuss different appreciations of epistemic virtues and explanation among string theorists and their critics, and how these have been sourced in accounts of Einstein's biography. Just as Einstein is claimed by both sides, historiography offers examples of both successful and unsuccessful non-empirical science. History of science also teaches that times of conflict are often times of innovation, in which novel scholarly identities may come into being. At the same time, since the contributions of Thomas Kuhn historians have developed a critical attitude towards formal attempts and methodological recipes for epistemic demarcation and justification of scientific practice. These are now, however, being considered in the debate on non-empirical physics.


Assuntos
Historiografia , Lepidópteros , Animais , Criatividade , História do Século XX , Física
19.
Can Bull Med Hist ; 38(2): 340-371, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403612

RESUMO

This article provides context for three studies about early 20th-century medical cases in the geographically distributed humanitarian aid organization founded by Wilfred Grenfell in pre-Confederation Newfoundland and Labrador. It situates these studies within historiographical and theoretical approaches to case histories and their publication by medical practitioners, the background for research on the clinical records of the Grenfell organization's main hospital, and the history behind specific case information for coastal patients. While the cases examined cohere through their organizational origin, the authors of these three studies reveal sometimes unexpected representations of the patient in text and illustration. In these ways, both this introductory article and the following three studies emphasize the enduring appeal of narrative approaches to case writing while also pointing to the evolving ethics of publishing medical reports for general readers and scholars. Together they invite renewed attention to the representation of medical cases in publications that increasingly are available globally in internet collections.


Assuntos
Historiografia , Missões Religiosas , Hospitais , Humanos , Narração , Terra Nova e Labrador
20.
J Hist Behav Sci ; 57(3): 281-287, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231913

RESUMO

In this essay, the author reflects on his past and current research in transnational history psychiatry and the history of lunatics in Hong Kong, attempting to develop an alternative narrative in the unique free port between the East and the West concerning the conventional colonial historiography of psychiatry. He emphasizes that, in Hong Kong, the historiography of psychiatry should broaden its focus and not limited to the role of mental asylums, for modern psychiatry was almost absent in Britain's crown colony until the end of World War II, and custodial care for lunatics was only one temporary measure in a much broader network of patient repatriation. The grand project was designed not for the well-being of the mentally ill but the smooth operation of the international commercial port. In addition, the post-war institutionalization of psychiatry, including the expansion of hospitals and the creation of the psychiatric specialty in Hong Kong, did not improve the mental health of Hong Kong residents. The author argues that this is because the rapid development of modern psychiatry in the former British colony overlooked the social determinants of mental suffering. A historical understanding of psychiatry in Hong Kong is helpful to address such ignorance.


Assuntos
Historiografia , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes , Extremo Oriente , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental
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