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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255664, 2024. graf, mapas, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360227

RESUMO

Magnolia biondii Pamp is an important ornamental tree species widely grown and used as a rootstock in the propagation of different Magnolia varieties. In the current studies, anatomical, physiological and endogenous hormones were studied to check the effect of IBA 750 mg/L on the adventitious rooting and to provide theoretical and technical support for the propagation of Magnolia biondii Pamp through stem cuttings. Two thousand stem cuttings were prepared and divided into two groups i.e., IBA treated cuttings and water control. For the evaluation of antioxidant enzyme activities, and endogenous hormones levels, samples were collected on the day of planting and each 5th day and further steps were carried out in the laboratory according to the protocols and proper precautions. For the anatomical observations, samples were collected on the 13th, 15th, and 17th day for IBA treated cuttings while 21st, 23rd, and 25th day for control. Collected samples were preserved in the FAA solution and further observations were carried out in the laboratory. Anatomical observations showed that it took 13 days for the differentiation of root primordia to the appearance of young adventitious roots in IBA treated cuttings, while it took 21 days to develop primordia in the control. Antioxidant enzyme activities involved in ROS were significantly higher in the IBA treated cuttings compared to control. POD showed a peak on the 13th day before the emergence of roots in IBA treated cuttings while it showed a peak on the 21st day in the control. PPO showed a peak on the 21st day in the IBA treated cuttings while it showed a peak on the 29th day in the control. SOD showed a peak on the 17th day in IBA treated cuttings, while it showed a peak on the 25th day in the control. Exogenous application of IBA enhanced the endogenous IAA and GA3 levels compared to CK, while it reduced the levels of ABA continuously at the time of rooting and then increased gradually. Inclusively, our study suggests that IBA 750 mg/L is efficient for the rooting of Magnolia biondii Pamp cuttings, as it enhanced the process of antioxidant enzyme activities, endogenous hormones levels and reduced the time of root formation which is evident from the anatomical observations.


Magnolia biondii Pamp é uma importante espécie de árvore ornamental muito cultivada e utilizada como porta-enxerto na propagação de diferentes variedades de Magnolia. Nos estudos atuais, hormônios anatômicos, fisiológicos e endógenos foram estudados para verificar o efeito do AIB na dose de 750 mg / L no enraizamento adventício e fornecer suporte teórico e técnico para a propagação de M. biondii Pamp por meio de estacas. Duas mil estacas foram preparadas e divididas em dois grupos, ou seja, tratadas com AIB e controle de água. Para a avaliação das atividades das enzimas antioxidantes e dos níveis de hormônios endógenos, as amostras foram coletadas no dia do plantio e a cada 5 dias, enquanto as demais etapas foram realizadas em laboratório de acordo com os protocolos e os devidos cuidados. Para as observações anatômicas, as amostras foram coletadas no 13º, 15º e 17º dias para estacas tratadas com AIB e no 21º, 23º e 25º dias para o controle. As amostras coletadas foram preservadas em solução FAA, e outras observações foram realizadas em laboratório. Observações anatômicas mostraram a necessidade de 13 dias para a diferenciação dos primórdios radiculares até o aparecimento de raízes adventícias jovens em estacas tratadas com AIB e de 21 dias para o desenvolvimento dos primórdios no controle. As atividades das enzimas antioxidantes envolvidas nas ROS foram significativamente maiores nas estacas tratadas com AIB em comparação com o controle. A POD apresentou pico no 13º dia antes da emergência das raízes nas estacas tratadas com AIB, enquanto no 21º dia apresentou pico no controle. A PPO teve pico no 21º dia nas estacas tratadas com AIB e no 29º dia no controle. A SOD apresentou pico no 17º dia nas estacas tratadas com AIB e no 25º dia no controle. A aplicação exógena de AIB aumentou os níveis endógenos de IAA e GA3 em relação ao controle, enquanto reduziu os níveis de ABA continuamente no momento do enraizamento e, em seguida, aumentou gradativamente. Inclusive, nosso estudo sugere que o AIB na dose de 750 mg / L é eficiente para o enraizamento de estacas de M. biondii Pamp, visto que potencializou o processo de atividades de enzimas antioxidantes e os níveis de hormônios endógenos, além de reduzir o tempo de formação de raízes, o que fica evidente nas observações anatômicas.


Assuntos
Magnolia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hormônios
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2571: 143-148, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152158

RESUMO

Cholesterol is an essential lipid molecule for several biological functions including the proper functioning of cell membranes, lipoproteins, and lipid rafts, as well as the synthesis of bile acids, vitamin D, and steroid hormones. Cholesterol can be extracted from liver tissue by multiple methods of lipid extraction. Subsequently, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) can be used to obtain the highest level of sensitivity and selectivity in the analysis of cholesterol. This chapter describes two methods of lipid extraction for liver tissue, Bligh and Dyer and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), followed by an analysis with GC-MS.


Assuntos
Colesterol , Éteres Metílicos , Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Colesterol/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Hormônios , Fígado/química , Vitamina D
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2570: 271-280, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36156789

RESUMO

Electrochemical aptamer-based (E-AB) sensors using conformational change-induced electron transfer kinetics are sensitive, reagent-less, and cost-effective tools for molecular sensing. Current advances in this technology can allow continuous drug pharmacokinetic monitoring in living animals (Dauphin-Ducharme et al., ACS Sens 4(10):2832-2837, 2019; Idili et al., Chem Sci 10(35):8164-8170, 2019), as well as automated analysis of hormone pulsatility (Liang et al., Nat Commun 10(1):852, 2019). In this chapter, we provide the methodology for an automated E-AB conformational change-based robotic sensing platform. By using an open-source programmable robotic system, this method can be adapted to a wide range of experimental scenarios.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Animais , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Eletrodos , Ouro/química , Hormônios
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077217

RESUMO

In this study, a first experiment was conducted with the objective of determining how drought stress alters the radial water flow and physiology in the whole maize nested association mapping (NAM) population and to find out which contrasting maize lines should be tested in a second experiment for their responses to drought in combination with an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus. Emphasis was placed on determining the role of plant aquaporins and phytohormones in the responses of these contrasting maize lines to cope with drought stress. Results showed that both plant aquaporins and hormones are altered by the AM symbiosis and are highly involved in the physiological responses of maize plants to drought stress. The regulation by the AM symbiosis of aquaporins involved in water transport across cell membranes alters radial water transport in host plants. Hormones such as IAA, SA, ABA and jasmonates must be involved in this process either by regulating the own plant-AM fungus interaction and the activity of aquaporins, or by inducing posttranscriptional changes in these aquaporins, which in turns alter their water transport capacity. An intricate relationship between root hydraulic conductivity, aquaporins and phytohormones has been observed, revealing a complex network controlling water transport in maize roots.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas , Micorrizas , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Secas , Hormônios/metabolismo , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Simbiose/fisiologia , Água/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077362

RESUMO

Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a plant-growth regulator (PGR) in the triazole family that enhances plant tolerance to environmental stresses. Low-light (LL) intensity is a critical factor adversely affecting the growth of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Therefore, in this study, tall fescue seedlings were treated with PBZ under control and LL conditions to investigate the effects of PBZ on enhancing LL stress resistance by regulating the growth, photosynthesis, oxidative defense, and hormone levels. Our results reveal that LL stress reduced the total biomass, chlorophyll (Chl) content, photosynthetic capacity, and photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) but increased the membrane lipid peroxidation level and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. However, the application of PBZ increased the photosynthetic pigment contents, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCO) activity, and starch content. In addition, PBZ treatment activated the antioxidant enzyme activities, antioxidants contents, ascorbate acid-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle, and related gene expression, lessening the ROS burst (H2O2 and O2∙-). However, the gibberellic acid (GA) anabolism was remarkably decreased by PBZ treatment under LL stress, downregulating the transcript levels of kaurene oxidase (KO), kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO), and GA 20-oxidases (GA20ox). At the same time, PBZ treatment up-regulated 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) gene expression, significantly increasing the endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) concentration under LL stress. Thus, our study revealed that PBZ improves the antioxidation and photosynthetic capacity, meanwhile increasing the ABA concentration and decreasing GA concentration, which ultimately enhances the LL stress tolerance in tall fescue.


Assuntos
Festuca , Lolium , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Clorofila/metabolismo , Festuca/metabolismo , Hormônios/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Lolium/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Triazóis/metabolismo , Triazóis/farmacologia
6.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 667, 2022 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36138347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a type of calmodulin binding protein, CAMTAs are widely involved in vegetative and reproductive processes as well as various hormonal and stress responses in plants. To study the functions of CAMTA genes in tea plants, we investigated bioinformatics analysis and performed qRT-PCR analysis of the CAMTA gene family by using the genomes of 'ShuChaZao' tea plant cultivar. RESULTS: In this study, 6 CsCAMTAs were identified from tea plant genome. Bioinformatics analysis results showed that all CsCAMTAs contained six highly conserved functional domains. Tissue-specific analysis results found that CsCAMTAs played great roles in mediating tea plant aging and flowering periods. Under hormone and abiotic stress conditions, most CsCAMTAs were upregulated at different time points under different treatment conditions. In addition, the expression levels of CsCAMTA1/3/4/6 were higher in cold-resistant cultivar 'LongJing43' than in the cold-susceptible cultivar 'DaMianBai' at cold acclimation stage, while CsCAMTA2/5 showed higher expression levels in 'DaMianBai' than in 'LongJing43' during entire cold acclimation periods. CONCLUSIONS: In brief, the present results revealed that CsCAMTAs played great roles in tea plant growth, development and stress responses, which laid the foundation for deeply exploring their molecular regulation mechanisms.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Calmodulina/genética , Calmodulina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Calmodulina/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Calmodulina/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Hormônios/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Chá/metabolismo
7.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5427, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109497

RESUMO

Neurons born in the embryo can undergo a protracted period of maturation lasting well into postnatal life. How gene expression changes are regulated during maturation and whether they can be recapitulated in cultured neurons remains poorly understood. Here, we show that mouse motor neurons exhibit pervasive changes in gene expression and accessibility of associated regulatory regions from embryonic till juvenile age. While motifs of selector transcription factors, ISL1 and LHX3, are enriched in nascent regulatory regions, motifs of NFI factors, activity-dependent factors, and hormone receptors become more prominent in maturation-dependent enhancers. Notably, stem cell-derived motor neurons recapitulate ~40% of the maturation expression program in vitro, with neural activity playing only a modest role as a late-stage modulator. Thus, the genetic maturation program consists of a core hardwired subprogram that is correctly executed in vitro and an extrinsically-controlled subprogram that is dependent on the in vivo context of the maturing organism.


Assuntos
Neurônios Motores , Neurogênese , Animais , Hormônios/metabolismo , Proteínas com Homeodomínio LIM/genética , Proteínas com Homeodomínio LIM/metabolismo , Camundongos , Neurônios Motores/metabolismo , Neurogênese/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36142696

RESUMO

Columnar apple was an important germplasm resource to develop compact cultivars for labor-saving cultivation and to study fruit tree architecture. MdCoL is a strong candidate gene for controlling the columnar phenotype in apple. In this study, a 2000 bp upstream region of MdCoL was cloned as a full-length promoter, named MdCoLp1. To gain a better understanding of the characterization of the MdCoL promoter, cis-acting elements and the binding sites of transcription factors were predicted and analyzed, and four binary expression vectors consisting of the GUS reporter gene under the control of the MdCoL promoter was transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana to analyze the response to abscisic acid (ABA), brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellic acid (GA3) of MdCoL promoters. Multiple transcription factors involving TCP, BEL1 and BES1/BZR1 and other transcription factor (TF) binding sites were predicted on the promoter of MdCoL. Histochemical staining showed that both full-length and 5' truncated promoters could initiate GUS expression. The GUS activity was the most in leaf and stem, and mainly concentrated in the fibrovascular tissue, followed by root, and the least activity was observed in silique and flower. In addition, MdCoL expression was mainly localized in the quiescent center (QC) and lateral root growing point of root tip and the vascular tissue of stem and leaf by in situ hybridization. The results of exogenous hormones treatment showed that ABA and BR could activate the activity of the MdCoL promoter, while GA3 had opposite effects. In columnar apple seedlings, ABA treatment could upregulate the expression of MdCoL, but GA3 and BR restrained the transcription level of MdCoL. These results provide the foundation for deciphering the regulatory network of hormones affecting MdCoL transcription.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Malus , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Giberelinas , Hormônios/metabolismo , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36142761

RESUMO

The heat shock protein 20 (HSP20) proteins comprise an ancient, diverse, and crucial family of proteins that exists in all organisms. As a family, the HSP20s play an obvious role in thermotolerance, but little is known about their molecular functions in addition to heat acclimation. In this study, 42 PpHSP20 genes were detected in the peach genome and were randomly distributed onto the eight chromosomes. The primary modes of gene duplication of the PpHSP20s were dispersed gene duplication (DSD) and tandem duplication (TD). PpHSP20s in the same class shared similar motifs. Based on phylogenetic analysis of HSP20s in peach, Arabidopsis thaliana, Glycine max, and Oryza sativa, the PpHSP20s were classified into 11 subclasses, except for two unclassified PpHSP20s. cis-elements related to stress and hormone responses were detected in the promoter regions of most PpHSP20s. Gene expression analysis of 42 PpHSP20 genes revealed that the expression pattern of PpHSP20-32 was highly consistent with shoot length changes in the cultivar 'Zhongyoutao 14', which is a temperature-sensitive semi-dwarf. PpHSP20-32 was selected for further functional analysis. The plant heights of three transgenic Arabidopsis lines overexpressing PpHSP20-32 were significantly higher than WT, although there was no significant difference in the number of nodes. In addition, the seeds of three over-expressing lines of PpHSP20-32 treated with high temperature showed enhanced thermotolerance. These results provide a foundation for the functional characterization of PpHSP20 genes and their potential use in the growth and development of peach.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Prunus persica , Termotolerância , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Hormônios , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Prunus persica/metabolismo , Termotolerância/genética
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36142797

RESUMO

Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of important hormones in the regulation of plant branching. In the model plant Arabidopsis, AtMAX1 encodes a cytochrome P450 protein and is a crucial gene in the strigolactone synthesis pathway. Yet, the regulatory mechanism of MAX1 in the shoot branching of wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox) remains unclear. Here we identified and isolated three MAX1 homologous genes, namely CpMAX1a, CpMAX1b, and CpMAX1c. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed the expression of CpMAX1a in all tissues, being highest in leaves, whereas CpMAX1b was only expressed in stems, while CpMAX1c was expressed in both roots and stem tips. However, CpMAX1a's expression decreased significantly after decapitation; hence, we verified its gene function. CpMAX1a was located in Arabidopsis chloroplasts. Overexpressing CpMAX1a restored the phenotype of the branching mutant max1-3, and reduced the rosette branch number, but resulted in no significant phenotypic differences from the wild type. Additionally, expression of AtBRC1 was significantly upregulated in transgenic lines, indicating that the CpMAX1a gene has a function similar to the homologous gene of Arabidopsis. In conclusion, our study shows that CpMAX1a plays a conserved role in regulating the branch development of wintersweet. This work provides a molecular and theoretical basis for better understanding the branch development of wintersweet.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Calycanthaceae , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hormônios/metabolismo , Lactonas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36142847

RESUMO

The F-box family exists in a wide variety of plants and plays an extremely important role in plant growth, development and stress responses. However, systematic studies of F-box family have not been reported in populus trichocarpa. In the present study, 245 PtrFBX proteins in total were identified, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed on the basis of their C-terminal conserved domains, which was divided into 16 groups (A-P). F-box proteins were located in 19 chromosomes and six scaffolds, and segmental duplication was main force for the evolution of the F-box family in poplar. Collinearity analysis was conducted between poplar and other species including Arabidopsis thaliana, Glycine max, Anemone vitifolia Buch, Oryza sativa and Zea mays, which indicated that poplar has a relatively close relationship with G. max. The promoter regions of PtrFBX genes mainly contain two kinds of cis-elements, including hormone-responsive elements and stress-related elements. Transcriptome analysis indicated that there were 82 differentially expressed PtrFBX genes (DEGs), among which 64 DEGs were in the roots, 17 in the leaves and 26 in the stems. In addition, a co-expression network analysis of four representative PtrFBX genes indicated that their co-expression gene sets were mainly involved in abiotic stress responses and complex physiological processes. Using bioinformatic methods, we explored the structure, evolution and expression pattern of F-box genes in poplar, which provided clues to the molecular function of F-box family members and the screening of salt-tolerant PtrFBX genes.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Proteínas F-Box , Populus , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas F-Box/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hormônios/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Populus/genética , Populus/metabolismo , Estresse Salino/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36142857

RESUMO

Salinity is a natural and anthropogenic process that plants overcome using various responses. Salinity imposes a two-phase effect, simplified into the initial osmotic challenges and subsequent salinity-specific ion toxicities from continual exposure to sodium and chloride ions. Plant responses to salinity encompass a complex gene network involving osmotic balance, ion transport, antioxidant response, and hormone signaling pathways typically mediated by transcription factors. One particular transcription factor mega family, WRKY, is a principal regulator of salinity responses. Here, we categorize a collection of known salinity-responding WRKYs and summarize their molecular pathways. WRKYs collectively play a part in regulating osmotic balance, ion transport response, antioxidant response, and hormone signaling pathways in plants. Particular attention is given to the hormone signaling pathway to illuminate the relationship between WRKYs and abscisic acid signaling. Observed trends among WRKYs are highlighted, including group II WRKYs as major regulators of the salinity response. We recommend renaming existing WRKYs and adopting a naming system to a standardized format based on protein structure.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico , Tolerância ao Sal , Antioxidantes , Cloretos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hormônios , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Salinidade , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Sódio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
13.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 18(4): 1023-1029, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36149156

RESUMO

Background: The genetic polymorphism in the DNA repair and maintenance genes leads to mutations and deregulated growth hormones which have implications in cancer. Apart from identified carcinogens such as tobacco, specific genetic polymorphisms correspond to an individual's risk of oral cancer. The current study aims at identification of differences in genetic polymorphisms in subjects with and without oral cancer in Karad, India. Aim/Objectives: The aim of the study was to characterize genetic polymorphisms in oral cancer-related genes pertaining to oxidative stress, carcinogen detoxifying, and DNA repair. Methodology: A hospital-based case-control was conducted with 150 subjects sorted into cases (n = 75) and controls (n = 75). The polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay was used to genotype the polymorphisms of selected DNA repair, detoxifying, and oxidative stress-related genes. Results: In the cases group, among the DNA repair set, Gene-1 (XRCC1), Gene-3 (XRCC3), Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group-D gene (XPD), and human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (hOGG1) showed significant genetic polymorphism. Similarly, the genetic polymorphism in the carcinogen detoxifying genes-n-acetyl transferase, GSTP1, and oxidative stress-related gene catalase were noted. Statistical Analysis: The Cramer's V/odds ratio was applied to estimate the association of genetic risk factors with oral cancer. Conclusion: The polymorphisms of XRCC1, XRCC3, XPD, and hOGG1 genes were associated with a higher susceptibility to oral cancer as compared to controls. This information may be a useful novel marker in oral oncology for primary prevention and intervention.


Assuntos
DNA Glicosilases , Neoplasias Bucais , Carcinógenos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Catalase/genética , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Hormônios , Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Transferases/genética , Proteína 1 Complementadora Cruzada de Reparo de Raio-X/genética , Proteína Grupo D do Xeroderma Pigmentoso/genética
14.
Menopause ; 29(10): 1124-1129, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36150114

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine if there are any differences in the prevalence of daily hot flashes in 50-year-old women in a longitudinal perspective (from 1968 to 2017). METHODS: Cohort comparisons of four population-based samples of 50-year-old women born in 1918, 1930 (earlier-born cohorts), 1954, and 1966 (later-born cohorts) from the Prospective Population Study of Women in Gothenburg examined in 1968-1969, 1980-1981, 2004-2005, and 2016-2017. Questions about frequency of hot flashes have been formulated in the same way throughout all follow-up examinations. Changes between four generations of 50-year-old women were studied. RESULTS: In the unadjusted model, we found an increased prevalence of daily hot flashes in 50-year-old women born in 1954 and 1966 compared with 50-year-old women born in 1918 and 1930 (odds ratio, 1.74; 95% confidence interval, 1.37-2.22). When considering potential predictors for daily hot flashes (smoking, perceived level of high stress, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, hormone therapy, and hormonal contraceptives) in the adjusted model, there was a notable difference; odds ratio increases from 1.74 to 1.92 (95% confidence interval, 1.46-2.52). Smoking frequency was substantially lower in the later-born cohorts, 39% compared with 17%. CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective longitudinal study of 50-year-old women, we found nearly twice as high odds of reporting daily hot flashes in the later-born women compared with earlier-born. When controlling for potential predictors, there was still an obvious difference, which cannot be explained in our study. These findings have not earlier been described, and there is a need for further longitudinal population studies investigating the prevalence of hot flashes over time. Moreover, additional research is required exploring the underlying mechanism of hot flashes, as well as studies that take into account potential risk factors in the environment and societal development over time, that is, impacts of endocrine-disrupting chemicals changes in lifestyle, environmental, and dietary factors, as well as working conditions.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais , Fogachos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hormônios , Fogachos/epidemiologia , Fogachos/etiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Estudos Prospectivos , Suécia/epidemiologia
15.
Am Nat ; 200(4): 506-517, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36150198

RESUMO

AbstractMate choice is an important cause of natural and sexual selection, driving the evolution of ornaments and promoting diversification and speciation. Mate choice decisions arise from the interaction of several components, and knowledge of whether they interact, and how, is crucial for understanding their contributions to selection. Here we focus on the relationship between preference functions (attractiveness ranking of prospective mates) and choosiness (effort invested in obtaining the preferred mate) and test the hypothesis that they are independent components of mate choice decisions. We examine individual variation in preference functions and choosiness for call duration in female Hyla versicolor treefrogs and show that measures describing preference functions and choosiness are not correlated. We also found a suggestive but inconclusive pattern that both components are influenced by different factors (body measures and hormones). Independence of preference and choosiness suggests that the joint study of variation in both components is required to gain a complete understanding of how mate choice contributes to sexual selection and speciation.


Assuntos
Preferência de Acasalamento Animal , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Anuros , Feminino , Hormônios
16.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 932309, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36093196

RESUMO

Perinatal depression is a mood disorder that is reported in women during pregnancy (prenatal) and after childbirth (postnatal). The onset of perinatal depression is associated with changes in reproductive hormones, stress hormones and neurosteroids. These chemical compounds can be modulated by the gut microbiota, which may affect maternal mental health during the perinatal period via the gut-brain-axis. Recent studies suggest that nutritional and dietary interventions (vitamin D, ω-3 fatty acids, iron, and fiber) effectively prevent or mitigate maternal depression and anxiety, but their efficacy is confounded by various factors, including the gut microbiota. Probiotics are efficacious in maintaining microbiota homeostasis, and thus, have the potential to modulate the development of perinatal mood disorders, despite no evidence in human. Therefore, clinical trials are warranted to investigate the role of probiotic supplementation in perinatal depression and behavioral changes. This article reviews the interplay between nutrition, gut microbiota and mood and cognition, and the evidence suggesting that probiotics affect the onset and development of perinatal depression.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Ansiedade , Depressão , Feminino , Hormônios , Humanos , Gravidez , Probióticos/uso terapêutico
17.
Circ Res ; 131(7): 601-615, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Racial differences in metabolomic profiles may reflect underlying differences in social determinants of health by self-reported race and may be related to racial disparities in coronary heart disease (CHD) among women in the United States. However, the magnitude of differences in metabolomic profiles between Black and White women in the United States has not been well-described. It also remains unknown whether such differences are related to differences in CHD risk. METHODS: Plasma metabolomic profiles were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in the WHI-OS (Women's Health Initiative-Observational Study; 138 Black and 696 White women), WHI-HT trials (WHI-Hormone Therapy; 156 Black and 1138 White women), MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis; 114 Black and 219 White women), JHS (Jackson Heart Study; 1465 Black women with 107 incident CHD cases), and NHS (Nurses' Health Study; 2506 White women with 136 incident CHD cases). First, linear regression models were used to estimate associations between self-reported race and 472 metabolites in WHI-OS (discovery); findings were replicated in WHI-HT and validated in MESA. Second, we used elastic net regression to construct a racial difference metabolomic pattern (RDMP) representing differences in the metabolomic patterns between Black and White women in the WHI-OS; the RDMP was validated in the WHI-HT and MESA. Third, using conditional logistic regressions in the WHI (717 CHD cases and 719 matched controls), we examined associations of metabolites with large differences in levels by race and the RDMP with risk of CHD, and the results were replicated in Black women from the JHS and White women from the NHS. RESULTS: Of the 472 tested metabolites, levels of 259 (54.9%) metabolites, mostly lipid metabolites and amino acids, significantly differed between Black and White women in both WHI-OS and WHI-HT after adjusting for baseline characteristics, socioeconomic status, lifestyle factors, baseline health conditions, and medication use (false discovery rate <0.05); similar trends were observed in MESA. The RDMP, composed of 152 metabolites, was identified in the WHI-OS and showed significantly different distributions between Black and White women in the WHI-HT and MESA. Higher RDMP quartiles were associated with an increased risk of incident CHD (odds ratio=1.51 [0.97-2.37] for the highest quartile comparing to the lowest; Ptrend=0.02), independent of self-reported race and known CHD risk factors. In race-stratified analyses, the RDMP-CHD associations were more pronounced in White women. Similar patterns were observed in Black women from the JHS and White women from the NHS. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolomic profiles significantly and substantially differ between Black and White women and may be associated with CHD risk and racial disparities in US women.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Aminoácidos , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hormônios , Humanos , Lipídeos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15598, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114363

RESUMO

In angiosperms, self-incompatibility (SI) is a common and widespread mechanism for plant prevention of inbreeding, and late-acting self-incompatibility (LSI) may be ancestral in the group. In this work, we studied Schima superba, a species in Theaceae that is a commercially important timer and fire-resistant tree, and revealed its LSI mechanism. Hormones, enzymes, transcriptomes, and proteins were compared between self-pollination (SP) and outcross pollination (OP) in the styles and ovaries from 0 to 120 h after pollination. The self-pollen tubes grew to the bottom of the style and entered the ovary within 48 h but failed to penetrate the ovule. Meanwhile, the hormone and peroxidase levels dramatically changed. Transcriptome and proteome analyses explored the molecular mechanisms of LSI and candidate genes related to LSI in S. superba. Overall, 586.71 million reads were obtained, and 79,642 (39.08%) unigenes were annotated. KEGG and GO analysis showed that there were 4531 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 82 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) at 48 h in self- (SP) versus outcross pollination (OP). Among these, 160 DEGs and 33 DEPs were involved in pollen-pistil interactions. "Pollen-pistil interaction," "signal recognition," and "component of membrane" were downregulated in SP, whereas "cell wall and membrane biosynthetic process," and "oxidoreductase activity" were upregulated. The DEGs involved with S-RNases and SCF during SP suggested that the LSI occurred at 48 h in the ovary and that the LSI in S. superba was under gametophyte control. Calcium ion increase and release, mitochondrial function loss, and ROS disruption further aggravated PCD progress and cell death. The LSI of S. superba, which happened 48 h after pollination, was a key time point. The incompatibility PT ceased growth in the ovary because of S-RNase recognition and PCD in this organ. This study highlights the LSI molecular mechanism in S. superba and provides a reference to other species in Theaceae.


Assuntos
Proteoma , Theaceae , Cálcio , Hormônios , Oxirredutases , Peroxidases , Pólen/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Ribonucleases
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(9): e2231170, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107428

RESUMO

Importance: ERBB2-low (ie, ERBB2 immunohistochemistry score of 1+ or 2+ in the absence of ERBB2 gene amplification) breast cancer (BC) is a new entity, with emerging dedicated treatments. Little is known about its prognosis and response to conventional therapy compared with ERBB2-zero breast tumors (ie, those with an immunohistochemistry score of 0). Objective: To compare the outcomes for patients with ERBB2-low metastatic BC (MBC) with those of patients with ERBB2-zero MBC. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted from the Epidemiological Strategy and Medical Economics MBC platform and included patients with MBC treated between 2008 and 2016 in 18 French comprehensive cancer centers. The data analysis was conducted from July 16, 2020, to April 1, 2022. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was overall survival (OS), and the secondary outcome was progression-free survival under first-line treatments (PFS1). Results: The median (range) age was 60.0 (22.0-103.0) years. Among 15 054 patients with MBC, 4671 (31%) had ERBB2-low MBC and 10 383 (69%) had ERBB2-zero MBC. The proportion of ERBB2-low cancers was higher among patients with hormone receptor-positive MBC than those with hormone receptor-negative disease (4083 patients [33.0%] vs 588 patients [21.0%]). With a median follow-up of 49.5 months (95% CI, 48.6-50.4 months), the median OS of the ERBB2-low group was 38.0 months (95% CI, 36.4-40.5 months) compared with 33.9 months (95% CI, 32.9-34.9 months) for the ERBB2-zero group (P < .001). After adjustment for age, visceral metastases, number of metastatic sites, de novo disease, period of care, and hormone receptor status, patients with ERBB2-low MBC had slightly better OS compared with patients with ERBB2-zero MBC (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.91-0.99; P = .02). In contrast, PFS1 did not differ by ERBB2 status (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.95-1.02; P = .45). No significant differences in OS and PFS1 were observed in multivariate analyses by hormone receptor status and types of frontline treatment. Conclusions and Relevance: In this large cohort study, patients with ERBB2-low MBC had a slightly better OS than those with completely ERBB2-zero tumors, but identical PFS1, which could help guide treatment selection.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hormônios , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2 , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 972714, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36171903

RESUMO

Background: Anatomic variation or early differences in glucose metabolism have been linked to the development of type 1 diabetes. We aimed to describe early glucose metabolism based on HbA1c, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and random plasma glucose years before the presentation of type 1 diabetes in five risk groups based on autoantibody combinations. For the first time, we were able to include for comparison children with very low risk of progression to type 1 diabetes. Methods: The Finnish Diabetes Prediction and Prevention birth cohort study screened newborn infants for HLA susceptibility to type 1 diabetes since 1994. Those carrying a risk genotype were prospectively followed up with islet autoantibody testing. Glucose parameters were obtained starting from the time of seroconversion. By 31 August 2014, 1162 children had developed at least one islet autoantibody and were included in the current study. Type 1 diabetes was diagnosed in 335 children (progressors). In the non-progressor groups, 207 developed multiple (≥2) biochemical islet autoantibodies, 229 a single biochemical autoantibody, 370 ICA only, and 64 transient autoantibodies. Children were divided into five risk groups. Glucose metabolism was evaluated. Results: We observed lower HbA1c values in early follow-up 4.5 to 6.0 years before diagnosis in the progressors when compared to the same time in children with a single biochemical autoantibody or low-risk (ICA only and transient) participants, who did not progress to clinical type 1 diabetes. However, no such differences were observed in OGTTs or random plasma glucose. The variation was minimal in glucose values in the low-risk groups. Conclusion: We report the possibility of early alteration in glucose metabolism in future progressors. This could suggest early defects in multiple glucose-regulating hormones.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Autoanticorpos , Glicemia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Grupos Controle , Progressão da Doença , Glucose/metabolismo , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Hormônios , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Fatores de Risco
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