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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 236: 113482, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35367884

RESUMO

The lacewing, Chrysoperla sinica, is a predaceous insect that is important in crop pest management. Chemical pesticides have adversely impacted predaceous insect species. Here we studied the effect of tolfenpyrad on C. sinica. The acute toxicity of tolfenpyrad to the second-instar larvae was determined and indicated that tolfenpyrad is a medium-risk insecticide. Sublethal concentrations (LC10, LC20, and LC30) of tolfenpyrad had effects on the development, reproduction, and predatory ability of C. sinica. When the second-instar larvae of C. sinica were exposed to sublethal concentrations of tolfenpyrad, the activities of protective enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase, and detoxification enzymes, including carboxylesterase, glutathione-S-transferase, and P450 monooxygenases, were increased with exposure time. The second-instar larvae of C. sinica exposed to sublethal concentrations of tolfenpyrad exhibited an oxidative stress response that increased the levels of malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Within 48-120 h after treatment, the contents of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I and adenosine triphosphate in the second-instar larvae were decreased. This resulted in an imbalance between the production and clearance of ROS and caused cellular damage.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Animais , Insetos , Larva , Pirazóis , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Reprodução
2.
Zootaxa ; 5104(1): 137-142, 2022 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391045

RESUMO

Description of a new species in the genus Hydroptila Dalman and of the mature larva and case of Stactobiella tshisjakovi (Arefina Morse 2002) contribute further to studies on the micro-caddisflies of Japan. A single highly distinctive male, Hydroptila hattorii sp. nov. has the dorsal plate flanked by slender lateral arms that bend sharply to meet apically. The larva and case of S. tshisjakovi are similar to those known for congeneric species, but the larva differs from others in the shape of the basal spurs of the tarsal claws and the length of longest seta on the head capsule. The larval habitat in Japan is described.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Insetos , Animais , Japão , Larva , Masculino
3.
Zootaxa ; 5100(3): 390-400, 2022 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391069

RESUMO

A new species, namely Doratomantispa pouilloni sp. nov., of the mantidfly subfamily Doratomantispinae, is described and illustrated from a complete individual preserved in mid-Cretaceous amber from Tanai, northern Myanmar. Doratomantispa pouilloni sp. nov. preserves nearly all the diagnostic characters of this subfamily, but differs from the two other species of the genus Doratomantispa, inter alia, in its forelegs with stout trochanter, femora with nine spines on outer edge, two spines on inner edge, tibia with parallel sides, probasitarsomeres with around six pairs of black and thick spines; wings elongate and narrow, forewings with costal veinlets simple before ScP and RA fusion, coloration pattern present. Doratomantispa pouilloni sp. nov. highlights the diversity and the niche specialization of mid-Cretaceous Mantispidae from Tanai amber.


Assuntos
Âmbar , Holometábolos , Animais , Fósseis , Insetos , Asas de Animais
4.
Zootaxa ; 5120(4): 482-500, 2022 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391153

RESUMO

Data on the caddisfly fauna of Algeria are incomplete and the available information concerns only some regions. In the present contribution, new distribution data on Trichoptera in El Harrach Wadi are given. Sampling campaigns were conducted during 20102013 at 10 sampling sites where eleven species were collected as follows: Hydropsyche fezana Navs 1935, H. incognita Pitsch 1993, H. lobata McLachlan 1884, H. maroccana Navs 1936, H. obscura Navs 1928, H. resmineda Malicky 1977, Hydropsyche sp., Cheumatopsyche sp., Diplectrona sp., Oxyethira sp., and Rhyacophila munda McLachlan 1862. The record of H. incognita Pitsch 1993a is new for Algeria and the Maghreb.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Insetos , África do Norte , Argélia , Animais
5.
Zootaxa ; 5116(3): 373-392, 2022 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391329

RESUMO

In this paper, we describe a new species, Potamophylax idliri sp. nov., from the Jastrebac Mountains in Serbia, which is morphologically most similar to Potamophylax coronavirus Ibrahimi, Bilalli Vitecek 2021 (in Ibrahimi et al. 2021) and Potamophylax juliani Kumanski 1999 (in Kumanski Malicky 1999). The males of the new species differ from all known species of the Potamophylax winneguthi Species Group by morphological characters of the male genitalia. The genetic distinctiveness calculated based on sequencing of the barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI) between Potamophylax idliri sp. nov. and other species of the Potamophylax winneguthi Species Group is on par with those of other morphologically recognized species in the group and especially the other four species of the P. winneguthi Species Cluster. Potamophylax winneguthi Species Cluster is erected for the following species: P. idliri sp. nov., P. winneguthi, P. haidukorum Malicky 1999 (in Kumanski Malicky 1999), P. juliani, and P. coronavirus, characterized primarily by the bilobed apical margins of inferior appendages with pointed corners, in lateral and caudal views. The new species was found at two localities in the Jastrebac Mountains, at 988 and 891 m above sea level. Considering the knowledge about distribution and ecology of the other species of this group, we posit that P. idliri sp. nov. is a microendemic of the Jastrebac Mountains in Serbia.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Animais , Masculino , Sérvia
6.
Zootaxa ; 5099(3): 344-354, 2022 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391409

RESUMO

A new antlion species of the genus Dendroleon Brauer, 1866 (Myrmeleontidae: Dendroleontinae: Dendroleontini), namely Dendroleon laiyanae sp. nov., from Southwest China and Northern Vietnam is described. Besides, D. regius (Navs, 1914), a rare species of Dendroleon is first recorded in China with a detailed re-description. A discussion on the diagnostic characters of Dendroleon is also provided.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Insetos , Animais , China
7.
Cladistics ; 38(2): 227-245, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35277893

RESUMO

We analyzed patterns of complexity and simplicity in holometabolan insects using parsimony and maximum-likelihood. By contrast with other groups of arthropods (and most other groups of animals), insects have undergone a stepwise process of structural simplification in their evolution. The megadiverse Holometabola are characterized mainly by structurally simplified larvae, which differ strongly from the adults in their morphology and usually also in their life habits. Although smaller groups such as Neuropterida have largely maintained their structural complexity in adults and immature life stages, a series of reductions occurred with the appearance and diversification of Coleopterida, Mecopterida and especially Antliophora. Parasitic Strepsiptera or fleas display conspicuous patterns of reduction in different life stages and body regions, and high degrees of simplification also occur in groups with short-lived adults. Larvae living in moist substrates display far-reaching structural simplifications and also morphological uniformity, especially in the species-rich Diptera, but also in other groups. Liquid feeding leads to correlated simplifications and innovation of adult head structures, especially of the mouthparts. Functional or anatomical dipterism leads to an optimization of the flight apparatus in most holometabolous groups, which is correlated with reductions in one of the pterothoracic segments, and coupled (e.g. by hamuli), partly reduced or transformed wings (e.g. halteres). In flightless groups, the pterothoracic skeleto-muscular apparatus is strongly simplified. In the abdomen of adult females a stepwise reduction of the lepismatoid ovipositor occurs. By contrast, the male genital apparatus often undergoes an extreme diversification. Our evaluations revealed a highly correlated complexity between larval and adult stages.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Animais , Feminino , Insetos/anatomia & histologia , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Filogenia
8.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265304, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35316289

RESUMO

Lacewings exist in insecticide-dominant cropping systems. They are prime biological control agents due to outstanding ability of insecticide resistance development. This study examines occurrence of methoxyfenozide resistance and its subsequent effects on cross-resistance to other insecticides, inheritance and mechanism of resistance in C. carnea. Methoxy-SEL strain of C. carnea selected for 15 generations developed 3531.67-fold resistance to methoxyfenozide. Overlapping fiducial limits of LC50s of F1 and F1' (reciprocal crosses) suggested an autosomal and incompletely dominant mode of inheritance. Resistance to methoxyfenozide was polygenic and its realized heritability value was high (h2 = 0.62). Both PBO and DEF significantly changed LC50s indicating cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases and esterases detoxifying the resistance in Methoxy-SEL strain. Resistance to all tested insecticide was unstable but decrease rate was very negligible. These results have implications forpreservation of biological control and effective use in insecticide-dominant cropping systems.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Inseticidas , Animais , Hidrazinas/farmacologia , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Hormônios Juvenis
9.
Elife ; 112022 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35147080

RESUMO

Sexual conflict - opposite reproductive/genetic interests between sexes - can be a significant driver of insect evolution. Scorpionflies (Insecta: Mecoptera) are models in sexual conflict research due to their large variety of mating practices, including coercive behaviour and nuptial gift provisioning. However, the role of palaeontology in sexual conflict studies remains negligible, namely due to the paucity of well-preserved fossils. Here, we describe three male scorpionflies from Cretaceous and Eocene ambers. The structure of notal and postnotal organs is analysed in extant and extinct forms; a depression below the base of the notal organ in different panorpid species spatially matches the anterior fold of the female's wing. Based on disparate abdominal configurations and correlations in extant relatives, we posit that each new fossil taxon had a different mating approach along a nuptial gifting-coercive spectrum. The Eocene specimen possesses extreme female clamping abdominal armature, suggesting a degree of sexual coercion greater than in any other known scorpionfly, extinct or extant. The fossil record of abdominal modifications in male scorpionflies documents a relatively late evolution (Eocene) of long notal organs indicating oppressive behaviour toward a female during mating. Our findings reveal a wider array of mating-related morphological specialisations among extinct Panorpoidea, likely reflecting more diversified past mating strategies and behaviours in this group, and represent first steps towards gaining a deep-time perspective on the evolution of sexual conflict over mating among insects.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Holometábolos , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Feminino , Insetos/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Reprodução , Comportamento Sexual Animal
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1047, 2022 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35058493

RESUMO

The subfamily Drusinae (Limnephilidae, Trichoptera) comprises a range of species exhibiting differently shaped head capsules in their larval stages. These correspond to evolutionary lineages pursuing different larval feeding ecologies, each of which uses a different hydraulic niche: scraping grazers and omnivorous shredders sharing rounded head capsules and filtering carnivores with indented and corrugated head capsules. In this study, we assess whether changes in head capsule morphology are reflected by changes in internal anatomy of Drusinae heads. To this end, internal and external head morphology was visualized using µCT methods and histological sections in three Drusinae species-Drusus franzi, D. discolor and D. bosnicus-representing the three evolutionary lineages. Our results indicate that Drusinae head musculature is highly conserved across the evolutionary lineages with only minute changes between taxa. Conversely, the tentorium is reduced in D. discolor, the species with the most aberrant head capsule investigated here. Integrating previous research on Drusinae head anatomy, we propose a fundamental Drusinae blueprint comprising 29 cephalic muscles and discuss significance of larval head capsule corrugation in Trichoptera.


Assuntos
Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Holometábolos/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Holometábolos/classificação , Holometábolos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/classificação , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
11.
Parasitol Res ; 121(2): 667-673, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35067741

RESUMO

Host manipulation by parasites can shape host behaviour, community structure, and the flow of energy through food webs. A well-known example of host manipulation comes from hairworms (phylum Nematomorpha), which somehow cause their terrestrial insect definitive hosts to enter water, a phenomenon that has received lots of attention in recent years. However, little focus has been directed towards the interactions between hairworms and their aquatic insect hosts and the return of dormant hairworms from water to land. Here, we ask whether hairworm cyst infections impact, either directly or indirectly, the life history of their aquatic transport hosts. By observing the development of last-instar Olinga jeanae (Trichoptera: Conoesucidae) caddisfly larvae naturally infected with Gordius-type hairworm cysts under controlled conditions, we found that higher numbers of cysts per infected caddisfly correlated with a decrease in time to pupation. These new observations suggest that, apart from the striking host manipulation that brings the parasite from land to water, the presence of dormant hairworms is associated with changes in the development of their aquatic hosts, either through direct or indirect mechanisms, which may accelerate their transition from water to land.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Holometábolos , Parasitos , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Insetos
12.
Genome Biol Evol ; 14(1)2022 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34962985

RESUMO

We sequence, assemble, and annotate the genome of Atopsyche davidsoni Sykora, 1991, the first whole-genome assembly for the caddisfly family Hydrobiosidae. This free-living and predatory caddisfly inhabits streams in the high-elevation Andes and is separated by more than 200 Myr of evolutionary history from the most closely related caddisfly species with genome assemblies available. We demonstrate the promise of PacBio HiFi reads by assembling the most contiguous caddisfly genome assembly to date with a contig N50 of 14 Mb, which is more than 6× more contiguous than the current most contiguous assembly for a caddisfly (Hydropsyche tenuis). We recover 98.8% of insect BUSCO genes indicating a high level of gene completeness. We also provide a genome annotation of 12,232 annotated proteins. This new genome assembly provides an important new resource for studying genomic adaptation of aquatic insects to harsh, high-altitude environments.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Insetos , Animais , Genoma , Genômica , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
Zootaxa ; 5016(4): 571-578, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810429

RESUMO

The identity of Inocellia sinensis Navs, 1936, is clarified based on the unexpected finding of the primary type of this species. The male of this species is re-described. Amurinocellia australis Liu, H. Aspck, Yang U. Aspck, 2009 syn. nov. is treated as a junior synonym of I. sinensis, and I. aspoeckorum Yang, 1999 stat. rest. is restored as a valid species.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Animais , Masculino
14.
Zootaxa ; 5016(2): 196-204, 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810455

RESUMO

Neochauliodes van der Weele, 1909 is the largest genus of the subfamily Chauliodinae of the megalopteran family Corydalidae, currently with 47 described species. Here we report Neochauliodes triangulatus sp. nov. from western Yunnan, China. The new species belongs to the Neochauliodes bowringi species-group and is confirmed to be different from the other species of this group based on morphological and molecular evidence.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Insetos , Animais , China
15.
Zootaxa ; 4996(3): 513-524, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810516

RESUMO

The larva of Stenophylax fissus (McLachlan 1875) is redescribed, illustrated, and compared with morphologically similar Limnephilidae larvae from the Iberian Peninsula. In addition, the sequence of the mtCOI gene in the barcode region of one individual is reported. Likewise, the barcode and the conspecificity between two larvae and one female of the non-sequenced species S. crossotus are given. In addition, the high genetic diversity among S. sequax populations is highlighted, suggesting a complex of cryptic species. Finally, a diagnostic matrix of the known larvae of Stenophylax species from the Iberian Peninsula is provided.


Assuntos
Besouros , Holometábolos , Animais , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Feminino , Insetos , Larva/genética
16.
Zootaxa ; 4996(2): 353-362, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810525

RESUMO

A new eastern Nearctic species of tube-making caddisfly of the genus Polycentropus Curtis 1835 (Trichoptera: Polycentropodidae) is described and illustrated based on adult males and females. Polycentropus aileenae n. sp., a member of the Polycentropus confusus Species Group, is reported from the Canadian province Nova Scotia and the U.S. states Tennessee and Pennsylvania. The species is diagnosed based on multiple aspects of the male genitalia, including inflection of the dorsal processes of the preanal appendages and the slightly recurved dorsum of the apex of the phallus. New U.S. state records of P. confusus Hagen 1861 and P. elarus Ross 1944 from Florida, and P. thaxtoni Hamilton Holzenthal 1986 from Alabama, are also provided.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Insetos , Animais , Canadá , Extremidades , Feminino , Masculino
17.
Zootaxa ; 4995(3): 537-550, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810552

RESUMO

Three new species of Rhyacophila (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae) from Japan are described. Among them, R. hattorii n. sp. and R. kobayashii n. sp. are assigned to the Rhyacophila sibirica Group. Another new species, R. kuranishii n. sp. is assigned to the Rhyacophila anatina Group. The figures of R. yukii by Schmid (1970) are actually of R. hattorii, not R. yukii Tsuda 1942. We describe these three new species, redescribe R. yukii, and discuss the diversity of this genus.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Insetos , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Japão
18.
Zootaxa ; 5006(1): 106-109, 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810582

RESUMO

A new caddisfly species Plectrocnemia kirmikhia sp. nov. (Polycentropodidae) is described from Priabonian Rovno amber (Upper Eocene, 33.937.8 million years old). Now the family Polycentropodidae is represented in Rovno amber by 16 named species, and the genus Plectrocnemia includes 5 described species in this locality.


Assuntos
Âmbar , Holometábolos , Animais , Fósseis , Insetos
19.
Zootaxa ; 5060(4): 533-565, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810650

RESUMO

Adult Trichoptera material collected from different localities in Myanmar resulted in the detection of eleven new species which are described as Rhyacophila inwabumensis spec. nov., Hydropsyche kachinenis spec. nov., Limnocentropus rossicorum spec. nov., Lepidostoma pennicularium spec. nov., Lepidostoma indivisum spec. nov., Apatania naumanni spec. nov., Neophylax obliquostriatus spec. nov., Nothopsyche anawrahta spec. nov., Aplatyphylax bamaricus spec. nov., Aplatyphylax myanmaricus spec. nov., and Oecetis kachinomekana spec. nov. Neophylax nigripunctatus Tian Li 1993 (in Tian et al. 1993), syn. nov. is excluded from Neophylax McLachlan 1871 and synonymized with Phylostenax himalus Mosely 1935. Plectrocnemia bifurcata Tian 1993 (in Tian et al. 1993) is synonymized with P. kainam Malicky 1993, syn. nov. Ninety-eight species are recorded from various places in Myanmar including some inadequately known taxa for which new illustrations of the male genitalia are provided.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Insetos , Animais , Genitália Masculina , Masculino , Mianmar
20.
Zootaxa ; 5068(3): 355-377, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810704

RESUMO

The present paper adds to the knowledge of the family Mantispidae from India. Herein we describe two new Euclimacia species: E. similis sp. nov. from Madhya Pradesh and E. nicobarica sp. nov. from Andaman Nicobar Islands. A new combination is also proposed: Mantispilla coorgensis (Ohl, 2004a) comb. nov. With these additions, the family is now represented in India by 22 species in eight genera.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Animais , Índia , Insetos
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