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1.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 24(3): 399-407, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730304

RESUMO

Since drug companies are driven by the need to produce profit they are unwilling to make large investments in the development of new drugs if there is no market large enough to justify such investment. For this reason, veterinarians face a major obstacle - the veterinary drug market is not very profitable, which sometimes leads to not having a licensed drug available for treatment in veterinary practice. In this case, the cascade procedure allows veterinarians to, under certain circumstances, prescribe human approved drugs. The aim of our study was to analyze the pattern of human approved drugs prescription for 150 medical records of dogs participating in the survey. The results show that antimicrobial agents were the most commonly prescribed drugs for animals (50%) of all human approved drugs, and beta-lactams (38.6%) were the most widely used antibiotic classes. The most common general conditions for therapeutic use of antimicrobials in this study were digestive, skin and respiratory disorders. Our study shows that the frequency of bacterial culture, susceptibility testing and cytology was very low. Even though the off-label use of human approved drugs in animal practice is regulated by law, the results of this study indicate the need for more specific strategies and guidelines for such use. This may represent a potential for improvement by raising veterinarians' awareness toward more prudent use of human drugs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitais Veterinários , Uso Off-Label , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sérvia/epidemiologia , Médicos Veterinários/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 24(3): 445-450, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730306

RESUMO

Helicobacter species have been reported in animals, some of which are of zoonotic importance. This study aimed to detect Helicobacter species among human and animal samples using conventional PCR assays and to identify their zoonotic potentials. Helicobacter species was identified in human and animal samples by genus-specific PCR assays and phylogenetic analysis of partial sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. The results revealed that Helicobacter species DNA was detected in 13 of 29 (44.83%) of the human samples. H. pylori was identified in 2 (15.38%), and H. bovis was detected in 4 (30.77%), whereas 7 (53.85%) were unidentified. H. bovis and H. heilmannii were prevalent among the animal samples. Phylogenetic analysis revealed bootstrapping of sequences with H. cinaedi in camel, H. rappini in sheep and humans, and Wollinella succinogenes in humans. In conclusion, the occurrence of non-H. pylori infections among human and animal samples suggested zoonotic potentials.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/veterinária , Helicobacter/genética , Helicobacter/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Fezes/microbiologia , Genoma Bacteriano , Helicobacter/classificação , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Hospitais Veterinários , Humanos , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Saliva/microbiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
3.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 48(6): 861-870, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483040

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a scale to diagnose and assess the severity of postamputation pain (PAP) in dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Single-center retrospective study. ANIMALS: A total of 66 dogs that underwent thoracic or pelvic limb amputation and 139 dogs that underwent tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) at a veterinary teaching hospital. METHODS: An online survey regarding postoperative behavioral changes was sent to owners. Categorical, multiple-choice responses were entered into a univariable logistic regression model and tested for association with amputation using the Wald test. If p < 0.2, variables were forwarded to a multivariable logistic regression model for manual build. Model simplicity and predictive ability were optimized using the area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC) characteristic, and model calibration was assessed using the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. The selected model was converted to an integer scale (0-10), the Canine Postamputation Pain (CAMPPAIN) scale. Univariable logistic regression related each dog's calculated score to the probability of PAP. RESULTS: Multivariable logistic regression identified four independent predictors of PAP (p < 0.05): 1) restlessness or difficulty sleeping, 2) episodes of panic or anxiety, 3) sudden vocalization, and 4) compulsive grooming of the residual limb. Score AUROC was 0.70 (95% confidence interval = 0.63-0.78) with good calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic p = 0.82). A score of 2 corresponded to a risk probability of 0.5. Taking a score ≥ 2 to indicate PAP, score specificity and sensitivity were 92.1% and 36.4%, respectively. When this score was used to diagnose PAP, prevalence was 36.4% (24/66) and 7.9% (11/139) in the amputation and TPLO groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Postamputation pain is characterized by specific postoperative behaviors and appears to affect approximately one-third of canine amputees. The CAMPPAIN scale generated from these data could facilitate diagnosis, treatment and further study of PAP but requires external validation.


Assuntos
Hospitais Veterinários , Hospitais de Ensino , Amputação/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Dor/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Acta Vet Hung ; 69(3): 216-222, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546965

RESUMO

Hospital infections are of great relevance in human and animal health, and fomites are important in the spread of pathogens in hospital units. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of enterobacteria in the operating room of a veterinary hospital, the potential cross-contamination of samples, and to characterise the susceptibility profile of the isolates to antimicrobials. Sixty-five samples were collected from five different surgical procedures. These samples came from the hands and cell phones of the surgical team and pet owners, operating tables, and patients. Species detection was performed through polymerase chain reaction, genetic diversity by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and susceptibility to antimicrobials through an antibiogram. Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis isolates were obtained from eight samples, from the hands of the anaesthesiologist, the pet owner, and the surgeon; the surgeon's, the nurse's and the anaesthesiologist's cell phones, and two surgical tables. Furthermore, PFGE showed high genetic diversity among the isolates, which showed multidrug resistance. The identification of multidrug-resistant E. coli and P. mirabilis on cell phones of the surgical team is a major concern and, although no direct correlation was found, the isolation of these bacteria inside the clean area of the operating room shows the possibility of nosocomial transmission from cell phones to susceptible patients.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Enterobacteriaceae , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Hospitais Veterinários , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária
5.
Acta Vet Scand ; 63(1): 37, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac auscultation is an important screening test at the first health examination of puppies because most clinically relevant congenital cardiac anomalies cause a loud murmur from birth. This retrospective study aimed to investigate the age at which dogs with suspected congenital cardiac anomalies were referred to a veterinary cardiology specialist for murmur investigation. A secondary aim was to establish the time interval between the visit to the cardiologist and the first available murmur documentation. The digital archive of a veterinary teaching hospital was searched for dogs with congenital cardiac anomalies and puppies with innocent murmurs during a 5-year period. Dogs had to be referred because of a murmur, and they had to undergo physical examination and echocardiography by a veterinary cardiology specialist. The health certificate section of the pet passport, and the medical records from the referring veterinarian, were reviewed to identify the date when the murmur was first documented. RESULTS: Of the 271 included dogs, 94% had a congenital cardiac anomaly and 6% had an innocent murmur. The dogs' median age was 190 days when they were examined by the cardiologist. Only 10% of the dogs were referred by the breeder's veterinarian, while 90% of the dogs were referred by the new owner's veterinarian. The median age of the first available murmur documentation by a first opinion veterinary practitioner was 95 days. CONCLUSIONS: Only 10% of the puppies in the present study were referred to a veterinary cardiology specialist for murmur investigation before they were sold to a new owner. Referral prior to re-homing would have been feasible if the murmur had been detected and documented by the breeder's veterinarian, if referral was offered by the breeder's veterinarian and the referral was accepted by the breeder.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Hospitais Veterinários , Animais , Cães , Sopros Cardíacos/diagnóstico , Sopros Cardíacos/veterinária , Hospitais de Ensino , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 259(7): 764-776, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516264

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine epidemiological features of cardiovascular disease in rabbits examined at a veterinary teaching hospital and characterize clinical and pathological findings. ANIMALS: 59 rabbits. PROCEDURES: Medical records from 2001 to 2018 were reviewed, and data were collected. Echocardiographic images and histologic diagnoses were reviewed. RESULTS: The prevalence of cardiovascular disease was 2.6% (59/2,249). Clinical signs related to cardiac disease included heart murmur (n = 25 rabbits), arrhythmia (22), tachypnea or dyspnea (13), hyporexia or anorexia (13), and muscle wasting (9). Radiographic (n = 39) abnormalities included cardiomegaly (19) and peritoneal (12) and pleural (11) effusion. Common echocardiographic (n = 37) diagnoses included degenerative valve disease (15), dilated cardiomyopathy (7), unclassified cardiomyopathy (4), restrictive cardiomyopathy (3), and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (2). On ECG (n = 19), supraventricular arrhythmias (16) were more common than ventricular arrhythmias (12). Thirty-five necropsy reports were available, and diagnoses included cardiomyopathy (n = 14), myocarditis (10), and arteriosclerosis (9). Medical management (n = 20) included a wide range of drugs and dosages with few adverse effects. Survival times (n = 36 rabbits) ranged from 1 to 2,353 days with a median cardiac disease-specific survival time of 306 days. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The findings provided information on the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in rabbits and survival times for affected rabbits. Right-sided, left-sided, and biventricular congestive heart failure occurred equally. Median survival time was lower than that reported for other species. Further research on the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease in rabbits is needed.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/veterinária , Ecocardiografia/veterinária , Insuficiência Cardíaca/veterinária , Hospitais Veterinários , Hospitais de Ensino , Coelhos
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17269, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446769

RESUMO

Rehabilitation centres help injured animals to recover and return back to the wild. This study aimed to analyse trends in intake and outcomes for the common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) admitted into rehabilitation centres in the Czech Republic. From 2010 to 2019, a total of 12,923 kestrels were admitted to 34 rehabilitation centres with an increasing trend (rSp = 0.7697, P < 0.01) being found during the monitored period. Subadult kestrels (34.70%) and kestrels injured by power lines (26.57%) were most often admitted. Most kestrels in the rehabilitation centres died or had to be euthanized (81.66%), only 15.90% of the birds could be released back into the wild. The median length of stay in rehabilitation centres for kestrels that were subsequently released was 35 days. Considering survival rates, the most critical threat to kestrels was poisoning (100% of the cases resulted in death) but mortality of the kestrels admitted for most other reasons also exceeded 80%. Given the low success rate of the care of kestrels in rehabilitation centres and the relatively small proportion returned to the wild, it is essential to eliminate the causes leading to their admission, that is, to protect their natural habitats and to prevent unnecessary capture.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças das Aves/terapia , Falconiformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hospitais Veterinários/estatística & dados numéricos , Administração da Prática da Medicina Veterinária/estatística & dados numéricos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Animais Selvagens/classificação , Animais Selvagens/lesões , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/estatística & dados numéricos , República Tcheca , Falconiformes/classificação , Falconiformes/lesões , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 48(5): 716-724, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340944

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare effects of intravenous (IV) alfaxalone with ketamine-xylazine combination on anaesthetic induction, recovery and cardiopulmonary variables in mute swans. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, controlled, clinical study. ANIMALS: A group of 58 mute swans. METHODS: Swans were given either alfaxalone (10 mg kg-1; group A) or a combination of ketamine (12.5 mg kg-1) and xylazine (0.28 mg kg-1) (group KX) IV. Heart and respiratory rates, end-tidal carbon dioxide and peripheral haemoglobin oxygen saturation were recorded at 5 minute intervals during anaesthesia. Time from anaesthetic induction to intubation, from cessation of isoflurane to extubation, to lifting head, sternal recumbency and absence of head/neck ataxia were recorded. Anaesthetic and recovery quality were scored (1 = very poor; 5 = excellent). Data are presented as median (interquartile range). Significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: In group A, 44% (12/27) of swans required mechanical ventilation for 2-14 minutes versus 3.2% (1/31) of swans in group KX (p = 0.0002). Heart rate was higher in group A than in group KX [146 (127-168) versus 65.5 (56-78) beats minute-1, respectively; p < 0.0001]. The isoflurane concentration required to maintain anaesthesia was higher in group A than in group KX [2.5% (2.0-3.0%) versus 1.5% (1.0-2.0%), respectively; p = 0.0001]. Time from cessation of isoflurane administration to lifting head was significantly longer in group A than in group KX [12 (9-17) versus 6 (4-7.75) minutes, respectively; p < 0.0001]. Anaesthesia quality scores were significantly better in group KX than in group A [4 (4-5) versus 4 (3-4), respectively; p = 0.0011], as were recovery scores [4 (3-5) versus 2 (2-3), respectively; p = 0.0005]. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Alfaxalone is a suitable anaesthetic induction agent for use in mute swans. There is a greater incidence of postinduction apnoea and a higher incidence of agitation on recovery with alfaxalone than with ketamine-xylazine.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Intravenosos , Animais Selvagens , Ketamina , Pregnanodionas , Xilazina , Anestesia Intravenosa/veterinária , Anestésicos Intravenosos/farmacologia , Animais , Hospitais Veterinários , Ketamina/farmacologia , Pregnanodionas/farmacologia , Xilazina/farmacologia
9.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 259(3): 300-305, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242080

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe a technique for basihyoid-ceratohyoid disarticulation (BCD) in standing sedated horses affected by temporohyoid osteoarthropathy (THO) and report outcomes for horses that underwent the procedure. ANIMALS: 6 client-owned horses. PROCEDURES: Electronic medical records of a veterinary teaching hospital were searched to identify horses that underwent BCD for treatment of THO from 2018 to 2019. Signalment, clinical data, use of the horse, and complications were recorded. Follow-up data obtained by telephone interview with owners included the clinical outcome and time to improvement after surgery, any persistent clinical signs, horse's activity level before onset of clinical signs and after BCD, subsequent use of the horse, and whether they would pursue the same treatment again. RESULTS: All horses tolerated the procedure well, with no complications and improved neurologic function after BCD. Five of 6 horses had a reported activity level equal to or greater than that prior to having signs of THO. Three of 3 horses with acute ataxia prior to BCD reportedly had full resolution of this sign; 3 of 4 horses with facial nerve deficits prior to BCD had mild residual facial nerve deficits at follow-up. All owners indicated they would pursue BCD again. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The BCD procedure was performed safely in this sample of THO-affected horses that were sedated while standing, avoiding risks associated with general anesthesia and resulting in no adverse effects such as iatrogenic injury to neurovascular structures.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Animais , Desarticulação/veterinária , Nervo Facial , Doenças dos Cavalos/cirurgia , Cavalos , Hospitais Veterinários , Hospitais de Ensino , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 259(2): 184-189, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227865

RESUMO

CASE DESCRIPTION: A 16-year old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital because of polyuria, polydipsia, and weight loss of 2 months' duration. CLINICAL FINDINGS: Hematologic and biochemical examination results were within respective reference ranges except for moderately high pancreas-specific lipase concentration. Ultrasonographic and cytologic evaluation revealed a hepatic mass with findings consistent with mild cholestasis and inflammation and a pancreatic mass that was initially identified as a neuroendocrine tumor. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: The cat underwent additional CT assessment and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT; 3 fractions of 8 Gy, administered every other day) for treatment of the pancreatic tumor. Follow-up ultrasonographic and CT examinations indicated a partial response to SBRT, with a maximum CT-measured size reduction from 3.6 × 4.8 × 4.0 cm at the time of treatment planning to 2.0 × 2.0 × 1.9 cm 8 months later. Increased pancreatic tumor size and signs of carcinomatosis were detected 15 months after SBRT treatment; the initial cytologic diagnosis was changed to exocrine pancreatic carcinoma on reevaluation of the slides by another veterinary pathologist. Carboplatin treatment was elected, and signs of carcinomatosis resolved. The cat was euthanized without further testing because of weakness 589 days after SBRT was started. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of SBRT for suspected exocrine pancreatic carcinoma in a cat. Further investigation is needed to determine optimal fractionation schedules for SBRT of pancreatic tumors and utility of SBRT of exocrine pancreatic carcinoma in cats.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Radiocirurgia , Animais , Gatos , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Hospitais Veterinários , Hospitais de Ensino , Masculino , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/veterinária , Radiocirurgia/veterinária
12.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(5): 979-983, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247559

RESUMO

An 8-y-old jenny was presented because of anorexia and mild depression. The jenny had weaned her colt 10 d before the admission. Upon arrival at the University of Illinois Veterinary Teaching Hospital, the heart rate was elevated, and the right udder was painful and swollen on palpation. Milk stripping of the affected side revealed purulent content; the contralateral udder had normal-appearing milk. Cytology of mammary gland secretions from the affected side revealed a large number of hypersegmented reactive neutrophils with phagocytized bacteria. Complete blood count, serum chemistry, and fibrinogen were within normal limits. A diagnosis of clinical mastitis was made, and the jenny was started on a 5-d course of broad-spectrum antibiotics, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory, hydrotherapy, and milk stripping. Clinical signs reduced over time, and the cure was attained by 96 h post-admission. Aerobic culture and subsequent MALDI-TOF MS analysis identified a bacterium of the Streptococcus genus but not the species. Whole-genome analysis was performed, and 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis determined that our isolate 20-37394 clustered with 2 other Streptococcus strains (27284-01 and 28462). Single-nucleotide variations and phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that Streptococcus 20-37394 had 96.8% and 94.9% identities to Streptococcus strains 27284-01 and 28462, respectively; therefore, the bacteria isolated in our case was deemed as a new Streptococcus species.


Assuntos
Mastite , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Streptococcus , Animais , Equidae , Feminino , Cavalos , Hospitais Veterinários , Hospitais de Ensino , Masculino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais , Mastite/veterinária , Leite , Filogenia , Gravidez , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação
13.
Vet Ital ; 57(1): 71-77, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313100

RESUMO

This study was conducted to profile the antibody levels to rabies in dogs presented at veterinary clinics and determine rabies awareness among dog owners in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Records of dogs' rabies vaccination were obtained to determine their vaccination status and number of times they had been vaccinated. Sera from 138 dogs of consenting owners were analysed using indirect ELISA technique to detect rabies antibodies. Structured questionnaire was administered to 138 dog owners to determine their awareness on rabies. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi­square, ANOVA and t­test at p ≤ 0.05. Of 138 dogs screened, 114 (82.6%) had history of vaccination against rabies. Of these 114, 87 (76.3%) were seronegative; however, 5 (3.6%) of the 24 unvaccinated dogs were seropositive. Overall, 32 (23.2%) comprising 15 (10.8%) males and 17 (12.3%) females had positive rabies antibodies level. Five (3.6%), 3 (12.1%) and 24 (17.4%) were seropositive among dogs of < 6 months, 6­12 months and > 1 year of age, respectively. Dogs > 1 year had significantly higher antibodies than < 6 months (p < 0.05). Most (86.9%) of the dog owners were aware of rabies. The low seroconversion in vaccinated dogs and prevalence of rabies antibodies in unvaccinated dogs are of public health concern. There is need for regular sero­profiling of vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doenças do Cão/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Raiva/veterinária , Soroconversão , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Feminino , Hospitais Veterinários/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Nigéria , Propriedade , Raiva/psicologia , Raiva/virologia , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 31(5): 578-584, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268847

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare in vivo central venous hemoglobin saturation measurement (ScvO2 ) using a fiber optic catheter with saturation calculated from blood gas analysis in critically ill dogs. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: University veterinary teaching hospital intensive care unit. ANIMALS: A convenience sample of 20 dogs with severe illness. INTERVENTIONS: Dogs were instrumented with either a central venous catheter with an integrated fiber optic cable or a conventional catheter with a fiber optic probe inserted through its distal port. Baseline saturation was measured with the fiber optic system (FSO2 ), then monitored continuously. Central venous blood was collected for analysis and FSO2 was recorded by the principal investigator (PI) or nursing staff participating in data collection (staff) at baseline and at 1, 2, 3, and 6 hours. Hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2 ) values calculated using human Bohr coefficients were taken directly from the analyzer (GPSO2 ), and were also calculated using temperature-correction and canine Bohr coefficients (RSO2 ). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Ninety-seven paired measurements from 20 dogs were analyzed. FSO2 obtained by the PI (n = 41) had better agreement with both GPSO2 (concordance correlation coefficient ρc = 0.926 vs 0.5562) and RSO2 (ρc = 0.75 for PI vs 0.54) than did staff (n = 56). RSO2 values were always smaller than GPSO2 . FSO2 - GPSO2 differences were smaller when measurements were collected by the PI versus Staff (mean difference 0.21 vs -6.6, respectively, P < 0.02). Thirty-six of 41 FSO2 values obtained by PI were within 5% of GPSO2 . CONCLUSIONS: Concordance between FSO2 and either calculation method was low, but was better when performed by PI. The larger difference between methods when using RSO2 suggests a positive bias by FSO2 . Difficulty obtaining stable measurements may have contributed to the poor concordance between methods within Staff.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Doenças do Cão , Animais , Gasometria/veterinária , Cães , Hemoglobinas , Hospitais Veterinários , Hospitais de Ensino , Oximetria/veterinária , Oxigênio
15.
Can J Vet Res ; 85(3): 218-223, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248267

RESUMO

Genomic characterization was conducted on 2 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from 2 horses hospitalized during an overlapping period of time and 2 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) strains isolated from 2 distinct horses. Phylogenetic proximity was traced and the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of the antimicrobial resistance of the strains were compared. Whole genome sequencing of MRSA strains for this report was similar but differed from whole genome sequencing of MSSA strains. The MRSA strains were closely related, belonging to sequence type (ST) 612, spa type t1257, and SCCmec type IVd2B. The MSSA strains were also closely related, belonging to ST1660, spa type t3043, and having no detectable staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec elements. All MSRA and MSSA strains were Panton-Valentine leukocidin negative. There were discrepancies in the genotypic analysis and the antimicrobial susceptibility testing (phenotypic analysis) of MRSA strains for rifampin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, amikacin, and enrofloxacin.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Hospitais Veterinários , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cavalos , Meticilina/farmacologia , Resistência a Meticilina , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/metabolismo , Filogenia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
16.
J Vet Intern Med ; 35(4): 1873-1883, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key molecular driver of angiogenesis and vascular permeability and is expressed by a wide variety of neoplasms. Although blood VEGF concentrations have been quantified in intracranial tumors of dogs, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) VEGF concentration might be a more sensitive biomarker of disease. OBJECTIVE: Concentrations of VEGF in CSF are higher in dogs with central nervous system (CNS) neoplasia compared to those with meningoencephalomyelitis and other neurologic disorders. ANIMALS: One hundred and twenty-six client-owned dogs presented to a veterinary teaching hospital. METHODS: Case-control study. Cerebrospinal fluid was archived from dogs diagnosed with CNS neoplasia and meningoencephalomyelitis. Control dogs had other neurological disorders or diseases outside of the CNS. A commercially available kit was used to determine VEGF concentrations. RESULTS: Detectable CSF VEGF concentrations were present in 49/63 (77.8%) neoplastic samples, 22/24 (91.7%) inflammatory samples, and 8/39 (20.5%) control samples. The VEGF concentrations were significantly different between groups (P < .0001), and multiple comparison testing showed that both neoplastic and inflammatory groups had significantly higher concentrations than did controls (P < .05), but did not differ from each other. Gliomas and choroid plexus tumors had significantly higher VEGF concentrations than did the control group (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Cerebrospinal fluid VEGF concentrations may serve as a marker of neoplastic and inflammatory CNS disorders relative to other conditions.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central , Doenças do Cão , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/veterinária , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano , Cães , Hospitais Veterinários , Hospitais de Ensino , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
17.
J Equine Vet Sci ; 102: 103617, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119200

RESUMO

To resolve large colon impactions, frequent enteral administration of large volumes of water (8-10 liters in a 500 kg horse) has been suggested. Furthermore, in large colon volvulus, the simultaneous presence of gastric impaction has been described as a possible predisposing factor. To describe the clinical and surgical features of horses with large colon volvulus associated with aggressive enteral fluid therapy performed to resolve an initial large colon impaction. Records of horses that underwent exploratory laparotomy at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Turin between 2012-2019 were reviewed. Clinical and surgical features of cases initially diagnosed with large colon impaction that developed a large colon volvulus after enteral administration of large volumes of fluids were retrieved. Four horses met the criteria. In all horses an initial diagnosis of large colon impaction was made by the referring veterinarian. In all cases a sudden increase in pain was noticed shortly after enteral administration of large volumes (8-10 liters) of water. Administration of analgesic didn't resolve the pain in any of the horses that were then referred. A large colon volvulus was found during exploratory laparotomy in all cases. A moderate gastric impaction was also found intraoperatively, which was confirmed by gastroscopy postoperatively. Nasogastric administration of large quantity of fluids with a pre-existing gastric and colon impaction, may reduce the available space in the abdominal cavity and potentially predispose the colon volvulus. More frequent enteral administration of smaller volumes of fluids might be preferred when treating large colon impactions.


Assuntos
Cólica , Doenças dos Cavalos , Volvo Intestinal , Animais , Cólica/veterinária , Colo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hidratação/veterinária , Cavalos , Hospitais Veterinários , Hospitais de Ensino , Volvo Intestinal/etiologia , Volvo Intestinal/veterinária
18.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 258, 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A randomised, blinded, positive controlled, multicentre, Good Clinical Practice-compliant, pivotal field study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a new combination of lotilaner + milbemycin oxime tablets (Credelio® Plus; Elanco Animal Health) administered orally to client-owned dogs naturally infected with intestinal nematodes. METHODS: Client-owned dogs presenting to veterinary clinics from households in France, Hungary and Germany were screened for intestinal nematodes. Dogs with an initial positive faecal egg count that was subsequently confirmed with a follow-up faecal examination to demonstrate the presence of naturally occurring mixed or mono-infections with Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis or Ancylostoma caninum were enrolled on Day 0 into the study. Households were randomised in an approximately 2:1 ratio to receive either an investigational product (IP; Credelio Plus tablets) or control product (CP; Nexgard Spectra® tablets) as treatment. Dogs were administered the IP (n = 278) or CP (n = 117) once on Day 0 at a dose rate of 0.75-1.56 mg/kg bodyweight milbemycin oxime and 20.0-41.5 mg/kg bodyweight lotilaner (IP) or as recommended (CP). Effectiveness of the IP and CP treatments was based on the post-treatment reduction in geometric mean faecal egg counts on Day 8 (range Day 7-10) after treatment as compared to their pre-treatment nematode faecal egg counts. RESULTS: Geometric mean (GM) faecal egg counts for T. canis, A caninum and T. vulpis were reduced by ≥ 97.2% in the Credelio Plus group and by ≥ 95.3% in the afoxolaner + milbemycin oxime group. There were insufficient data to calculate a percentage reduction in GM faecal egg counts between Day 0 and Day 8 for T. leonina due to low prevalence. Credelio Plus was well tolerated in this field study. Of the 355 total doses administered, 82.3% were accepted free choice in the IP group compared to 80.8% in the CP group. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated effectiveness (≥ 97.2% reduction), safety and tablet acceptance of a combination of milbemycin oxime and lotilaner (Credelio Plus) administered orally to dogs with natural intestinal infections of T. canis, A. caninum and T. vulpis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Oxazóis/uso terapêutico , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/tratamento farmacológico , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Combinação de Medicamentos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Hospitais Veterinários/estatística & dados numéricos , Macrolídeos/normas , Masculino , Nematoides/classificação , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Oxazóis/normas , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Animais de Estimação/parasitologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Tiofenos/normas
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 284, 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dirofilaria immitis, a globally distributed filarial parasite of dogs, is known to cause serious or fatal cardiopulmonary disease. Client-owned dogs were enrolled in a clinical field study in the USA to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and field safety of an orally administered combination investigational product (IP) containing milbemycin oxime and lotilaner (Credelio® Plus) as compared to a control product (CP) for the prevention of heartworm disease when administered monthly for 11 consecutive months. METHODS: In this 11-month field study, 319 dogs ≥ 8 weeks old confirmed to be heartworm-negative were enrolled from eight geographically distinct US veterinary clinics, including sites in the southern USA and Mississippi River Valley. The dogs were treated with either the IP combination product at 0.75-1.53 mg/kg milbemycin oxime and 20-41.5 mg/kg lotilaner (n = 159) or the CP (Sentinel® Flavor Tabs®; milbemycin oxime/lufenuron) at the label-recommended dose rate (n = 158.) On day 330, effectiveness was evaluated in each dog using antigen and microfilarial (modified Knott's) testing to assess the establishment of any patent adult heartworm infections. RESULTS: All dogs treated with the IP combination product and the CP tested negative (100% prevention) for heartworm infection on day 330. The IP combination product tablets containing milbemycin oxime and lotilaner were well tolerated based on the safety assessments in all treated dogs. CONCLUSIONS: This multi-site clinical study using client-owned dogs demonstrated that monthly use of flavored, chewable tablets containing a combination of milbemycin oxime and lotilaner administered orally under end use conditions is safe for dogs. None of the enrolled dogs developed heartworm infections. Eleven consecutive monthly treatments of the IP provided 100% prevention of heartworm disease caused by D. immitis.


Assuntos
Dirofilariose/prevenção & controle , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Oxazóis/uso terapêutico , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Animais , Dirofilaria immitis , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Hospitais Veterinários , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Mississippi , Propriedade , Oxazóis/administração & dosagem , Tiofenos/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
20.
Talanta ; 230: 122347, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934796

RESUMO

Procalcitonin (PCT) has emerged as a promising biomarker for the rapid identification of sepsis both in human and veterinary medicine. Nevertheless, the only analytical method currently available for the detection of PCT in veterinary species, is represented by immunoassays, useful only for research purposes. In this work, we report the development of two biosensors which utilize molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for the detection of canine and equine PCT. Dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) were used as monomers for the synthesis of the MIP films on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) gold chips and the imprinting efficiency of canine and equine PCT in terms of binding affinity toward the analyte, selectivity, and sensitivity were compared. After optimization in buffer conditions, PCTs calibration was successfully achieved also in animal plasma, with good specificity and reproducibility. More effective protein binding and imprinting was obtained with polynorepinephrine (PNE) for both PCTs, and the SPR biosensors were able to detect the biomarkers in plasma with a LOD of 15 ng mL-1 and 30 ng mL-1 respectively for equine and canine PCT.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Impressão Molecular , Sepse , Animais , Cães , Cavalos , Hospitais Veterinários , Humanos , Pró-Calcitonina , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/veterinária , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície
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