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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640713

RESUMO

The horse riding simulator (HRS) reportedly has a beneficial effect on motor function and balance in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, by itself, the HRS is not a sufficient source of challenge and motivation for children. To address this issue, we combined the HRS with virtual reality (VR) to promote somatosensory stimulation and motivation. Sixteen children (ages: 5-17 years) with CP and presenting Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-IV were enrolled in the study. Using a head-mounted display and controllers, interventions were carried out over 30-min periods (two rides lasting 12 min each, along with a six-min rest period) twice a week over a period of eight weeks (16 sessions in aggregate). The Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS), Gross Motor Function measure (GMFM)-88, and GMFM-66 scores of each participant were measured before and after the interventions. Statistically significant improvements were observed in the PBS, GMFM-66, the total GMFM-88 scores, and those corresponding to dimensions D and E of GMFM-88 after the intervention (p < 0.05). This study demonstrates that VR-incorporated HRS is effective in improving motor function and balance in children with CP and that its incorporation in conventional PT programs could yield beneficial results.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Realidade Virtual , Animais , Criança , Cavalos , Humanos , Destreza Motora , Projetos Piloto
2.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 737, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The detection of signatures of selection in genomic regions provides insights into the evolutionary process, enabling discoveries regarding complex phenotypic traits. In this research, we focused on identifying genomic regions affected by different selection pressures, mainly highlighting the recent positive selection, as well as understanding the candidate genes and functional pathways associated with the signatures of selection in the Mangalarga Marchador genome. Besides, we seek to direct the discussion about genes and traits of importance in this breed, especially traits related to the type and quality of gait, temperament, conformation, and locomotor system. RESULTS: Three different methods were used to search for signals of selection: Tajima's D (TD), the integrated haplotype score (iHS), and runs of homozygosity (ROH). The samples were composed of males (n = 62) and females (n = 130) that were initially chosen considering well-defined phenotypes for gait: picada (n = 86) and batida (n = 106). All horses were genotyped using a 670 k Axiom® Equine Genotyping Array​ (Axiom MNEC670). In total, 27, 104 (chosen), and 38 candidate genes were observed within the signatures of selection identified in TD, iHS, and ROH analyses, respectively. The genes are acting in essential biological processes. The enrichment analysis highlighted the following functions: anterior/posterior pattern for the set of genes (GLI3, HOXC9, HOXC6, HOXC5, HOXC4, HOXC13, HOXC11, and HOXC10); limb morphogenesis, skeletal system, proximal/distal pattern formation, JUN kinase activity (CCL19 and MAP3K6); and muscle stretch response (MAPK14). Other candidate genes were associated with energy metabolism, bronchodilator response, NADH regeneration, reproduction, keratinization, and the immunological system. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings revealed evidence of signatures of selection in the MM breed that encompass genes acting on athletic performance, limb development, and energy to muscle activity, with the particular involvement of the HOX family genes. The genome of MM is marked by recent positive selection. However, Tajima's D and iHS results point also to the presence of balancing selection in specific regions of the genome.


Assuntos
Genoma , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Feminino , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Homozigoto , Cavalos/genética , Masculino , Seleção Genética
3.
Can Vet J ; 62(10): 1123-1130, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602643

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to characterize the fecal microbiota of horses with acute and chronic diarrhea before and after fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Six client-owned horses with acute and chronic diarrhea received FMT from 2 healthy donor horses. Microbiota analysis using next-generation sequencing was performed on fecal samples collected before and 2 and 7 d after FMT. Signs of diarrhea improved in 4 horses, whereas the remaining 2 horses did not survive. There was a significant difference in the number of bacterial species between donors and recipients (P < 0.05). The Order Lactobacillales and the genera Lactobacillus, Intestinimonas, and Streptococcus were increased in the microbiota of diarrheic horses, and Saccharofermentans genus increased in healthy donors. The results suggest that FMT from the healthy donors was not effective over a 7-day period as it did not change the fecal microbiota of the diarrheic horses. Further research to improve the efficacy of FMT in horses is needed.


Assuntos
Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Microbiota , Animais , Bactérias , Diarreia/terapia , Diarreia/veterinária , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/veterinária , Fezes , Cavalos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
J Equine Vet Sci ; 105: 103719, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607680

RESUMO

The present study aimed to compare semen parameters and fertility of cooled donkey semen extended in a commercially available skim milk (SKM) based extender and the same extender with cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin (SKM-CLC). In Experiment 1, thirty-five ejaculates from seven jacks were split in SKM and SKM-CLC, extended at 50 million sperm/mL and stored at 5°C for 48 hours. Total motility (TM), progressive motility (PM), percentage of sperm with rapid motility (RAP) were assessed with CASA. Plasma membrane stability (PMS), and high mitochondrial membrane potential (HMP) were assessed with the combination of Yo-Pro and MitoStatusRed with flow cytometry. Semen was assessed before (0), 24 and 48h after cooling. In Experiment 2, two estrous cycles of 15 mares were used for fertility assessment. Mares were examined every other day by transrectal ultrasonography and had ovulation induced with 250 µg of histrelin acetate when a ≥35 mm follicle was first detected. Mares were randomly inseminated with semen obtained from one jack. Semen was extended in either SKM or SKM-CLC and cooled-stored for 24 hours. Pregnancy diagnosis was carried out 15-day post-ovulation. Data were analyzed with a mix model and Tukey's as posthoc and logistic regression model. Significance was set at P ≤ .05. There were no differences in TM, PM, RAP, PMS, and HMP for semen extended in either extender immediately before cooling (P > .05). There was a reduction in TM, PM, RAP, PMS, and HMP overtime across groups (P < .05); however, semen extended with SKM-CLC had superior TM, PM, RAP, PMS, and HMP than semen extended in SKM at 24- and 48-hours post-cooling (P < .05). Mares bred with semen extended in SKM had a lower conception rate (13%, 2/15 cycles) than cycles bred with SKM-CLC (47%, 7/15 cycles; P < .05). In conclusion, incorporating CLC into SKM extender improved cooling ability and fertility of donkey semen in horse mares. It remains to be determined if similar results can be obtained in clinical practice with mares and jennies.


Assuntos
Ciclodextrinas , Preservação do Sêmen , Animais , Colesterol , Equidae , Feminino , Fertilidade , Cavalos , Leite , Gravidez , Sêmen , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Motilidade Espermática
5.
Am J Vet Res ; 82(11): 872-879, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669497

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the technique and assess the diagnostic potential and limitations of tomosynthesis for imaging of the metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ) of equine cadavers; compare the tomosynthesis appearance of pathological lesions with their conventional radiographic, CT, and MRI appearances; and evaluate all imaging findings with gross lesions of a given MCPJ. SAMPLE: Distal portions of 4 forelimbs from 4 equine cadavers. PROCEDURES: The MCPJs underwent radiography, tomosynthesis (with a purpose-built benchtop unit), CT, and MRI; thereafter, MCPJs were disarticulated and evaluated for the presence of gross lesions. The ability to identify pathological lesions on all images was assessed, followed by semiobjective scoring for quality of the overall image and appearance of the subchondral bone, articular cartilage, periarticular margins, and adjacent trabecular bone of the third metacarpal bone, proximal phalanx, and proximal sesamoid bones of each MCPJ. RESULTS: Some pathological lesions in the subchondral bone of the third metacarpal bone were detectable with tomosynthesis but not with radiography. Overall, tomosynthesis was comparable to radiography, but volumetric imaging modalities were superior to tomosynthesis and radiography for imaging of subchondral bone, articular cartilage, periarticular margins, and adjacent bone. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: With regard to the diagnostic characterization of equine MCPJs, tomosynthesis may be more accurate than radiography for identification of lesions within subchondral bone because, in part, of its ability to reduce superimposition of regional anatomic features. Tomosynthesis may be useful as an adjunctive imaging technique, highlighting subtle lesions within bone, compared with standard radiographic findings.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Ossos Metacarpais , Animais , Cadáver , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico por imagem , Cavalos , Articulações/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Ossos Metacarpais/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação Metacarpofalângica/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária
6.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 713, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abortion in horses leads to economic and welfare losses to the equine industry. Most cases of equine abortions are sporadic, and the cause is often unknown. This study aimed to detect potential abortigenic pathogens in equine abortion cases in Australia using metagenomic deep sequencing methods. RESULTS: After sequencing and analysis, a total of 68 and 86 phyla were detected in the material originating from 49 equine abortion samples and 8 samples from normal deliveries, respectively. Most phyla were present in both groups, with the exception of Chlamydiae that were only present in abortion samples. Around 2886 genera were present in the abortion samples and samples from normal deliveries at a cut off value of 0.001% of relative abundance. Significant differences in species diversity between aborted and normal tissues was observed. Several potential abortigenic pathogens were identified at a high level of relative abundance in a number of the abortion cases, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus, Pantoea agglomerans, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Chlamydia psittaci. CONCLUSIONS: This work revealed the presence of several potentially abortigenic pathogens in aborted specimens. No novel potential abortigenic agents were detected. The ability to screen samples for multiple pathogens that may not have been specifically targeted broadens the frontiers of diagnostic potential. The future use of metagenomic approaches for diagnostic purposes is likely to be facilitated by further improvements in deep sequencing technologies.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Metagenômica , Acinetobacter , Animais , Austrália , Feminino , Feto , Cavalos , Metagenoma , Gravidez
7.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246591, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468519

RESUMO

There are different opinions around the World regarding the zoonotic capability of H3N8 equine influenza viruses. In this report, we have tried to summarize the findings of different research and review articles from Chinese, English, and Mongolian Scientific Literature reporting the evidence for equine influenza virus infections in human beings. Different search engines i.e. CNKI, PubMed, ProQuest, Chongqing Database, Mongol Med, and Web of Knowledge yielded 926 articles, of which 32 articles met the inclusion criteria for this review. Analyzing the epidemiological and Phylogenetic data from these articles, we found a considerable experimental and observational evidence of H3N8 equine influenza viruses infecting human being in different parts of the World in the past. Recently published articles from Pakistan and China have highlighted the emerging threat and capability of equine influenza viruses for an epidemic in human beings in future. In this review article we have summarized the salient scientific reports published on the epidemiology of equine influenza viruses and their zoonotic aspect. Additionally, several recent developments in the start of 21st century, including the transmission and establishment of equine influenza viruses in different animal species i.e. camels and dogs, and presumed encephalopathy associated to influenza viruses in horses, have documented the unpredictable nature of equine influenza viruses. In sum up, several reports has highlighted the unpredictable nature of H3N8 EIVs highlighting the need of continuous surveillance for H3N8 in equines and humans in contact with them for novel and threatening mutations.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8 , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae , Animais , China , Doenças dos Cavalos/transmissão , Cavalos , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8/genética , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/transmissão , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Paquistão , Filogenia , Zoonoses
8.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 453, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536145

RESUMO

West Nile virus (WNV), a member of the Flaviviridae, is a major arbovirus that causes West Nile fever. Previous data showed the prevalence of the WNV serologically and molecular in Turkey, and the presence of lineage 1 in horses and humans has been reported. This is the first notification of partial phylogeny of WNV detected in donkeys in the northeast of Turkey (on the Iranian border). Blood serum samples collected from 25 donkeys without clinical symptoms were tested by RT-PCR. Sequence analysis of the sample detected as positive was performed. Multiple sequence alignments of reference sequences taken from GenBank were performed using the ClustalW method using the MEGA6 program. Partial nucleotide sequences of the capsid gene coding region revealed that the strains are closely related to viruses of lineage 1, clade 1a. According to the phylogenetic tree, the TUR/Igdir/donkey strain was included in the same cluster as the strain (KJ958922) previously obtained from horses in Turkey and the strain (GQ851658) from the Central African Republic. This study is the first report to show the circulation of WNV lineage 1 in donkeys in Turkey.


Assuntos
Vírus do Nilo Ocidental , Animais , Equidae , Cavalos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Turquia/epidemiologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/genética
9.
Am J Vet Res ; 82(10): 818-822, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554871

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy and precision of cardiac output (CO) measurements derived from 4 thermodilution protocols that used different injectate temperatures and volumes in healthy adult horses. ANIMALS: 8 healthy adult horses. PROCEDURES: Horses were anesthetized and instrumented with Swan-Ganz catheters. The CO was derived from each of 4 thermodilution protocols (IV injection of physiologic saline [0.9% NaCl] solution chilled to < 5 °C at volumes of 1 mL/15 kg of body weight [protocol A; control], 1 mL/25 kg [protocol B], and 1 mL/35 kg [protocol C] or maintained at 17 °C at a volume of 1 mL/15 kg [protocol D]) 3 times during each of 5 measurement cycles, with a 30-minute interval between cycles. During each measurement cycle, protocol A was performed first, and protocols B, C, and D were performed in a randomized order. Mean CO and within-subject variance in CO were compared among the 4 protocols. RESULTS: Mean CO did not differ significantly among the 4 protocols. The within-subject variance for CO measurements derived from protocols C and D, but not protocol B, was significantly greater than that for protocol A (control). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested that, in healthy adult horses, decreasing the thermodilution injectate volume to 1 mL/25 kg from the recommended volume of 1 mL/15 kg did not adversely affect the accuracy or precision of CO measurements. However, use of smaller injectate volumes or use of injectate at approximately room temperature is not recommended owing to a clinically unacceptable increase in CO measurement variability.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal , Termodiluição , Animais , Débito Cardíaco , Cavalos , Temperatura , Termodiluição/veterinária
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502588

RESUMO

In recent years, small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) have been used widely to monitor animals because of their customizability, ease of operating, ability to access difficult to navigate places, and potential to minimize disturbance to animals. Automatic identification and classification of animals through images acquired using a sUAS may solve critical problems such as monitoring large areas with high vehicle traffic for animals to prevent collisions, such as animal-aircraft collisions on airports. In this research we demonstrate automated identification of four animal species using deep learning animal classification models trained on sUAS collected images. We used a sUAS mounted with visible spectrum cameras to capture 1288 images of four different animal species: cattle (Bos taurus), horses (Equus caballus), Canada Geese (Branta canadensis), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We chose these animals because they were readily accessible and white-tailed deer and Canada Geese are considered aviation hazards, as well as being easily identifiable within aerial imagery. A four-class classification problem involving these species was developed from the acquired data using deep learning neural networks. We studied the performance of two deep neural network models, convolutional neural networks (CNN) and deep residual networks (ResNet). Results indicate that the ResNet model with 18 layers, ResNet 18, may be an effective algorithm at classifying between animals while using a relatively small number of training samples. The best ResNet architecture produced a 99.18% overall accuracy (OA) in animal identification and a Kappa statistic of 0.98. The highest OA and Kappa produced by CNN were 84.55% and 0.79 respectively. These findings suggest that ResNet is effective at distinguishing among the four species tested and shows promise for classifying larger datasets of more diverse animals.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Cervos , Aeronaves , Algoritmos , Animais , Bovinos , Cavalos , Redes Neurais de Computação
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502709

RESUMO

With the recent advances in deep learning, wearable sensors have increasingly been used in automated animal activity recognition. However, there are two major challenges in improving recognition performance-multi-modal feature fusion and imbalanced data modeling. In this study, to improve classification performance for equine activities while tackling these two challenges, we developed a cross-modality interaction network (CMI-Net) involving a dual convolution neural network architecture and a cross-modality interaction module (CMIM). The CMIM adaptively recalibrated the temporal- and axis-wise features in each modality by leveraging multi-modal information to achieve deep intermodality interaction. A class-balanced (CB) focal loss was adopted to supervise the training of CMI-Net to alleviate the class imbalance problem. Motion data was acquired from six neck-attached inertial measurement units from six horses. The CMI-Net was trained and verified with leave-one-out cross-validation. The results demonstrated that our CMI-Net outperformed the existing algorithms with high precision (79.74%), recall (79.57%), F1-score (79.02%), and accuracy (93.37%). The adoption of CB focal loss improved the performance of CMI-Net, with increases of 2.76%, 4.16%, and 3.92% in precision, recall, and F1-score, respectively. In conclusion, CMI-Net and CB focal loss effectively enhanced the equine activity classification performance using imbalanced multi-modal sensor data.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Animais , Cavalos
12.
Am J Manag Care ; 27(9): 364-365, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533904

RESUMO

As awareness of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) rises, it is essential to develop and implement a rigorously determined approach to identify patients who will, or will not, benefit from diagnostic evaluation.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Animais , Cavalos , Humanos
13.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 475, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553290

RESUMO

The emergence of tick-borne diseases has been reported as a serious problem in public health worldwide and many aspects of its epidemiology and effects on the health of its hosts are unclear. We aimed to perform an epidemiological study of tick-borne zoonotic Rickettsia, Borrelia, and Anaplasmataceae in horses from Midwestern Brazil. We also evaluated whether Borrelia spp. and Anaplasmataceae may be associated with hematological disorders in the sampled animals. Blood and serum samples as well as ticks were collected from 262 horses. Serum samples were used to perform serological tests, and hematological analyses were made using whole blood. Furthermore, DNA extracted from whole blood and ticks was used for molecular tests. Campo Grande is enzootic for tick-borne studied bacteria, since we found an overall exposure of 59.9% of the sampled horses, 28.7% of them presented co-exposure. Seropositivity rates of 20.6% for Borrelia spp., 25.6% for Rickettsia spp., and 31.6% for Anaplasmataceae were found in the sampled horses. Considering both molecular and serological tests for Borrelia spp., the infection rate was 48.0% (126/262). None of the tested horses showed molecular positivity for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The horses sampled displayed 7.2% of parasitism by ixodid ticks in single and coinfestations. We did not find DNA of any studied bacteria in the sampled ticks. Positive horses for Borrelia spp. and Anaplasmataceae agents displayed leukopenia, monocytopenia, and lymphopenia. Together, our results suggest that horses may play a role as sentinel host for zoonotic bacteria and Borrelia spp. and Anaplasmataceae agents can impair the health of horses.


Assuntos
Borrelia , Doenças dos Cavalos , Ixodes , Rickettsia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária
14.
J Vet Intern Med ; 35(5): 2500-2510, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Equine asthma (EA) causes airflow impairment, which increases in severity with exercise. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an imaging technique that can detect airflow changes in standing healthy horses during a histamine provocation test. OBJECTIVES: To explore EIT-calculated flow variables before and after exercise in healthy horses and horses with mild-to-moderate (MEA) and severe equine asthma (SEA). ANIMALS: Nine healthy horses 9 horses diagnosed with MEA and 5 with SEA were prospectively included. METHODS: Recordings were performed before and after 15 minutes of lunging. Absolute values from global and regional peak inspiratory (PIF, positive value) and expiratory (PEF, negative value) flows were calculated. Data were analyzed using a mixed model analysis followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparisons test to evaluate the impact of exercise and diagnosis on flow indices. RESULTS: Control horses after exercise had significantly lower global PEF and PIF compared to horses with SEA (mean difference [95% confidence interval, CI]: 0.0859 arbitrary units [AU; 0.0339-0.1379], P < .001 and 0.0726 AU [0.0264-0.1188], P = .001, respectively) and horses with MEA (0.0561 AU [0.0129-0.0994], P = .007 and 0.0587 AU [0.0202-0.0973], P = .002, respectively). No other significant differences were detected. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Electrical impedance tomography derived PIF and PEF differed significantly between healthy horses and horses with SEA or MEA after exercise, but not before exercise. Differences between MEA and SEA were not observed, but the study population was small.


Assuntos
Asma , Doenças dos Cavalos , Animais , Asma/veterinária , Impedância Elétrica , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico por imagem , Cavalos , Pulmão , Respiração , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
15.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1652021 08 12.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523826

RESUMO

Proximal humeral fractures affect 1.5-3% of all childhood fractures. Usually, these fractures can be treated conservatively depending on age and fracture displacement. The proximal growth plate has a great potential for remodeling. The aim of this article is to clarify which degree of displacement can be accepted in case of non-operative treatment. A 12-year-old girl and a 13-year-old boy presented at the ER after falling from a pony and a climbing frame, respectively. Both had a severely displaced proximal humeral fracture with 80-90 degrees angulation of the humeral head relative to the shaft. Both patients were treated conservatively and follow-up x-rays of the shoulder showed complete remodeling of the humeral head with full functional recovery of the shoulder. Due to the remodeling capacity the proximal humerus, severely displaced fractures in children can be treated nonoperatively in most cases. Unnecessary surgical interventions should be avoided.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Úmero , Fraturas do Ombro , Adolescente , Animais , Placas Ósseas , Criança , Tratamento Conservador , Feminino , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Cavalos , Humanos , Úmero , Masculino , Fraturas do Ombro/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas do Ombro/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Vaccine ; 39(42): 6245-6249, 2021 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538525

RESUMO

Anthrax is endemic in Ethiopia with sporadic outbreaks despite the regular vaccination of domestic livestock. This has raised concerns on the effectiveness of the vaccination strategy which may be associated with breaches in the vaccine cold chain maintenance. This study was aimed at demonstrating the tolerance of anthrax vaccine to cold chain breaches through evaluation of viable spore counts expressed as colony forming units per mL (CFU/mL) of freeze-dried and suspension anthrax vaccines stored at 5 °C, 20 °C and 37 °C for up to 6 months. Both vaccine formulations maintained above the recommended minimum required titre (2 × 106 culturable spores per dose for cattle, buffaloes and horses, and not <1 × 106 for sheep and goats) for up to 6 months at 5 °C storage. In storage at 20 °C, the viability of freeze-dried anthrax vaccine maintained the minimum required titre up to 6 months while up to 90 days in case of the suspension formulation. Both types of vaccine formulations maintained the minimum titre per dose for up to 30 days at 37 °C storage. Generally, both vaccine formulations showed similar trends in titre fall in all of the three storage temperatures (5 °C, 20 °C and 37 °C) as observed in the almost linearly overlapping 95% confidence intervals (CI) up to day 90 at 5 °C and 20 °C storages while up to day 30 at 37 °C storage. However, a significant (P < 0.05) drop in titre was observed after day 90 for storages at 5 °C and 20 °C, and after day 30 for 37 °C storage as observed in the non overlapping 95% CI from the average titres of previous time points. This study showed that if temperature excursion occurs above the recommended temperature range (4-8 °C) during storage or transport, the vaccine should remain effective and can still be used in vaccination programs.


Assuntos
Antraz , Vacinas , Animais , Antraz/prevenção & controle , Antraz/veterinária , Búfalos , Bovinos , Liofilização , Cavalos , Ovinos , Temperatura
17.
Microb Pathog ; 160: 105186, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509529

RESUMO

Rhodococcus equi is a well-known intracellular facultative bacterium that is opportunistic in nature, and a contagious disease-causing agent of pyogranulomatous infections in humans and multihost animals. Feline rhodococcosis is an uncommon or unnoticed clinical condition, in which the organism is usually refractory to conventional antimicrobial therapy. The pathogenicity of the agent is intimately associated with plasmid-governed infectivity, which is attributed to the presence of plasmid-encoded virulence-associated proteins (Vap). Three host-adapted virulence plasmid types (VAPs) have been distinguished to date: pVAPA, pVAPB, and pVAPN, whose infections are related to equine, pig, and bovine or caprine origin, respectively, while humans are infected by all three VAP types. Most virulence studies with R. equi plasmid types in animals involve livestock species. Conversely, data on the pathogenicity and human relevance of the virulence plasmid profile of R. equi isolated from cats remains unclear. This report describes a case of cellulitis-related R. equi that harbors the pVAPA-type in a cat with cutaneous lesion. Long-term therapy of the cat using marbofloxacin, a broad-spectrum third-generation fluoroquinolone, resulted effectiveness. pVAPA is a host-adapted virulent type that has been associated predominantly with pulmonary foal infections. Our cat had a history of contact with other cats, livestock (including horses), and farm environment that could have favored the transmission of the pathogen. Besides no clear evidence of cat-to-humans transmission of the pathogen, the identification of R. equi harboring pVAPA-type in a cat with cutaneous abscessed lesion represent relevance in human health because this virulent type has been described in people worldwide with clinical rhodococcal disorders.


Assuntos
Infecções por Actinomycetales , Doenças dos Cavalos , Rhodococcus equi , Rhodococcus , Infecções por Actinomycetales/veterinária , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Gatos , Bovinos , Celulite (Flegmão)/veterinária , Cabras , Cavalos , Humanos , Plasmídeos/genética , Rhodococcus equi/genética , Suínos , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular , Fatores de Virulência/genética
18.
Res Vet Sci ; 140: 212-220, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534902

RESUMO

The synovial membrane (SM) presents itself with distinctive characteristics during arthroscopic procedures in cases of osteoarthritis (OA) as well as osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) in horses. Most of the arthroscopic findings of the SM are limited to a description of a nonspecific inflammation state. In the present study, the macroscopic and histological aspects of the SM in OA and OCD horses were compared to those of healthy horses. The expression of interleukin (IL) in SM was also investigated. Besides, the concentrations of ILs and keratan sulfate (KS) in the synovial fluid (SF), and the molecular weights of the SF hyaluronic acid (HA) were also determined and correlated to the macroscopic and histological aspects of SM. This study included 10 healthy horses (control group), 12 horses with OA, and 12 with OCD. Macroscopic scores of the SM were higher in the OA group in comparison to the control and OCD groups. However, histological scores between OA and OCD were not different, and both were higher than the control group. Only in the OA group, there was a correlation between macroscopic and histological aspects of the SM, especially between volume and quantity of villi with perivascular inflammatory cells and synovial proliferation. The OA group has shown decreased expression of IL-10 in the SM, lower IL-10 and KS, and higher IL-1ß and IL-6 in the SF in comparison to the control and OCD groups. There was a significant negative correlation between the macroscopic aspect of the SM and the molecular weights AH in the OA group. There was no correlation between the macroscopic aspect of the SM and all dosages in the OA and OCD group. In the OA joints, the evaluation of the shape of the SM during arthroscopy promotes a better indicator for joint inflammatory or tissue repair processes, while in the osteochondritic joints, investigation of the histological aspects are recommended to rule out an incipient OA development process. Both are helpful and should be considered to guide the postoperative treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Artropatias , Animais , Biomarcadores , Cavalos , Artropatias/veterinária , Líquido Sinovial , Membrana Sinovial
19.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 119(5): e522-e525, 2021 10.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569755

RESUMO

Bovine tuberculosis is an infectious, zoonotic disease, caused by Mycobacterium bovis. The bovine is the primary host. Other species can be infected (pigs, goats, horses, etc). Man can be infected by air (lung disease), clinically indistinguishable from that produced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis or by oral or cutaneous route (extrapulmonary forms: digestive, lymph node, skin). Contagion has been mainly related to contact with livestock and the consumption of unpasteurized dairy products. It was also reported the possible contagion between people. It is described the case of an adolescent patient, from the province of Buenos Aires, with prolonged febrile syndrome and abdominal lymph node conglomerate, with a history of ingestion of unpasteurized milk. We consider the importance of warning about the correct processing of food, especially at this time when new food trends (homemade dairy intake or bought at informal fairs) could put the health of the population at risk.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium bovis , Adolescente , Animais , Bovinos , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Alimentos , Cavalos , Humanos , Suínos
20.
Can Vet J ; 62(9): 975-981, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475583

RESUMO

This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur after intravenous regional limb perfusion (IVRLP). Six horses were involved in 3 IVRLP sessions. For each session, operators with varying clinical experience placed the tourniquet. A wide-rubber tourniquet was applied in the antebrachium as 2 g of ceftiofur in a total volume of 100 mL was injected into the cephalic vein. Plasma and metacarpophalangeal synovial fluid samples were obtained to evaluate perfusate leakage and synovial fluid concentrations of ceftiofur over 24 h. Overall, mean plasma concentrations were not significantly different before and after tourniquet removal. Mean synovial fluid ceftiofur concentrations were significantly higher 5 min and 8 h after tourniquet removal versus 24 h, after which values above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (1 µg/mL) were not detected. Concentrations above the MIC were detected in 72% and 50% of the horses at 5 min and 8 h, respectively. Overall, higher synovial fluid concentrations were obtained for the operator with the most recent clinical experience performing IVRLP.


Assuntos
Amicacina , Membro Anterior , Animais , Antibacterianos , Cefalosporinas , Cavalos , Articulação Metacarpofalângica , Perfusão/veterinária , Líquido Sinovial
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