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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253065, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350311

RESUMO

Abstract Routine blood culture is used for the detection of bloodstream infections by aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and by common pathogenic yeasts. A retrospective study was conducted in a public hospital in Maceió-AL, by collecting data of all medical records with positive blood cultures. Out of the 2,107 blood cultures performed, 17% were positive with Staphylococcus coagulase negative (51.14%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (11.21%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.32%). Gram-positive bacteria predominated among positive blood cultures, highlighting the group of Staphylococcus coagulase-negative. While Gram-negative bacteria had a higher number of species among positive blood cultures.


Resumo A cultura sanguínea de rotina é usada para a detecção de infecções na corrente sanguínea por bactérias aeróbias e anaeróbias e por leveduras patogênicas comuns. Estudo retrospectivo realizado em hospital público de Maceió-AL, por meio da coleta de dados de todos os prontuários com culturas sanguíneas positivas. Das 2.107 culturas sanguíneas realizadas, 17% foram positivas com Staphylococcus coagulase negativo (51,14%), seguido por Staphylococcus aureus (11,21%) e Klebsiella pneumoniae (6,32%). As bactérias Gram-positiva predominaram entre as culturas de sangue positivas, destacando-se o grupo das Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo. Enquanto as bactérias Gram-negativas apresentaram um número maior de espécies entre as culturas de sangue positivas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Sepse , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Brasil , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hospitais
2.
Ann Lab Med ; 43(2): 187-195, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36281513

RESUMO

Background: The selective leukoreduction protocol (SLP) is limited in that patients who require it can be overlooked. We estimated SLP compliance (SLPC) using the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership common data model (CDM). Methods: Patients were classified into eight groups: pre- and post-hematology disease (A and B), pre- and post-solid organ transplantation (C and D), solid cancer (E), immunodeficiency (F), anticancer therapy (G), and cardiovascular surgery (H). We examined the red blood cell (RBC) transfusion history from three hospital datasets comprising approximately three million patients over 20 years using CDM-based analysis. SLPC was calculated as the percentage of patients who received only leukoreduced RBCs in total patients transfused RBCs. Results: In total, 166,641 patients from three hospitals were enrolled in this study. From 2001 to 2021, SLPC in all groups, except H, tended to increase, although there were differences among the hospitals. Based on the most recent values (2017-2021), the SLPC in groups A, B, D, and G was maintained at ≥75% until 1,095 days before or after diagnosis or treatment. Groups E, F, and H had < 50% SLPC one day after diagnosis and treatment. Conclusions: CDM analysis supports the review of large datasets for SLPC evaluation. Although SLPC tended to improve in most patient groups, additional education and monitoring are needed for groups that continue to show low SLPC.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Eritrócitos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/métodos , Eritrócitos , Hospitais
3.
J Affect Disord ; 321: 191-200, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36280199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-harm is a critical issue affecting young people which could result in adverse outcomes including repeat episodes and suicide. In this study, we aimed to estimate the short-term and long-term risk of repeat self-harm and subsequent suicide death following self-harm presentations among adolescents and young adults. METHODS: Using linked data from the New South Wales (NSW) Emergency Department Data Collection (EDDC), the NSW Admitted Patient Data Collection (APDC), and cause of death unit record file (COD-URF), we collected all self-harm presentations to emergency departments and/or hospitals and suicide deaths between 2012 and 2019 in NSW, Australia. We used survival analysis models to estimate the incidence of repeat self-harm and suicide by time since the index self-harm and relative risks by sex, type of hospital presentation and count of self-harm records. RESULTS: In total, we identified 81,133 self-harm episodes among 48,547 individuals aged 10-29 years. Of 48,547 individuals who engaged in an index self-harm during the study period, 39.5 % (19,180) were aged between 15 and 19 years. The incidence of both repeat self-harm and suicide were highest in the year following the index self-harm presentation (repeat self-harm: 188.84 per 1000 person-years; suicide: 3.30 per 1000 person-years) and declined to 14.51 and 0.28 per 1000 person-years after five years. Among individuals indexed for self-harm at 15-29 years, males and those who were admitted to hospital for the index self-harm had the highest risk of both subsequent repeat self-harm and suicide death and those with 2 or more self-harm presentation records had the higher risk for subsequent suicide death. CONCLUSION: Adolescents and young adults with self-harm presentations were at a high risk of subsequent repeat self-harm and suicide death, especially the first year after presentations. Youth-specific early intervention and long-term management should be delivered accordingly, especially for those at early adolescence .


Assuntos
Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Suicídio , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Masculino , Adulto , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Incidência , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitais , Fatores de Risco
4.
J Infect Chemother ; 29(1): 95-97, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113848

RESUMO

Healthcare-associated COVID-19 among vulnerable patients leads to disproportionate morbidity and mortality. Early pharmacologic intervention may reduce negative sequelae and improve survival in such settings. This study aimed to describe outcome of patients with healthcare-associated COVID-19 who received early short-course remdesivir therapy. We reviewed the characteristics and outcome of hospitalized patients who developed COVID-19 during an outbreak that involved two wards at a non-acute care hospital in Japan and received short-course remdesivir. Forty-nine patients were diagnosed with COVID-19, 34 on a comprehensive inpatient rehabilitation ward and 15 on a combined palliative care and internal medicine ward. Forty-seven were symptomatic and 46 of them received remdesivir. The median age was 75, and the median Charlson comorbidity index was 6 among those who received it. Forty-one patients had received one or two doses of mRNA vaccines, while none had received a third dose. Most patients received 3 days of remdesivir. Of the patients followed up to 14 and 28 days from onset, 41/44 (95.3%) and 35/41(85.4%) were alive, respectively. Six deaths occurred by 28 days in the palliative care/internal medicine ward and two of them were possibly related to COVID-19. Among those who survived, the performance status was unchanged between the time of onset and at 28 days.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Idoso , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , SARS-CoV-2 , Antivirais , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/efeitos adversos , Atenção à Saúde , Hospitais
5.
J Nurs Care Qual ; 38(1): 55-60, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35984693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Falls of inpatients are common in hospitals. Existing fall prevention measures do not work consistently. PURPOSE: To determine whether Smart Socks reduce fall rates in fall risk patients at a major academic health center's neurological and neurosurgical based units. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted that provided fall risk patients with Smart Socks and no other fall prevention system. Data collected included duration of Smart Socks wearing, number of alarms, response times, and patient-days. RESULTS: A total of 569 fall risk patients were included for 2211.6 patient-days. There were 4999 Smart Socks alarms, but none of the patients fell. We observed a lower fall rate, of 0 per 1000 patient-days, for patients wearing Smart Socks than the historical fall rate of 4 per 1000 patient-days. The median nurse response time was 24 seconds. CONCLUSIONS: The Smart Socks reduced fall rates of fall risk patients included in the study.


Assuntos
Hospitais , Pacientes Internados , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; 48(1): 101389, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108812

RESUMO

The long-term treatment of congestive heart failure (CHF) in children includes digoxin, diuretics and afterload reduction with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. In spite of the wide use of these drugs being the standard, yet, pediatric heart failure (PHF) continued to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood. Introduction of new drugs has elevated the level of tolerance of these patients and played a role in delaying their urgent need to have heart transplant or Mechanical circulatory support (MCS). Together with a patient by patient tailored combination of different diuretics. We aim to present and discuss these new drugs and the combinations of regular drugs to reach the best outcome, as well as the consensus of our pediatric heart failure working group in Egypt.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Humanos , Criança , Consenso , Universidades , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Hospitais
7.
Ann Ig ; 35(1): 3-20, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35403664

RESUMO

Background: Nurses record data in electronic health records (EHRs) using different terminologies and coding systems. The purpose of this study was to identify unstructured free-text nursing activities recorded by nurses in EHRs with natural language processing (NLP) techniques and to map these nursing activities into standard nursing activities using the SMASH method. Study design: A retrospective study using NLP techniques with a unidirectional mapping strategy called SMASH. Methods: The unstructured free-text nursing activities recorded in the Medicine, Neurology and Gastroenterology inpatient units of the Agostino Gemelli IRCCS University Hospital Foundation, Rome, Italy were collected for 6 months in 2018. Data were analyzed by three phases: a) text summarization component with NLP techniques, b) a consensus analysis by four experts to detect the category of word stems, and c) cross-mapping with SMASH. The SMASH method calculated the string comparison, similarity and distance of words through the Levenshtein distance (LD), Jaro-Winker distance and the cross-mapping's cut-offs: map [0.80-1.00] with < 13 LD, partial-map [0.50-0.79] with <13 LD and no map [0.0-0.49] with >13 LD. Results: During the study period, 491 patient records were assessed. 548 different unstructured free-text nursing activities were recorded by nurses. 451 unstructured free-text nursing activities (82.3%) were mapped to standard PAI nursing activities, 47 (8.7%) were partial mapped, while 50 (9.0%) were not mapped. This automated mapping yielded recall of 0.95%, precision of 0.94%, accuracy of 0.91%, F-measure of 0.96. The F-measure indicates good reliability of this automated procedure in cross-mapping. Conclusions: Lexical similarities between unstructured free-text nursing activities and standard nursing activities were found, NLP with the SMASH method is a feasible approach to extract data related to nursing concepts that are not recorded through structured data entry.


Assuntos
Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Semântica , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Hospitais
8.
Appl Ergon ; 106: 103901, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174329

RESUMO

Designing the working day is not just a matter of changing the shift system. It also requires reflection on the working conditions and a negotiation of solutions with the stakeholders concerned. This article seeks to show that a participatory approach, built using organisational simulation, provides a framework with which to understand the reality of each profession and co-construct suitable solutions. Our action-research took place in a hospital's pneumology ward. The methodology can be broken down into four phases: diagnosis, sharing of the diagnosis, organisational simulation (the focus of this article) and experimenting with solutions. The results show that the approach gave the stakeholders the opportunity to discover and discuss the rules and constraints of actual work, to compare their different views, and to develop a new and shared view of the work situation. The approach allowed them to co-construct relevant solutions and to appropriate the changes necessary for their success.


Assuntos
Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos , Humanos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Hospitais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Simulação por Computador
9.
J Infect Chemother ; 29(1): 78-81, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36154869

RESUMO

Clostridium ramosum infections have been rarely reported, probably due to underestimating in clinical practice. Seven patients with bacteremia from gastrointestinal sources and skin and soft tissue were recognized between 2009 and 2020. Most of them were older and in compromised status, and they had risk factors including cancer, diabetes, liver cirrhosis, gangrene, and pressure ulcers. The source of infections was considered bacterial translocation from the gastrointestine and the skin and soft tissue infections. All patients were treated with antimicrobials, and two received surgical interventions. Four patients died secondary to sepsis due to C. ramosum. The bacteremia of C. ramosum should be appropriately evaluated and treated, especially in compromised hosts.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Infecções por Clostridium , Humanos , Clostridium , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitais
10.
J Infect Chemother ; 29(1): 43-47, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162645

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Legionella disease can manifest as severe respiratory tract infection with a high mortality rate and is sometimes associated with a hospital outbreak by a contaminated water supply. A patient with breast cancer admitted about a month before. High fever was observed 18 days after admission and the Legionella antigen test showed the positive result. METHODS: Due to the incidence of Legionella infection, we demonstrated the active surveillance of Legionella contamination in the entire hospital. RESULTS: Cultures of her environmental samples revealed that hot water in two bathrooms were contaminated with Legionella. In our hospital, the hot water is heated and pumped up on the roof and distributed to each room. The contaminated bathrooms were related to the same plumbing. Therefore, we further collected samples throughout the hot water system. Legionella was not detected in the central part of the system. However, we detected Legionella in the hot water sampled from other five rooms, which were also associated with the same plumbing of the two bathrooms. The temperature and chlorine concentration of the hot water were not high enough to inactivate Legionella at the end of the plumbing. After the adjustment of the water temperature and chlorine concentration, Legionella became undetectable. Our prompt and active surveillance successfully identified the plumbing of the hot water system as the source of Legionella contamination and took precautions against future outbreaks. CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring of water temperature and chloride concentration at the end of the hot water circulation is important to prevent nosocomial Legionella disease.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar , Legionella pneumophila , Legionella , Humanos , Cloro , Microbiologia da Água , Abastecimento de Água , Hospitais , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 1): 159013, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence of both epidemiological and clinical studies exploring the impact of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disease activity have been contradictory. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between short-term NO2 exposure and length of hospital stay (LOS) and hospital cost of SLE and estimate the burden of disease attributable to NO2 exposure. METHODS: We collected health data of SLE inpatients who were hospitalized at secondary and tertiary hospitals in Hunan province of China during 2017-2019. Daily ambient concentrations of air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2, PM2.5 and PM10) and other environmental factors were obtained from public repositories by linking to individual addresses and date of hospitalization. Mixed effect models were employed to assess the associations between LOS and hospital cost for SLE inpatients and NO2 exposures during the previous 1 to 21 days (lag1-lag21) before hospitalization. We further estimated excess LOS and hospital cost attributable to NO2 exposure according to China's and World Health Organization's air quality guideline (AQG) respectively. RESULTS: A total of 11,447 records from 221 hospitals were finally included in our study. After full adjustments, 1 µg/m3 increment of NO2 was significantly associated with 0.038 day increase in LOS (95%CI: 0.0159-0.0601, P = 0.0008) and 0.0384 thousand yuan increase in hospital cost (95%CI: 0.0017-0.0679, P = 0.0395) with a lagged effect of 7 days prior to admission. Based on the adjusted effects of lag7, controlling for short-term NO2 exposure according to AQG could avoid up to 1.47 thousand days of hospitalization and 1.35 million yuan of cost for SLE in Hunan province during 2017 to 2019. CONCLUSIONS: Excess LOS and substantial economic burden among SLE inpatients attributable to NO2 could be avoid if policies were implemented to reduce the exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Tempo de Internação , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China/epidemiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Material Particulado/análise
12.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; 48(1): 101425, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181782

RESUMO

There is limited data on the impact of atrial fibrillation (Afib) on hospital outcomes in females with peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM). The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) 2011-2019 was used to find patients with PPCM. PPCM patients were divided into 2 groups: with and without Afib. Baseline characteristics were compared between both groups. Logistic regression was used to find independent predictors of Afib. Out of 13,840 PPCM patients, 249 (1.8%) also had a diagnosis of Afib. The Afib group was older and had a high burden of comorbidities. PPCM patients with Afib had higher in-hospital mortality (4-vs-0.7%, P=0.02), mean length of stay (11.3-vs-4.3 days, P<0.001) and healthcare resource utilization. Old age, low-income quartile, liver disease, obstructive sleep apnea, and acute posthemorrhagic anemia were significant predictors of Afib. In conclusion, Afib is associated with higher in-hospital mortality and worse outcomes in females with PPCM. Further research is needed to improve these outcomes.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Cardiomiopatias , Humanos , Feminino , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Período Periparto , Pacientes Internados , Cardiomiopatias/complicações , Cardiomiopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiomiopatias/terapia , Hospitais , Atenção à Saúde
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 2): 159294, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36209884

RESUMO

Few investigations have assessed the impact of short-term ambient temperature change on pneumonia risk. We aimed to study the relation of temperature variability (TV) with daily hospitalizations for pneumonia in China. We conducted a time-series study in 184 major cities by extracting daily hospital data between 2014 and 2017 from a medical insurance claims database of 0.28 billion beneficiaries. TV was calculated as standard deviation of daily minimum and maximum temperatures over exposure days. We estimated associations of pneumonia admissions with TV for each city using over-dispersed generalized linear models controlling for weather conditions and ambient air pollution, and pooled city-specific estimates using random effects meta-analyses. We also investigated exposure-response relationship curve and potential effect modifiers. We identified 4.2 million pneumonia hospitalizations during the study period. TV was positively related to daily pneumonia admissions. At the national-average level, each 1-°C increase in TV at 0-6 days' exposure corresponded to a 0.65 % (95 % CI: 0.34 %-0.96 %) increase in pneumonia admissions. An approximately linear exposure-response curve for the relation of TV with pneumonia admission was noted. The relations were more evident in cities with larger average age (P = 0.038). As the first study in China to assess the impact of temperature change on pneumonia on a national scale, our results indicated that acute TV exposure was related to higher admissions for pneumonia. Our findings should provide new insight into the health impacts associated with climate change.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Pneumonia , Humanos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Temperatura , Poluição do Ar/análise , Hospitalização , Cidades/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Hospitais
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 2): 159565, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have shown that heatwaves are associated with an increased prevalence of urinary diseases. However, few national studies have been undertaken in China, and none have considered the associated economic losses. Such information would be useful for health authorities and medical service providers to improve their policy-making and medical resource allocation decisions. OBJECTIVES: To explore the association between heatwaves and hospital admissions for urinary diseases and assess the related medical costs and indirect economic losses in China from 2014 to 2019. METHODS: Daily meteorological and hospital admission data from 2014 to 2019 were collected from 23 study sites with different climatic characteristics in China. We assessed the heatwave-hospitalization associations and evaluated the location-specific attributable fractions (AFs) of urinary-related hospital admissions due to heatwaves by using a time-stratified case-crossover method with a distributed lag nonlinear model. We then pooled the AFs in a meta-analysis and estimated the national excess disease burden and associated economic losses. We also performed stratified analyses by sex, age, climate zone, and urinary disease subtype. RESULTS: A significant association between heatwaves and urinary-related hospital admissions was found with a relative risk of 1.090 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.050, 1.132). The pooled AF was 8.27 % (95%CI: 4.77 %, 11.63 %), indicating that heatwaves during the warm season (May to September) caused 248,364 urinary-related hospital admissions per year, with 2.42 (95%CI: 1.35, 3.45) billion CNY in economic losses, including 2.23 (95%CI: 1.29, 3.14) billion in direct losses and 0.19 (95%CI, 0.06, 0.31) billion in indirect losses, males, people aged 15-64 years, residents of temperate continental climate zones, and patients with urolithiasis were at higher risk. CONCLUSION: Tailored community health campaigns should be developed and implemented to reduce the adverse health effects and economic losses of heatwave-related urinary diseases, especially in the context of climate change.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Clima Quente Extremo , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , China/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Estações do Ano , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Health Care Manage Rev ; 48(1): 14-22, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35984479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research suggests that changes in nurse roles can compromise perceived organizational safety. However, over the past 15 years, many infusion tasks have been reallocated from specialty nurse infusion teams to individual generalist nurses-a process we call infusion task reallocation . These changes purportedly benefit employees by allowing care providers to practice at the "top of their license." However, job demands-resources theory suggests that changing core task arrangements can either enrich or merely enlarge jobs depending on their effects on demands and resources, with corresponding consequences for performance (e.g., safety). There is relatively little research directly exploring these effects and their mechanisms. PURPOSE: This study examines the relationship between infusion task reallocation and perceptions of organizational safety. We also explore the extent to which this relationship may be mediated by infusion-related resources and psychological safety. METHODOLOGY: Data were collected through a survey of 623 nurses from 580 U.S. hospitals. The relationship between infusion task reallocation and perceptions of organizational safety, as well as the potential mediating roles of infusion-related resources and psychological safety, was examined using structural equation modeling. RESULTS: Infusion task reallocation was negatively associated with respondents' perceptions of organizational safety, with nurses working in organizations without an infusion team indicating lower perceptions of organizational safety than nurses working in organizations with an infusion team. This relationship was mediated by nurse perceptions of psychological safety within the organization, but not by infusion-related resources, suggesting that task reallocation is associated with lower perceived organizational safety because nurses feel less psychologically safe rather than because of perceived technical constraints. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The results indicate that, although infusion task reallocation may be a cost-reducing approach to managing clinical responsibilities, it enlarges rather than enriches the job through higher demands and fewer resources for nurses and, in turn, lower perceived organizational safety.


Assuntos
Hospitais , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Health Care Manage Rev ; 48(1): 70-79, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36413651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic emerged. Variation in COVID-19 patient outcomes between hospitals was later reported. PURPOSE: This study aims to determine whether sustainers-hospitals with sustained high performance on Hospital Value-Based Purchasing Total Performance Score (HVBP-TPS)-more effectively responded to the pandemic and therefore had better patient outcomes. METHODOLOGY: We calculated hospital-specific risk-standardized event rates using deidentified patient-level data from the UnitedHealth Group Clinical Discovery Database. HVBP-TPS from 2016 to 2019 were obtained from Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Hospital characteristics were obtained from the American Hospital Association Annual Survey Database (2019), and county-level predictors were obtained from the Area Health Resource File. We use a repeated-measures regression model assuming an AR(1) type correlation structure to test whether sustainers had lower mortality rates than nonsustainers during the first wave (spring 2020) and the second wave (October to December 2020) of the pandemic. RESULTS: Sustainers did not have significantly lower COVID-19 mortality rates during the first wave of the pandemic, but they had lower COVID-19 mortality rates during the second wave compared to nonsustainers. Larger hospitals, teaching hospitals, and hospitals with higher occupancy rates had higher mortality rates. CONCLUSION: During the first wave of the pandemic, mortality rates did not differ between sustainers and nonsustainers. However, sustainers had lower mortality rates than nonsustainers in the second wave, most likely because of their knowledge management capabilities and existing structures and resources that enable them to develop new processes and routines to care for patients in times of crisis. Therefore, a consistently high level of performance over the years on HVBP-TPS is associated with high levels of performance on COVID-19 patient outcomes. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Investing in identifying the knowledge, processes, and resources that foster the dynamic capabilities needed to achieve superior performance in HVBP might enable hospitals to utilize these capabilities to adapt more effectively to future changes and uncertainty.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Idoso , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Medicare , Hospitais , Aquisição Baseada em Valor
17.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(2): 237-246, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130071

RESUMO

Examining how spatial access to health care varies across geography is key to documenting structural inequalities in the United States. In this article and the accompanying StoryMap, our team identified ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) with the largest share of minoritized racial and ethnic populations and measured distances to the nearest hospital offering emergency services, trauma care, obstetrics, outpatient surgery, intensive care, and cardiac care. In rural areas, ZCTAs with high Black or American Indian/Alaska Native representation were significantly farther from services than ZCTAs with high White representation. The opposite was true for urban ZCTAs, with high White ZCTAs being farther from most services. These patterns likely result from a combination of housing policies that restrict housing opportunities and federal health policies that are based on service provision rather than community need. The findings also illustrate the difficulty of using a single metric-distance-to investigate access to care on a national scale.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Feminino , Geografia , Hospitais , Humanos , Gravidez , Estados Unidos
18.
Ethiop J Health Sci ; 32(Spec Iss 1): 33-40, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36339957

RESUMO

Background: National and multinational surveys indicate large variability of Computed Tomography urinary tract Stone doses. The wide use of abdominopelvic Computed Tomography in the diagnosis, raised the issue of radiation exposure. Hence, this study was conducted to assess Computed Tomography radiation exposure of urinary tract Stone Patients there by, to compare the results from established reference values and other published studies. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional was done on 100 urinary tract Stone patients who have at least one computed tomography scan as part of their follow-up or for diagnosis purposes from February 1 to May 31, 2021, at Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire format that evaluates the number of Computed Tomography they had, scan parameters, dose indicators, and socio-demographic characteristics. Finally, the collected data were analyzed using statistical software SPSS version 22. Results: Out of 100 patients 3.6%of our patients have radiation exposure of more than 4mSv, which is the standard for low-dose Computed Tomography. The median radiation exposure is 1.27mSv per scan. Exposure factors like tube current, tube current products, dose length product, and scan range all have similar values with an almost null interquartile range. All the scans that overpassed the low dose threshold(4mSv) were done outside Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital. Conclusion: Our study showed that Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital's low-dose CT protocol for patients with urinary tract Stone is well optimized as opposed to non- Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital.


Assuntos
Exposição à Radiação , Cálculos Urinários , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Transversais , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Cálculos Urinários/diagnóstico por imagem , Cálculos Urinários/etiologia , Hospitais , Exposição à Radiação/efeitos adversos
19.
Ethiop J Health Sci ; 32(Spec Iss 1): 27-32, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36339959

RESUMO

Background: Typhlitis, (neutropenic enterocolitis), is a necrotizing enteropathy of the right colon, and is characterized by the clinical triad of fever, abdominal pain, neutropenia and imaging findings of right-side colonic inflammation. It is seen in the setting of severe neutropenia in immune suppressed patients who undergo treatment for malignancies, in those who have organ transplant(s) or congenital or other acquired immunosuppression. We report the clinical and imaging findings of typhlitis in pediatric cancer patients who had received chemotherapy in the largest tertiary center in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia over a period of 20 months. Methods: The medical records of hospitalized cancer patients on treatment and with suspected typhlitis and with ultrasound reports were screened (November 2018- July 2020). Retrospective analysis of the clinical and sonographic data of those with typhlitis was done. Results: Typhlitis was identified in 4.2% (12/286) of the patients on chemotherapy. 11 (91.7%) had hematologic malignancies (leukemia, lymphoma), one had a solid tumor (Head and neck embryonal RMS). Most (83.3%) had abdominal pain, diarrhea and neutropenia. Fever was identified in 67.7%. All had ultrasound evidence of typhlitis. and treated with IV antibiotics. Neither complications requiring surgical intervention nor death were seen. Conclusion: The magnitude of disease was comparable to what had previously been reported in other studies. While the presence of clinical a triad should prompt suspicion for the diagnosis, sonography can be used for confirmation and follow up obviating radiation, with good access in a resource limited setting.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Neutropenia , Tiflite , Criança , Humanos , Tiflite/diagnóstico por imagem , Tiflite/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Etiópia , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neutropenia/complicações , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Febre/etiologia , Hospitais
20.
J Healthc Qual ; 44(6): 331-340, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36318294

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has made several refinements to their model for calculating hospital quality star ratings (Hospital Compare) amidst criticism and evidence of bias against some institutions. We argue that the CMS model does align with important internal quality metrics and encourage a measured approach to redesign, potentially using categorizations or tiers, rather than a complete abandonment of the ratings system. We find that institutional characteristics (available resources, average severity of illness, and academic affiliation) are associated with internal quality metrics related to patient flow. Furthermore, regression results from the original and revised CMS star rating methodologies suggest that patient flow metrics (discharges before noon [p < .01] and weekend discharges [p < .001]) have a positive relationship with the Hospital Compare rating. Hospitals with better patient flow, as measured by higher levels of discharges before noon and weekend discharges, are associated with higher CMS quality ratings. These findings suggest that CMS star ratings do reflect key aspects of operational performance, specifically efforts to improve patient flow, but the ranking system should consider hospital characteristics that influence internal operations as we move toward a system capable of quality and price transparency for consumers.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Medicaid , Idoso , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, U.S. , Medicare , Hospitais , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde
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