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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253218, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355863

RESUMO

Abstract Indices are used to help on decision-making. This study aims to develop and test an index, which can determine the loss (e.g., herbivorous insects) and solution (e.g., natural enemies) sources. They will be classified according to their importance regarding the ability to damage or to reduce the source of damage to the system when the final production is unknown. Acacia auriculiformis (Fabales: Fabaceae), a non-native pioneer species in Brazil with fast growth and rusticity, is used in restoration programs, and it is adequate to evaluate a new index. The formula was: Percentage of the Importance Indice-Production Unknown (% I.I.-PU) = [(ks1 x c1 x ds1)/Σ (ks1 x c1 x ds1) + (ks2 x c2 x ds2) + (ksn x cn x dsn)] x 100. The loss sources Aethalion reticulatum L., 1767 (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae), Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera), Stereoma anchoralis Lacordaire, 1848 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and Tettigoniidae, and solution sources Uspachus sp. (Araneae: Salticidae), Salticidae (Araneae), and Pseudomyrmex termitarius (Smith, 1877) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) showed the highest % I.I.-PU on leaves of A. auriculiformis saplings. The number of Diabrotica speciosa Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was reduced per number of Salticidae; that of A. reticulatum that of Uspachus sp.; and that of Cephalocoema sp. (Orthoptera: Proscopiidae) that of P. termitarius on A. auriculiformis saplings. However, the number of Aleyrodidae was increased per number of Cephalotes sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and that of A. reticulatum that of Brachymyrmex sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on A. auriculiformis saplings. The A. reticulatum damage was reduced per number of Uspachus sp., but the Aleyrodidae damage was increased per number of Cephalotes sp., totaling 23.81% of increase by insect damages on A. auriculiformis saplings. Here I show and test the % I.I.-PU. It is an new index that can detect the loss or solution sources on a system when production is unknown. It can be applied in some knowledge areas.


Resumo Índices são usados para ajudar na tomada de decisões. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver e testar um índice capaz de determinar fontes de perda (ex.: insetos herbívoros) e de solução (ex.: inimigos naturais). Eles serão classificados de acordo com sua importância quanto a habilidade de danificar ou reduzir danos no sistema, quando a produção final é desconhecida. Acacia auriculiformis (Fabales: Fabaceae), uma espécie pioneira não nativa do Brasil com rápido crescimento e rusticidade, usada em programas de restauração, é adequada para avaliar um novo índice. A fórmula foi: Porcentagem de Índice de Importância-Produção Desconhecida (% I.I.-PD) = [(ks1 x c1 x ds1)/Σ (ks1 x c1 x ds1) + (ks2 x c2 x ds2) + (ksn x cn x dsn)] x 100. As fontes de perda Aethalion reticulatum L., 1767 (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae), Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera), Stereoma anchoralis Lacordaire, 1848 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) e Tettigoniidae, e as fontes de solução Uspachus sp. (Araneae: Salticidae), Salticidae (Araneae) e Pseudomyrmex termitarius (Smith, 1877) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) apresentaram maiores % I.I.-PD nas folhas das mudas de A. auriculiformis. O número de Diabrotica speciosa Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) foi reduzido pelo número de Salticidae; o de A. reticulatum pelo de Uspachus sp.; e o de Cephalocoema sp. (Orthoptera: Proscopiidae) pelo de P. termitarius em mudas de A. auriculiformis. Entretanto, o número de Aleyrodidae foi aumentado pelo número de Cephalotes sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) e o de A. reticulatum pelo de Brachymyrmex sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) em mudas de A. auriculiformis. O dano de A. reticulatum foi reduzido pelo número de Uspachus sp., mas o dano de Aleyrodidae foi aumentado pelo número de Cephalotes sp., totalizando 23,81% de aumento de danos em mudas de A. auriculiformis. Aqui eu apresento e testo o % I.I.-PD. Ele é um novo índice capaz de detectar fontes de perda e de solução no sistema quando não se conhece a produção final. Ele pode ser aplicado em algumas áreas do conhecimento.


Assuntos
Animais , Formigas , Besouros , Acacia , Hemípteros , Insetos
2.
Am Nat ; 201(2): 241-255, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36724465

RESUMO

AbstractIn eusocial insects, nestmate queens can differ in their reproductive output, causing asymmetries in the distribution of mutual benefits. However, little is known about how reproductive success is partitioned in incipiently polygynous species, which would provide clues about the evolutionary forces shaping the emergence of polygyny. Here, we leverage a recent transition from predominantly single-queen (monogyne) to multiple-queen (polygyne) colonies in an invasive yellowjacket species to investigate whether queens in incipiently polygyne colonies invest equally in reproductive effort or vary in their relative investment in each caste. We excavated nine polygyne Vespula pensylvanica colonies in Hawaii and used restriction site-associated DNA sequencing to infer the parentage of worker, male, and gyne (daughter queen) pupae from each nest comb. In four colonies with at least eight gyne pupae, a single queen produced most or all gynes. These queens had no male offspring and few worker offspring, suggesting that a subset of nestmate queens might exploit the collective benefits of newly polygyne societies. In contrast to most queens, gyne producers had offspring distributed nonrandomly across nest combs. Nestmate queens generally exhibited low relatedness levels. Our results suggest that rapid, ecologically driven transitions to polygyny among unrelated queens may, at their onset, be vulnerable to reproductive asymmetries that are likely evolutionarily unstable. More broadly, this study contributes to the understanding of social evolution by uncovering asymmetric partitioning of reproduction in a population with newly evolved polygyny and raises questions about the future trajectories of introduced populations.


Assuntos
Formigas , Vespas , Animais , Vespas/genética , Formigas/genética , Reprodução/genética , Evolução Biológica , Repetições de Microssatélites , Comportamento Social
3.
Genes (Basel) ; 14(1)2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36672929

RESUMO

The red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren (fire ant hereafter) is a global pest that inflicts billions of dollars in damages to the United States economy and poses a major threat on a global scale. Concerns with the broad-spectrum application of insecticides have facilitated the hunt for natural enemy-mediated controls. One of these, the virus Solenopsis invicta virus-3 (SINV-3 hereafter) is exceptionally virulent in laboratory settings. However, despite high mortality rates in the laboratory and documented widespread SINV-3 prevalence in the southern United States, the fire ant remains a major pest. To explore this paradox, we document the immune response elicited by the fire ant when infected with SINV-3. We sequence the fire ant transcriptome prior to and following infection with SINV-3, and identify and discuss in detail genes in immune response pathways differentially expressed following infection with SINV-3. This information provides insights into genes and pathways involved in the SINV-3 infection response in the fire ant and offers avenues to pursue, to suppress key immune response genes and force the fire ant to succumb to SINV-3 infection in the field.


Assuntos
Formigas , Vírus de RNA , Animais , Vírus de RNA/genética , Formigas/genética , Imunidade Inata/genética , Expressão Gênica
5.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 378(1872): 20210409, 2023 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36688399

RESUMO

An evolutionary transition in individuality (ETI) occurs when a previously independent organism becomes a lower level unit within a higher hierarchical level (for example, cells in an organism, ants in a colony). Using archaeological and historical accounts from the last 12 000 years, I empirically examine the proposition that human society increasingly functions as a higher hierarchical level within which individuals integrate as lower level units. I evaluate human societal development with respect to three criteria that together indicate complexity in biological systems and serve as an operationalization scheme for ETIs: size, inseparability and specialization. The size of the largest polity has increased seven orders of magnitude, from hundreds to billions. Inseparability became nearly complete since Mesopotamian city-states, following the first appearance of intricate specialization (division of labour). Connectivity within a polity has increased rapidly during the last few centuries, and particularly within the last few decades. In view of these results, I formulate the following hypothesis: human society is undergoing an evolutionary transition in individuality, driven by socio-cultural-technological processes. This proposition requires a detailed theoretical basis and further empirical testing. I propose four predictions derived from the hypothesis that may be used to test it. This article is part of the theme issue 'Human socio-cultural evolution in light of evolutionary transitions'.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Animais , Humanos , Formigas
6.
BMC Biol ; 21(1): 5, 2023 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36617555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eusociality is widely considered to evolve through kin selection, where the reproductive success of an individual's close relative is favored at the expense of its own. High genetic relatedness is thus considered a prerequisite for eusociality. While ants are textbook examples of eusocial animals, not all ants form colonies of closely related individuals. One such example is the ectatommine ant Rhytidoponera metallica, which predominantly forms queen-less colonies that have such a low intra-colony relatedness that they have been proposed to represent a transient, unstable form of eusociality. However, R. metallica is among the most abundant and widespread ants on the Australian continent. This apparent contradiction provides an example of how inclusive fitness may not by itself explain the maintenance of eusociality and raises the question of what other selective advantages maintain the eusocial lifestyle of this species. RESULTS: We provide a comprehensive portrait of the venom of R. metallica and show that the colony-wide venom consists of an exceptionally high diversity of functionally distinct toxins for an ant. These toxins have evolved under strong positive selection, which is normally expected to reduce genetic variance. Yet, R. metallica exhibits remarkable intra-colony variation, with workers sharing only a relatively small proportion of toxins in their venoms. This variation is not due to the presence of chemical castes, but has a genetic foundation that is at least in part explained by toxin allelic diversity. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results suggest that the toxin diversity contained in R. metallica colonies may be maintained by a form of group selection that selects for colonies that can exploit more resources and defend against a wider range of predators. We propose that increased intra-colony genetic variance resulting from low kinship may itself provide a selective advantage in the form of an expanded pharmacological venom repertoire. These findings provide an example of how group selection on adaptive phenotypes may contribute to maintaining eusociality where a prerequisite for kin selection is diminished.


Assuntos
Formigas , Animais , Formigas/genética , Peçonhas , Austrália , Reprodução , Comportamento Social
7.
BMC Biol ; 21(1): 3, 2023 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36617574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Camponotus floridanus ant colonies are comprised of a single reproductive queen and thousands of sterile female offspring that consist of two morphologically distinct castes: smaller minors and larger majors. Minors perform most of the tasks within the colony, including brood care and food collection, whereas majors have fewer clear roles and have been hypothesized to act as a specialized solider caste associated with colony defense. The allocation of workers to these different tasks depends, in part, on the detection and processing of local information including pheromones and other chemical blends such as cuticular hydrocarbons. However, the role peripheral olfactory sensitivity plays in establishing and maintaining morphologically distinct worker castes and their associated behaviors remains largely unexplored. RESULTS: We examined the electrophysiological responses to general odorants, cuticular extracts, and a trail pheromone in adult minor and major C. floridanus workers, revealing that the repertoire of social behaviors is positively correlated with olfactory sensitivity. Minors in particular display primarily excitatory responses to olfactory stimuli, whereas major workers primarily manifest suppressed, sub-solvent responses. The notable exception to this paradigm is that both minors and majors display robust, dose-dependent excitatory responses to conspecific, non-nestmate cuticular extracts. Moreover, while both minors and majors actively aggress non-nestmate foes, the larger and physiologically distinct majors display significantly enhanced capabilities to rapidly subdue and kill their adversaries. CONCLUSIONS: Our studies reveal the behavioral repertoire of minors and majors aligns with profound shifts in peripheral olfactory sensitivity and odor coding. The data reported here support the hypothesis that minors are multipotential workers with broad excitatory sensitivity, and majors are dedicated soldiers with a highly specialized olfactory system for distinguishing non-nestmate foes. Overall, we conclude that C. floridanus majors do indeed represent a physiologically and behaviorally specialized soldier caste in which caste-specific olfactory sensitivity plays an important role in task allocation and the regulation of social behavior in ant colonies.


Assuntos
Formigas , Animais , Feminino , Formigas/fisiologia , Olfato/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Feromônios/fisiologia , Odorantes
8.
J R Soc Interface ; 20(198): 20220808, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596450

RESUMO

Social insects are among the ecologically most successful collectively living organisms, with efficient division of labour a key feature of this success. Surprisingly, these efficient colonies often have a large proportion of inactive workers in their workforce, sometimes referred to as lazy workers. The dominant hypotheses explaining this are based on specific life-history traits, specific behavioural features or uncertain environments where inactive workers can provide a 'reserve' workforce that can spring into action quickly. While there is a number of experimental studies that show and investigate the presence of inactive workers, mathematical and computational models exploring specific hypotheses are not common. Here, using a simple mathematical model, we show that a parsimonious hypothesis can explain this puzzling social phenomenon. Our model incorporates social interactions and environmental influences into a game-theoretical framework and captures how individuals react to environment by allocating their activity according to environmental conditions. This model shows that inactivity can emerge under specific environmental conditions as a by-product of the task allocation process. Our model confirms the empirical observation that in the case of worker loss, prior homeostatic balance is re-established by replacing some of the lost force with previously inactive workers. Most importantly, our model shows that inactivity in social colonies can be explained without the need to assume an adaptive function for this phenomenon.


Assuntos
Formigas , Comportamento Social , Humanos , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Insetos , Modelos Teóricos
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(5): e2210651120, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36689664

RESUMO

Millions of years of evolution have allowed animals to develop unusual locomotion capabilities. A striking example is the legless-jumping of click beetles and trap-jaw ants, which jump more than 10 times their body length. Their delicate musculoskeletal system amplifies their muscles' power. It is challenging to engineer insect-scale jumpers that use onboard actuators for both elastic energy storage and power amplification. Typical jumpers require a combination of at least two actuator mechanisms for elastic energy storage and jump triggering, leading to complex designs having many parts. Here, we report the new concept of dynamic buckling cascading, in which a single unidirectional actuation stroke drives an elastic beam through a sequence of energy-storing buckling modes automatically followed by spontaneous impulsive snapping at a critical triggering threshold. Integrating this cascade in a robot enables jumping with unidirectional muscles and power amplification (JUMPA). These JUMPA systems use a single lightweight mechanism for energy storage and release with a mass of 1.6 g and 2 cm length and jump up to 0.9 m, 40 times their body length. They jump repeatedly by reengaging the latch and using coiled artificial muscles to restore elastic energy. The robots reach their performance limits guided by theoretical analysis of snap-through and momentum exchange during ground collision. These jumpers reach the energy densities typical of the best macroscale jumping robots, while also matching the rapid escape times of jumping insects, thus demonstrating the path toward future applications including proximity sensing, inspection, and search and rescue.


Assuntos
Formigas , Besouros , Robótica , Animais , Locomoção/fisiologia , Músculos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(6): e2207959120, 2023 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36716366

RESUMO

Colonies of the arboreal turtle ant create networks of trails that link nests and food sources on the graph formed by branches and vines in the canopy of the tropical forest. Ants put down a volatile pheromone on the edges as they traverse them. At each vertex, the next edge to traverse is chosen using a decision rule based on the current pheromone level. There is a bidirectional flow of ants around the network. In a previous field study, it was observed that the trail networks approximately minimize the number of vertices, thus solving a variant of the popular shortest path problem without any central control and with minimal computational resources. We propose a biologically plausible model, based on a variant of the reinforced random walk on a graph, which explains this observation and suggests surprising algorithms for the shortest path problem and its variants. Through simulations and analysis, we show that when the rate of flow of ants does not change, the dynamics converges to the path with the minimum number of vertices, as observed in the field. The dynamics converges to the shortest path when the rate of flow increases with time, so the colony can solve the shortest path problem merely by increasing the flow rate. We also show that to guarantee convergence to the shortest path, bidirectional flow and a decision rule dividing the flow in proportion to the pheromone level are necessary, but convergence to approximately short paths is possible with other decision rules.


Assuntos
Formigas , Animais , Árvores , Algoritmos , Feromônios , Florestas
11.
Arch Microbiol ; 205(1): 53, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36602580

RESUMO

The bacterial communities that colonize the cadaver environment of insects infected and killed by parasitic fungi can be selected by the sympatric fungi and provide novel impacts. In this study, we found that Bacillus cereus/thuringiensis predominate the bacterial community in Dolichoderus thoracicus ant cadavers colonized by O. pseudolloydii. The most predominant bacterial strains in these ant cadavers were hemolytic and able to produce hydrolytic enzymes for digesting the ant tissue. A relatively intense lethal effect on the co-cultured nematode was displayed by a hemolytic strain. Moreover, the antagonistic effect against pathogenic fungi detected in the bacteria sympatric with O. pseudolloydii was reported here. Naphthoquinones have been shown to confer antibacterial activities and produced by the ant-pathogenic Ophiocordyceps fungi. However, our results did not show the naphthoquinone tolerance we expected to be detected in the bacteria from the ant infected by O. pseudolloydii. The bacterial diversity in the samples associated with O. pseudolloydii infected ants as revealed in this study will be a step forward to the understanding of the roles playing by the microbial community in the native habitats of O. pseudolloydii.


Assuntos
Formigas , Bacillus thuringiensis , Bacillus , Animais , Formigas/microbiologia , Insetos
12.
Proc Biol Sci ; 290(1991): 20221962, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36695032

RESUMO

Early detection of cancer is critical in medical sciences, as the sooner a cancer is diagnosed, the higher are the chances of recovery. Tumour cells are characterized by specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can be used as cancer biomarkers. Through olfactory associative learning, animals can be trained to detect these VOCs. Insects such as ants have a refined sense of smell, and can be easily and rapidly trained with olfactory conditioning. Using urine from patient-derived xenograft mice as stimulus, we demonstrate that individual ants can learn to discriminate the odour of healthy mice from that of tumour-bearing mice and do so after only three conditioning trials. After training, they spend approximately 20% more time in the vicinity of the learned odour than beside the other stimulus. Chemical analyses confirmed that the presence of the tumour changed the urine odour, supporting the behavioural results. Our study demonstrates that ants reliably detect tumour cues in mice urine and have the potential to act as efficient and inexpensive cancer bio-detectors.


Assuntos
Formigas , Neoplasias , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Olfato , Xenoenxertos , Aprendizagem , Odorantes
13.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 186, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604491

RESUMO

Position within the social group has consequences on individual lifespans in diverse taxa. This is especially obvious in eusocial insects, where workers differ in both the tasks they perform and their aging rates. However, in eusocial wasps, bees and ants, the performed task usually depends strongly on age. As such, untangling the effects of social role and age on worker physiology is a key step towards understanding the coevolution of sociality and aging. We performed an experimental protocol that allowed a separate analysis of these two factors using four groups of black garden ant (Lasius niger) workers: young foragers, old foragers, young nest workers, and old nest workers. We highlighted age-related differences in the proteome and metabolome of workers that were primarily related to worker subcaste and only secondarily to age. The relative abundance of proteins and metabolites suggests an improved xenobiotic detoxification, and a fuel metabolism based more on lipid use than carbohydrate use in young ants, regardless of their social role. Regardless of age, proteins related to the digestive function were more abundant in nest workers than in foragers. Old foragers were mostly characterized by weak abundances of molecules with an antibiotic activity or involved in chemical communication. Finally, our results suggest that even in tiny insects, extended lifespan may require to mitigate cancer risks. This is consistent with results found in eusocial rodents and thus opens up the discussion of shared mechanisms among distant taxa and the influence of sociality on life history traits such as longevity.


Assuntos
Formigas , Abelhas , Animais , Formigas/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Fenótipo , Meio Social , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245536, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339403

RESUMO

Abstract Acacia mangium (Willd., 1806) (Fabales: Fabaceae) is a fast growing, rustic, pioneer species, with potential to fix nitrogen, and for programs to recover degraded areas. The objective was to evaluate the distribution and the functional diversity of interactions and the K-dominance of arthropod groups on A. mangium saplings. The number of individuals of eleven species of phytophagous insects, three bee species, and fourteen natural enemy species were highest on the adaxial leaf surface of this plant. Abundance, diversity and species richness of phytophagous insects and natural enemies, and abundance and species richness of pollinators were highest on the adaxial A. mangium leaf surface. The distribution of five species of sap-sucking hemipterans and six of protocooperating ants (Hymenoptera), with positive interaction between these groups, and three bee species (Hymenoptera) were aggregated on leaves of A. mangium saplings. Aethalion reticulatum (L.) (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae) and Bemisia sp. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae); Brachymyrmex sp. and Camponotus sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae); and Trigona spinipes Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were the most dominant phytophagous insects, natural enemies, and pollinators, respectively, on A. mangium leaves. Knowledge of preferred leaf surfaces could help integrated pest management programs.


Resumo Acacia mangium (Willd., 1806) (Fabales: Fabaceae) é uma planta pioneira com rápido crescimento, rusticidade, potencial nitrificador e importante em programas de recuperação de áreas degradadas. O objetivo foi avaliar a distribuição e a diversidade funcional das interações e a dominância-K de grupos de artrópodes em árvores jovens de A. mangium. Os números de indivíduos de onze espécies de insetos fitófagos, três de abelhas e quatorze de inimigos naturais foram maiores na superfície adaxial de folhas dessa planta. A abundância, diversidade e riqueza de espécies de insetos fitófagos e inimigos naturais, e a abundância e riqueza de espécies de polinizadores foram maiores na face adaxial de folhas de A. mangium. A distribuição de cinco espécies de hemípteros sugadores de seiva e seis de formigas protocooperantes (Hymenoptera), com interação positiva entre esses grupos, e três de abelhas (Hymenoptera) foi agregada em folhas de plantas jovens de A. mangium. Aethalion reticulatum (L.) (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae) e Bemisia sp. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae); Brachymyrmex sp. e Camponotus sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae); e Trigona spinipes Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Apidae) foram os insetos fitófagos, inimigos naturais e polinizadores mais dominantes, respectivamente, em folhas de A. mangium. A definição da superfície foliar preferida pode auxiliar programas de manejo integrado de pragas.


Assuntos
Animais , Formigas , Artrópodes , Acacia , Fabaceae , Abelhas , Folhas de Planta
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243651, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285608

RESUMO

Abstract Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Ex Benth. (Fabaceae), a non-native pioneer species in Brazil with fast growth and rusticity, is used in restoration programs. Our goal was to assess during a 24-month survey the pattern of arthropods (phytophagous insects, bees, spiders, and predator insects) on the leaf surfaces of A. auriculiformis saplings. Fourteen species of phytophagous, two of bees and eleven of predators were most abundant on the adaxial surface. The values of the ecological indexes (abundance, diversity, and species richness) and the rarefaction, and k-dominance curves of phytophagous, bees and arthropod predators were highest on the adaxial leaf surface of A. auriculiformis. The k-dominance and abundance of Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera) (both leaf surfaces), the native stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (both leaf surfaces) and the ant Brachymyrmex sp. (adaxial surface) and Pheidole sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (abaxial surface) were the highest between the taxonomic groups of phytophagous, bees, and predators, respectively on A. auriculiformis saplings. The ecological indexes and rarefaction, abundance, and k-dominance curves of phytophagous insects, bees, and predators were highest on the adaxial leaf surface. The preference of phytophagous insects for the adaxial leaf surface is probably due to the lower effort required to move on this surface. Understanding the arthropod preferences between leaf surfaces may help to develop sampling and pest management plans for the most abundant phytophagous insects on A. auriculiformis saplings. Also, knowledge on the preference pattern of bees and predators may be used to favour their conservation.


Resumo Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Ex Benth. (Fabaceae), espécie pioneira com rápido crescimento e rusticidade, é utilizada em programas de recuperação de áreas degradadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, durante 24 meses, o padrão de distribuição de artrópodes (insetos fitófagos, abelhas, aranhas e insetos predadores) nas superfícies foliares de A. auriculiformis. Quatorze espécies de fitófagos, duas de abelhas e onze de predadores foram mais abundantes na superfície adaxial. Índices ecológicos (abundância, diversidade e riqueza de espécies) e curvas de rarefação e dominância-k de fitófagos, abelhas e artrópodes predadores foram maiores na face adaxial de folhas de A. auriculiformis. A dominância-k e a abundância de Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera) (ambas as superfícies foliares), da abelha nativa sem ferrão Tetragonisca angustula Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (ambas as superfícies foliares) e das formigas Brachymyrmex sp. (superfície adaxial) e Pheidole sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (superfície abaxial) foram as maiores entre os grupos taxonômicos de fitófagos polinizadores e predadores, respectivamente, em plantas jovens de A. auriculiformis. A abundância, diversidade e riqueza e as curvas de rarefação e dominância-k de artrópodes fitófagos, abelhas e predadores foram maiores nas superfícies adaxiais das folhas dessa árvore. A preferência pela superfície adaxial da folha se deve, provavelmente, ao menor esforço para se movimentarem na mesma. Compreender as preferências dos artrópodes pelas superfícies foliares pode auxiliar no desenvolvimento de planos de amostragem e manejo de pragas em A. auriculiformis. Além disso, o conhecimento da distribuição de abelhas e predadores pode favorecer a conservação desses insetos.


Assuntos
Animais , Formigas , Artrópodes , Acacia , Abelhas , Folhas de Planta , Insetos
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e239642, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278543

RESUMO

Abstract The knowledge of ant assemblages that occurs in Conservation Units in the Atlantic Forest domain is a priority, considering the number of endemic species and the impacts that this biome has been suffering. The aim of this study was to evaluate ant assemblages in the Turvo State Park, which is the largest conservation unit in the State of Rio Grande do Sul and presents an important role on biodiversity protection. Two samplings were conducted in 2019, one in the summer (January) and the other in the spring (November and December), at five sites 2 km apart, with pitfall traps (soil and canopy), sardine baits, glucose, beating net, sweeping net and manual collection. We sampled 121 species in the summer and 120 in the spring, totaling 163 ant species. A total of 78 species (47.8%) occurred in both sampling seasons. The richest genera in the study were Camponotus (S = 30), Pheidole (S = 23) and Linepithema (S = 11). Seventeen species were recorded for the first time for Rio Grande do Sul state. The results indicate that this is one of the most species-rich assemblages of ants ever surveyed in a conservation unit in southern Brazil. The study highlights the importance of Conservation Units as protected environments against habitat loss for ant biodiversity. The results of this study contribute to myrmecofauna knowledge and serve as a basis for environmental impact studies, management plans and conservation of Atlantic Forest remnants.


Resumo O conhecimento das assembleias de formigas que ocorrem em Unidades de Conservação no domínio Mata Atlântica é prioritário, considerando-se o número de espécies endêmicas e os impactos que este bioma vem sofrendo. O objetivo desse trabalho foi caracterizar a assembleia de formigas que ocorre no Parque Estadual do Turvo, a maior unidade de conservação do Rio Grande do Sul que se destaca pelo seu papel na proteção da biodiversidade da Mata Atlântica austral. Foram realizadas duas amostragens no ano de 2019, uma no verão (janeiro) e a outra na primavera (novembro e dezembro), em cinco pontos distantes 2 km entre si, com armadilhas pitfall (solo e dossel), iscas de sardinha, iscas de glicose, guarda-chuva entomológico, rede de varredura e coleta manual. A riqueza amostrada no verão foi de 121 e na primavera de 120, totalizando 163 espécies. Ao todo, 78 espécies (47,8%) ocorreram concomitantemente nas duas amostragens. Os gêneros mais ricos foram Camponotus (S=30), Pheidole (S=23) e Linepithema (S=11). Dezessete espécies foram registradas pela primeira vez para o estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os resultados se constituem em uma das mais ricas assembleias de formigas já inventariadas em uma unidade de conservação na região sul do Brasil. O estudo destaca a importância das Unidades de Conservação como ambientes protegidos contra a perda de habitat para a biodiversidade de formigas. Os resultados deste estudo contribuem para o conhecimento da mirmecofauna e servem como base para estudos de impacto ambiental, planos de manejo e conservação de remanescentes da Mata Atlântica.


Assuntos
Animais , Formigas , Estações do Ano , Brasil , Ecossistema , Biodiversidade
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244732, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278538

RESUMO

Abstract Some studies report the positive effect of organic residues from ant nests on soil properties and on the structure of the adjacent plant community in field experiments, but there is a gap about the effect on individual species. The purpose of the present study was to compare the soil nutrient content and the development of Turnera subulata Smith, an ornamental species, in the presence of the nest refuse (basically composed of fragments of grass leaves and the symbiotic fungus) produced by the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890) or in control soil through a greenhouse pot experiment. The experiment was carried out with two treatments: control soil and soil with 25% of nest refuse. The plants were kept in 1L pots for 90 days. We evaluated the parameters: plant height, stem diameter, root length, number of leaves, dry weight of the root, dry and fresh aboveground biomass. Additionally, the relative chlorophyll content and leaf nutrients were used as nutritional parameters. As a result, plants that grew in the soil with nest refuse showed significant higher values of all parameters evaluated when compared to the control treatment (p < 0.001). We conclude that this biofertilizer contributed to the production of more vigorous plants, being able to act on the local dynamics of nutrients in the ecosystems where A. balzani occurs. As it is relatively abundant and easy to collect, the refuse of A. balzani has the potential to be used as an alternative substrate in the production of shortlife cycle plants.


Resumo Alguns estudos relatam o efeito positivo de resíduos orgânicos de formigueiros nas propriedades do solo e na estrutura da comunidade de plantas adjacentes em experimentos de campo, mas há uma lacuna sobre o efeito em espécies individuais. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar o desenvolvimento de Turnera subulata Smith, uma espécie ornamental, na presença do substrato de descarte (SD) de formigueiros produzido pela formiga cortadeira Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890) por meio de experimento em casa de vegetação. O experimento foi conduzido com dois tratamentos: solo controle e solo com 25% de SD. As plantas foram mantidas em vasos de 1L por 90 dias. Foram avaliados os parâmetros: altura da planta, diâmetro do caule, comprimento da raiz, número de folhas, massa seca da raiz, biomassa seca e fresca da parte aérea. Além disso, o conteúdo relativo de clorofila e os nutrientes foliares foram usados como parâmetros fisiológicos. Como resultado, as plantas que cresceram no solo com SD apresentaram valores significativamente maiores de todos os parâmetros avaliados quando comparadas ao tratamento controle (p < 0.001). Concluímos que esse biofertilizante contribuiu para a produção de plantas mais vigorosas, podendo atuar na dinâmica local de nutrientes nos ecossistemas onde A. balzani ocorre. Além disso, por ser relativamente abundante e fácil de coletar, o SD de A. balzani tem potencial para ser utilizado como biofertilizante na produção de plantas de ciclo de vida curta.


Assuntos
Animais , Formigas , Turnera , Plantas , Solo , Simbiose , Ecossistema , Folhas de Planta
18.
Oecologia ; 201(1): 199-212, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36520222

RESUMO

There is often a vertical stratification of the vegetation in tropical forests, where each forest stratum has a unique set of environmental conditions, including marked differences in habitat heterogeneity, physical complexity, and microclimate. Additionally, many tropical forests are highly seasonal, and we need to consider the temporal variation in environmental conditions when assessing the functional aspects of their organisms. Here, we tested the hypothesis that vertical stratification and seasonality shape tropical ants' functional ecology and that there are differences in the functional trait diversity and composition between arboreal and ground-dwelling ant communities. We collected ants in the arboreal and ground strata in the rainy and dry seasons in six different areas, measuring seven morphological traits to characterize their functional ecology and diversity. Irrespective of the season, we found a distinct functional composition between arboreal and ground-dwelling ants and a higher functional richness on the ground. However, ground ants were more functionally redundant than arboreal ants. The differences in functional richness and redundancy between ant inhabiting strata and season could also be observed in the community-weighted mean traits: arboreal and ground ant traits can be distinguished in Weber's length, mandible length, eye length, and eye position on the head capsule. The differences in these functional traits are mainly related to the ants' feeding habits and the complexity of their foraging substrates. Overall, by providing the first systematic comparison of continuous traits between arboreal and ground-dwelling ants, our study opens new investigation paths, indicating important axes of functional diversification of tropical ants.


Assuntos
Formigas , Árvores , Animais , Clima Tropical , Ecossistema , Florestas
19.
J Therm Biol ; 111: 103397, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36585078

RESUMO

Some ant species live in hot and arid environments, such as deserts and savannas. Worker polymorphism-variation in worker size and/or morphology within colonies-is adaptive in such ecosystems because it enhances resistance to heat stress and increases the efficiency of resource exploitation. However, species with small, monomorphic workers are also frequently found in these environments. How species with distinct worker size and degrees of polymorphism deal with such stressful environments remains poorly studied. We investigated the behavioral, physiological, and molecular adaptations that may enhance heat and desiccation tolerance in two sympatric species of Cataglyphis desert ants that differ dramatically in worker size and polymorphism: C. viatica is polymorphic, while C. cubica is small and monomorphic. We found that worker size, water content, water loss, and protein regulation play a key role in thermal resistance. (i) Large C. viatica workers better tolerated heat and desiccation stress than did small C. viatica or C. cubica workers. The former had greater water content and lost proportionally less water to evaporation under thermal stress. (ii) Despite their similar size distribution, workers of C. cubica are more heat tolerant than small C. viatica. This higher degree of tolerance likely stemmed from C. cubica workers having greater relative water content. (iii) Under thermal stress, small C. viatica workers metabolized larger quantities of fat and differentially expressed proteins involved in cellular homeostasis. In contrast, C. cubica downregulated the expression of numerous proteins involved in mitochondrial respiration likely reducing ROS accumulation. (iv) Consistent with these results, large C. viatica workers remained active throughout the day; C. cubica workers displayed a bimodal activity pattern, and small C. viatica remained poorly active outside the nest. Our study shows that ecologically similar ant species with different degrees of worker size polymorphism evolved distinct strategies for coping with extreme heat conditions.


Assuntos
Formigas , Animais , Formigas/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Adaptação Fisiológica , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Água/metabolismo
20.
J Therm Biol ; 111: 103392, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36585081

RESUMO

Comparing the thermal tolerance and performance of native and invasive species from varying climatic origins may explain why some native and invasive species can coexist. We compared the thermal niches of an invasive and native ant species. The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) is an invasive species that has spread to Mediterranean climates worldwide, where it is associated with losses in native arthropod biodiversity. In northern California, long-term surveys of ant biodiversity have shown that the winter ant (Prenolepis imparis) is the native species best able to coexist with Argentine ants. Both species tend hemipteran scales for food, and previous research suggests that these species' coexistence may depend on seasonal partitioning: winter ants are active primarily in the colder winter months, while Argentine ants are active primarily in the warmer months in northern California. We investigated the physiological basis of seasonal partitioning in Argentine and winter ants by a) measuring critical thermal limits, and b) comparing how ant walking speed varies with temperature. While both species had similar CTmax values, we found differences between the two species' critical thermal minima that may allow winter ants to remain functional at ecologically relevant temperatures between 0 and 2.5 °C. We also found that winter ants' walking speeds are significantly less temperature-dependent than those of Argentine ants. Winter ants walk faster than Argentine ants at low temperatures, which may allow the winter ants to remain active and forage at lower winter temperatures. These results suggest that partitioning based on differences in temperature tolerance promotes the winter ant's continued occupation of areas invaded by the Argentine ant.


Assuntos
Formigas , Animais , Temperatura , Formigas/fisiologia , Velocidade de Caminhada , Estações do Ano , Espécies Introduzidas
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