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Int J Equity Health ; 22(1): 82, 2023 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37158907


For over a decade, the global health community has advanced policy engagement with migration and health, as reflected in multiple global-led initiatives. These initiatives have called on governments to provide universal health coverage to all people, regardless of their migratory and/or legal status. South Africa is a middle-income country that experiences high levels of cross-border and internal migration, with the right to health enshrined in its Constitution. A National Health Insurance Bill also commits the South African public health system to universal health coverage, including for migrant and mobile groups. We conducted a study of government policy documents (from the health sector and other sectors) that in our view should be relevant to issues of migration and health, at national and subnational levels in South Africa. We did so to explore how migration is framed by key government decision makers, and to understand whether positions present in the documents support a migrant-aware and migrant-inclusive approach, in line with South Africa's policy commitments. This study was conducted between 2019 and 2021, and included analysis of 227 documents, from 2002-2019. Fewer than half the documents identified (101) engaged directly with migration as an issue, indicating a lack of prioritisation in the policy discourse. Across these documents, we found that the language or discourse across government levels and sectors focused mainly on the potential negative aspects of migration, including in policies that explicitly refer to health. The discourse often emphasised the prevalence of cross-border migration and diseases, the relationship between immigration and security risks, and the burden of migration on health systems and other government resources. These positions attribute blame to migrant groups, potentially fuelling nationalist and anti-migrant sentiment and largely obscuring the issue of internal mobility, all of which could also undermine the constructive engagement necessary to support effective responses to migration and health. We provide suggestions on how to advance engagement with issues of migration and health in order for South Africa and countries of a similar context in regard to migration to meet the goal of inclusion and equity for migrant and mobile groups.

Governo , Políticas , Humanos , Conscientização , África do Sul , Migração Humana
Commun Biol ; 6(1): 469, 2023 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37117635


The founder population of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) is a unique genetic resource, in part due to its geographic and cultural isolation, where historical records describe a migration of European settlers, primarily from Ireland and England, to NL in the 18th and 19th centuries. Whilst its historical isolation, and increased prevalence of certain monogenic disorders are well appreciated, details of the fine-scale genetic structure and ancestry of the population are lacking. Understanding the genetic origins and background of functional, disease causing, genetic variants would aid genetic mapping efforts in the Province. Here, we leverage dense genome-wide SNP data on 1,807 NL individuals to reveal fine-scale genetic structure in NL that is clustered around coastal communities and correlated with Christian denomination. We show that the majority of NL European ancestry can be traced back to the south-east and south-west of Ireland and England, respectively. We date a substantial population size bottleneck approximately 10-15 generations ago in NL, associated with increased haplotype sharing and autozygosity. Our results reveal insights into the population history of NL and demonstrate evidence of a population conducive to further genetic studies and biomarker discovery.

Genética Populacional , População Branca , Humanos , Terra Nova e Labrador , Irlanda , Migração Humana
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 47, 2023. Migración y Salud
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-57382


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Presentar y analizar la respuesta que el sistema de salud peruano viene dando a las necesidades en salud sexual y reproductiva de las mujeres venezolanas que radican en la ciudad de Lima, Perú e identificar algunas de las razones que nos permite entender esta respuesta. Métodos. La información se recogió mediante entrevistas a profundidad semiestructuradas por vía telefónica a 30 mujeres venezolanas, 10 trabajadores de salud y 2 funcionarios del Ministerio de Salud. Resultados. A partir de las experiencias de mujeres venezolanas que acudieron a estos servicios durante el 2019-2020 y de las perspectivas del personal y autoridades de salud presentamos un análisis de la capacidad y limitaciones que los servicios de salud públicos tienen para atender las necesidades de salud sexual y reproductiva de esta población. Los testimonios de las mujeres migrantes reportan una experiencia positiva con un sistema de salud que, a pesar de las deficiencias, responde a las necesidades de salud sexual y reproductiva más comunes. Estas coinciden con los testimonios del personal de salud y con las de las autoridades quienes enfatizan la existencia de políticas prioritarias para la atención de la Salud Sexual y Reproductiva. Conclusión. Este estudio muestra cómo un marco de prioridad nacional (disminuir la mortalidad materna), acompañado de mecanismos operativos de protección social (como el Seguro Integral de Salud), se convierten en instrumentos complementarios, que repercute de manera positiva y extiende beneficios para las y los migrantes, a pesar de no haber considerado a esta población durante el diseño de estas políticas.

[ABSTRACT]. Objectives. To present and analyze the Peruvian health system's response to the sexual and reproductive health needs of Venezuelan women living in the city of Lima, Peru, and to identify some of the reasons under- lying this response. Methods. Information was collected through semi-structured, in-depth telephone interviews with 30 Venezuelan women, 10 healthcare workers, and two Ministry of Health officials. Results. Based on the experiences of Venezuelan women who sought care through these services during 2019-2020 and the perspectives of healthcare personnel and health authorities, we present an analysis of the public health services' capacity and limitations in meeting the sexual and reproductive health needs of this population. Migrant women's testimonies reported a positive experience with a health system that, despite shortcomings, responds to the most common sexual and reproductive health needs. These perspectives parallel the testimonies of healthcare personnel and authorities who emphasized the existence of priority policies for sexual and reproductive health care. Conclusion. This study shows how a national priority framework (reducing maternal mortality), accompanied by operational mechanisms for social protection (such as the Comprehensive Health Insurance program), represent complementary instruments that have a positive impact on and extend benefits to migrants, even though this population was not considered when designing these policies.

[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Apresentar e analisar a resposta do sistema de saúde peruano às necessidades de saúde sexual e reprodutiva de mulheres venezuelanas radicadas em Lima, Peru, e identificar algumas explicações para essa resposta. Métodos. Entrevistas telefônicas semiestruturadas detalhadas com 30 mulheres venezuelanas, 10 profissionais de saúde e 2 funcionários do Ministério da Saúde. Resultados. Com base nas experiências das mulheres venezuelanas que recorreram a esses serviços no período de 2019 a 2020 e nas perspectivas de profissionais e autoridades de saúde, apresentamos uma análise da capacidade e das limitações dos serviços de saúde pública para atender às necessidades de saúde sexual e reprodutiva dessa população. Os relatos das mulheres migrantes indicam uma experiência positiva com um sistema de saúde, que, apesar das deficiências, responde às necessidades mais comuns de saúde sexual e reprodutiva. Isso está em conformidade com os relatos dos profissionais de saúde e das autoridades, que enfatizam a existência de políticas prioritárias de atenção à saúde sexual e reprodutiva. Conclusão. Este estudo mostra de que maneira um âmbito de prioridade nacional (reduzir a mortalidade materna) e mecanismos operacionais de proteção social (como o Seguro Integral de Saúde) se convertem em instrumentos complementares, afetando positivamente e estendendo benefícios à população migrante, embora essa população não tenha sido levada em consideração quando da elaboração dessas políticas.

Migração Humana , Saúde Sexual , Saúde Reprodutiva , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva , Peru , Migração Humana , Saúde Sexual , Saúde Reprodutiva , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva , Peru , Migração Humana , Saúde Sexual , Saúde Reprodutiva , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva
Am J Biol Anthropol ; 181(1): 107-117, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36919668


OBJECTIVE: Mid- to late-Holocene large-scale population migration profoundly impacted the interaction of ethnic groups and cultures across Eurasia, notably in Central Asia. However, due to a lack of thorough historical documents, distinctive burial items, and human remains, the process of population migration during this historical era in the area is still unclear. Using an interdisciplinary approach at the Lafuqueke (LFQK) cemetery, this study investigates the spatiotemporal processes and explores the factors that influenced human migration in the eastern Tianshan Mountains between the 7th and 12th centuries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, tooth enamel from 56 human remains found in the LFQK cemetery in Hami Basin, eastern Tianshan Mountains, is examined for strontium and lead isotopes. RESULTS: The early, middle, and late phases of migration might potentially be represented by a three-phase migration model, according to the isotopic study. The highest proportion of the early phase (ca. 7th-mid 7th century) comprised non-locals (54.55%), although this percentage decreased in the middle phase (mid 7th-mid 8th centuries, 30.77%). After the 10th century, the proportion of non-locals again fell (16.13%). CONCLUSION: In this study, the interdisciplinary approach was employed to propose a new model for the diachronic changes that accompanied human migration and cultural interaction in the eastern Tianshan Mountains and identified geopolitics as a significant factor influencing the migratory behavior of LFQK population in this region between the 7th and 12th centuries.

Restos Mortais , Isótopos , Humanos , Ásia Central , Cemitérios , Migração Humana
Nat Ecol Evol ; 7(4): 597-609, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36859553


Human populations underwent range contractions during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) which had lasting and dramatic effects on their genetic variation. The genetic ancestry of individuals associated with the post-LGM Magdalenian technocomplex has been interpreted as being derived from groups associated with the pre-LGM Aurignacian. However, both these ancestries differ from that of central European individuals associated with the chronologically intermediate Gravettian. Thus, the genomic transition from pre- to post-LGM remains unclear also in western Europe, where we lack genomic data associated with the intermediate Solutrean, which spans the height of the LGM. Here we present genome-wide data from sites in Andalusia in southern Spain, including from a Solutrean-associated individual from Cueva del Malalmuerzo, directly dated to ~23,000 cal yr BP. The Malalmuerzo individual carried genetic ancestry that directly connects earlier Aurignacian-associated individuals with post-LGM Magdalenian-associated ancestry in western Europe. This scenario differs from Italy, where individuals associated with the transition from pre- and post-LGM carry different genetic ancestries. This suggests different dynamics in the proposed southern refugia of Ice Age Europe and posits Iberia as a potential refugium for western European pre-LGM ancestry. More, individuals from Cueva Ardales, which were thought to be of Palaeolithic origin, date younger than expected and, together with individuals from the Andalusian sites Caserones and Aguilillas, fall within the genetic variation of the Neolithic, Chalcolithic and Bronze Age individuals from southern Iberia.

Genética Populacional , Migração Humana , Humanos , Europa (Continente) , Itália , Espanha
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 47, 2023. Migración y Salud
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-57270


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Caracterizar la oferta de servicios en salud sexual y reproductiva (SSR) para la población migrante centroamericana que se encuentra en albergues de Tijuana, México; e, identificar las barreras y facilitadores del acceso a estos servicios para esta población, desde la perspectiva de los proveedores. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio con un diseño observacional, mixto, transversal. Se consideró una trian- gulación de técnicas de recolección de información que consistió en 16 entrevistas semiestructuradas a proveedores de servicios de SSR de la sociedad civil para población en movilidad, y observación directa en 10 albergues de Tijuana. Se realizó una doble codificación, abierta y selectiva. El tipo de análisis fue de conte- nido con un enfoque interpretativo a partir de cinco dimensiones: accesibilidad, aceptabilidad, disponibilidad, asequibilidad y oportunidad. Resultados. El tipo de oferta de servicios en SSR se compone de cuatro elementos: población objetivo, orientación de las asociaciones y organizaciones (religiosa o laica), servicios ofertados y lugar de atención. Las principales barreras durante el proceso de acceso son: la condición migratoria irregular, la escasa prioridad al cuidado de la SSR y la discrepancia entre las preferencias de usuarios y los servicios ofer- tados. Entre los elementos facilitadores destaca la orientación laica de proveedores y la coordinación interinstitucional. Conclusiones. La oferta de servicios de SSR por parte de asociaciones y organizaciones civiles es amplia y heterogénea. Abarca servicios de atención estrictamente médica y otros que indirectamente inciden en la SSR con miras a la integralidad de la atención. Esto, representa una oportunidad en términos de aspectos facilitadores de acceso.

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To characterize the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services on offer to the Central American migrant population residing in shelters in Tijuana, Mexico, and identify barriers and facilitators of access to these services by this population, from the provider perspective. Methods. An observational, mixed, cross-sectional study was conducted. Different information collection techniques—consisting of 16 semi-structured interviews with civil-society providers of SRH services to the migrant population, as well as direct observation in 10 shelters in Tijuana—were employed and triangulated. A two-stage, open, selective coding process was carried out. Content analysis was then performed, using an interpretive approach based on five dimensions: approachability, acceptability, availability, affordability, and appropriateness. Results. The provision of SRH services is composed of four elements: target population, nature of providing organization (religious or secular), services offered, and venue of care. The main barriers to access involve irregular migrant status, the low priority given to SRH services, and the discrepancy between user preferences and the services offered. Among facilitating elements, lay/secular orientation of providers and inter-institutional coordination stood out. Conclusions. The provision of SRH services by civil society organizations is wide-ranging and heterogeneous. It ranges from strictly medical attention to other services that affect SRH indirectly, with a view to providing comprehensive care. This represents an opportunity in terms of aspects to facilitate access.

[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Caracterizar a oferta de serviços de saúde sexual e reprodutiva (SSR) para a população migrante da América Central residente em abrigos em Tijuana, México; e identificar as barreiras e os facilitadores de acesso a esses serviços, para essa população, partindo da perspectiva dos prestadores. Métodos. Foi utilizado um delineamento observacional, misto e transversal. Diferentes técnicas de coleta de informações – consistindo em 16 entrevistas semiestruturadas com prestadores de serviços de SSR da sociedade civil para a população migrante, bem como observação direta em 10 abrigos em Tijuana – foram utilizadas e trianguladas. A codificação dos dados foi realizada em duas etapas, aberta e seletiva. Seguiu-se uma análise de conteúdo com uma abordagem interpretativa baseada em cinco dimensões: acessibilidade, aceitabilidade, disponibilidade, exequibilidade e oportunidade. Resultados. O tipo de oferta de serviços de SSR é composto por quatro elementos: população-alvo, orien- tação das associações e organizações prestadoras (religiosa ou laica), serviços oferecidos e local de atendimento. As principais barreiras durante o processo de acesso relacionam-se com a situação migratória irregular, a baixa prioridade dada à atenção à SSR e a discrepância entre as preferências dos usuários e os serviços ofertados. Entre os elementos facilitadores, destacaram-se a orientação leiga dos prestadores e a coordenação interinstitucional. Conclusões. A oferta de serviços de SSR por associações e organizações da sociedade civil é ampla e hete- rogênea. Abrange desde serviços assistenciais estritamente médicos até outros que incidem indiretamente na SSR, com vistas à integralidade do cuidado. Isso representa uma oportunidade em termos de aspectos facilitadores do acesso.

Migração Humana , Saúde Sexual , Saúde Reprodutiva , Equidade no Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Migração Humana , Saúde Reprodutiva , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Migração Humana , Saúde Reprodutiva , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 47, 2023. Migración y Salud
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-57169


[EXTRACTO] La evidencia que surge de este número especial destaca las necesidades específicas de las personas migrantes latinoamericanas respecto a la respuesta de los sistemas de salud a la salud sexual y reproductiva y las enfermedades infecciosas. Si bien hay políticas relacionadas con la salud de las personas migrantes y refugiadas, y se observan esfuerzos para fortalecer los sistemas de salud en los países de acogida, las personas migrantes de América Latina aún enfrentan una gran cantidad de dificultades al recurrir a los sistemas de salud para atender sus necesidades de SDSR. La pandemia de COVID-19 exacerbó aún más estos desafíos. Se necesitan políticas de SDSR que puedan llevarse a la práctica para poder responder adecuadamente a las necesidades de las personas migrantes.

COVID-19 , Migração Humana , Migrantes , Sociedade Receptora de Migrantes , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos , Saúde Sexual , Venezuela , América Central
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 47, 2023. Migración y Salud
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-57168


[EXTRACT] The evidence emerging from this special issue highlights the specific needs of Latin American migrants with regards to health system response to sexual and reproductive health and infectious diseases. While policies relating to the health of ref- ugees and migrants and efforts to strengthen health systems in host countries exist, migrants in Latin America still face a myr- iad of challenges when navigating health systems in addressing their SRHR needs. The COVID-19 pandemic further exacer- bated these challenges. Specific SRHR actionable policies are needed to ensure the needs of migrants are fully met.

COVID-19 , Migração Humana , Migrantes , Sociedade Receptora de Migrantes , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos , Saúde Sexual , Venezuela , América Central
Trends Genet ; 39(4): 240-241, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36822963


Increasing numbers of ancient genomes from the Viking period retrieved across the North Sea regions are revealing a complex layer of genetic ancestries and a past cosmopolitanism that was triggered by different mobility patterns.

Genética Populacional , Mar do Norte , Humanos , Genética Humana , Migração Humana
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(7): e2208738120, 2023 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36745804


Founding populations of the first Americans likely occupied parts of Beringia during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The timing, pathways, and modes of their southward transit remain unknown, but blockage of the interior route by North American ice sheets between ~26 and 14 cal kyr BP (ka) favors a coastal route during this period. Using models and paleoceanographic data from the North Pacific, we identify climatically favorable intervals when humans could have plausibly traversed the Cordilleran coastal corridor during the terminal Pleistocene. Model simulations suggest that northward coastal currents strengthened during the LGM and at times of enhanced freshwater input, making southward transit by boat more difficult. Repeated Cordilleran glacial-calving events would have further challenged coastal transit on land and at sea. Following these events, ice-free coastal areas opened and seasonal sea ice was present along the Alaskan margin until at least 15 ka. Given evidence for humans south of the ice sheets by 16 ka and possibly earlier, we posit that early people may have taken advantage of winter sea ice that connected islands and coastal refugia. Marine ice-edge habitats offer a rich food supply and traversing coastal sea ice could have mitigated the difficulty of traveling southward in watercraft or on land over glaciers. We identify 24.5 to 22 ka and 16.4 to 14.8 ka as environmentally favorable time periods for coastal migration, when climate conditions provided both winter sea ice and ice-free summer conditions that facilitated year-round marine resource diversity and multiple modes of mobility along the North Pacific coast.

Ecossistema , Água Doce , Humanos , América do Norte , Migração Humana , Oceanos e Mares , Camada de Gelo
Genes (Basel) ; 14(2)2023 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36833406


Ancient DNA (aDNA) research first began in 1984 and ever since has greatly expanded our understanding of evolution and migration. Today, aDNA analysis is used to solve various puzzles about the origin of mankind, migration patterns, and the spread of infectious diseases. The incredible findings ranging from identifying the new branches within the human family to studying the genomes of extinct flora and fauna have caught the world by surprise in recent times. However, a closer look at these published results points out a clear Global North and Global South divide. Therefore, through this research, we aim to emphasize encouraging better collaborative opportunities and technology transfer to support researchers in the Global South. Further, the present research also focuses on expanding the scope of the ongoing conversation in the field of aDNA by reporting relevant literature published around the world and discussing the advancements and challenges in the field.

DNA Antigo , Evolução Molecular , Migração Humana , Humanos
Commun Biol ; 6(1): 150, 2023 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36739308


Rapid sea-level rise between the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the mid-Holocene transformed the Southeast Asian coastal landscape, but the impact on human demography remains unclear. Here, we create a paleogeographic map, focusing on sea-level changes during the period spanning the LGM to the present-day and infer the human population history in Southeast and South Asia using 763 high-coverage whole-genome sequencing datasets from 59 ethnic groups. We show that sea-level rise, in particular meltwater pulses 1 A (MWP1A, ~14,500-14,000 years ago) and 1B (MWP1B, ~11,500-11,000 years ago), reduced land area by over 50% since the LGM, resulting in segregation of local human populations. Following periods of rapid sea-level rises, population pressure drove the migration of Malaysian Negritos into South Asia. Integrated paleogeographic and population genomic analysis demonstrates the earliest documented instance of forced human migration driven by sea-level rise.

Migração Humana , Elevação do Nível do Mar , Humanos , Ásia Meridional , Dinâmica Populacional , Genômica
Cell ; 186(1): 32-46.e19, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608656


We investigate a 2,000-year genetic transect through Scandinavia spanning the Iron Age to the present, based on 48 new and 249 published ancient genomes and genotypes from 16,638 modern individuals. We find regional variation in the timing and magnitude of gene flow from three sources: the eastern Baltic, the British-Irish Isles, and southern Europe. British-Irish ancestry was widespread in Scandinavia from the Viking period, whereas eastern Baltic ancestry is more localized to Gotland and central Sweden. In some regions, a drop in current levels of external ancestry suggests that ancient immigrants contributed proportionately less to the modern Scandinavian gene pool than indicated by the ancestry of genomes from the Viking and Medieval periods. Finally, we show that a north-south genetic cline that characterizes modern Scandinavians is mainly due to the differential levels of Uralic ancestry and that this cline existed in the Viking Age and possibly earlier.

Genoma Humano , Humanos , Europa (Continente) , Variação Genética , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos , Reino Unido , População Branca/genética , População Branca/história , Migração Humana
Nat Ecol Evol ; 7(2): 290-303, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36646948


The Neolithic and Bronze Ages were highly transformative periods for the genetic history of Europe but for the Aegean-a region fundamental to Europe's prehistory-the biological dimensions of cultural transitions have been elucidated only to a limited extent so far. We have analysed newly generated genome-wide data from 102 ancient individuals from Crete, the Greek mainland and the Aegean Islands, spanning from the Neolithic to the Iron Age. We found that the early farmers from Crete shared the same ancestry as other contemporaneous Neolithic Aegeans. In contrast, the end of the Neolithic period and the following Early Bronze Age were marked by 'eastern' gene flow, which was predominantly of Anatolian origin in Crete. Confirming previous findings for additional Central/Eastern European ancestry in the Greek mainland by the Middle Bronze Age, we additionally show that such genetic signatures appeared in Crete gradually from the seventeenth to twelfth centuries BC, a period when the influence of the mainland over the island intensified. Biological and cultural connectedness within the Aegean is also supported by the finding of consanguineous endogamy practiced at high frequencies, unprecedented in the global ancient DNA record. Our results highlight the potential of archaeogenomic approaches in the Aegean for unravelling the interplay of genetic admixture, marital and other cultural practices.

DNA Antigo , Migração Humana , Humanos , Migração Humana/história , Europa (Continente) , Grécia , Genoma
Curr Biol ; 33(3): 423-433.e5, 2023 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36638796


The peopling history of North Asia remains largely unexplored due to the limited number of ancient genomes analyzed from this region. Here, we report genome-wide data of ten individuals dated to as early as 7,500 years before present from three regions in North Asia, namely Altai-Sayan, Russian Far East, and the Kamchatka Peninsula. Our analysis reveals a previously undescribed Middle Holocene Siberian gene pool in Neolithic Altai-Sayan hunter-gatherers as a genetic mixture between paleo-Siberian and ancient North Eurasian (ANE) ancestries. This distinctive gene pool represents an optimal source for the inferred ANE-related population that contributed to Bronze Age groups from North and Inner Asia, such as Lake Baikal hunter-gatherers, Okunevo-associated pastoralists, and possibly Tarim Basin populations. We find the presence of ancient Northeast Asian (ANA) ancestry-initially described in Neolithic groups from the Russian Far East-in another Neolithic Altai-Sayan individual associated with different cultural features, revealing the spread of ANA ancestry ∼1,500 km further to the west than previously observed. In the Russian Far East, we identify 7,000-year-old individuals that carry Jomon-associated ancestry indicating genetic links with hunter-gatherers in the Japanese archipelago. We also report multiple phases of Native American-related gene flow into northeastern Asia over the past 5,000 years, reaching the Kamchatka Peninsula and central Siberia. Our findings highlight largely interconnected population dynamics throughout North Asia from the Early Holocene onward.

Pool Gênico , Genoma Humano , Humanos , História Antiga , Recém-Nascido , Ásia , Federação Russa , Sibéria , Migração Humana , Genética Populacional
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(4): e2209475119, 2023 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36649433


Nearly 20 y ago, Jared Diamond and Peter Bellwood reviewed the evidence for the associated spread of farming and large language families by the demographic expansions of farmers. Since then, advances in obtaining and analyzing genomic data from modern and ancient populations have transformed our knowledge of human dispersals during the Holocene. Here, we provide an overview of Holocene dispersals in the light of genomic evidence and conclude that they have a complex history. Even when there is a demonstrated connection between a demographic expansion of people, the spread of agriculture, and the spread of a particular language family, the outcome in the results of contact between expanding and resident groups is highly variable. Further research is needed to identify the factors and social circumstances that have influenced this variation and complex history.

Agricultura , Genômica , Humanos , História Antiga , Fazendas , Migração Humana
Rev. bras. estud. popul ; 40: e0232, 2023. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423242


Resumo Estima-se que no mundo, atualmente, haja 89,3 milhões de pessoas em deslocamentos forçados, incluindo 27,1 milhões de refugiados. Entre as razões para essas migrações forçadas estão a tortura e outras formas de violência, embora a prevalência de violências antes e durante a migração ainda seja pouco conhecida. O objetivo deste estudo é analisar a prevalência e alguns fatores associados às violências relatadas por solicitantes de refúgio no Rio de Janeiro. Foram coletados dados preenchidos nos formulários de solicitação de refúgio do Comitê Nacional para Refugiados de 2010 a 2017 e em entrevistas adicionais conduzidas na Cáritas Arquiocesana-RJ. Foram incluídos 1.546 solicitantes de refúgio com idade mediana de 30 anos (faixa 15-72 anos), dos quais 65% eram homens. Um terço informou ter sofrido violência antes de chegar ao Brasil, com chances de violência relatada entre 20 e 40 vezes maiores entre migrantes oriundos de Paquistão, Congo, Colômbia, República Democrática do Congo e Guiné. Violência física/tortura, ameaça e violência psicológica foram as mais frequentes (relatadas por 10%, 7% e 6% da população estudada, respectivamente). Entre as mulheres, a violência sexual foi a modalidade mais frequente (9%). Conclui-se que a história de violência entre os solicitantes de refúgio no Brasil é frequente, em particular para alguns grupos nacionais, aspecto a ser considerado no acolhimento e na prestação de serviços a essa população em situação de extrema vulnerabilidade.

Abstract Currently, the world has 89.3 million forcibly displaced people, including 27.1 million refugees. Among the reasons for displacement are torture and other forms of violence, but the real prevalence of violence before and during migration is poorly reported. The aim of this study is to analyze the prevalence of reported violence among asylum seekers in Rio de Janeiro and its associated factors. We collected secondary data from individuals who filled out the National Committee for Refugees' asylum application forms from 2010 to 2017 and responded to the social interview at Cáritas-RJ. We included 1,546 asylum seekers with a mean age of 30 (range 15-72), 65% of whom were men. One third reported experiencing violence before arriving in Brazil. Chances of experiencing violence were 20 to 40 times higher among refugees arriving from Pakistan, Congo, Colombia, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Guinea. Physical violence/torture and psychological threats were the most frequent forms (10%, 7% and 6% of the population, respectively). Among women, sexual violence was the most frequent form of violence (9% of women). We conclude that asylum seekers in Brazil frequently suffered violence before their arrival, particularly some groups. This needs to be addressed when providing services to this extremely vulnerable population.

Resumen Actualmente, hay en el mundo 89,3 millones de personas desplazadas por la fuerza, incluidos 27,1 millones de refugiados. Entre las razones de desplazamiento forzado están la tortura y otras formas de violencia, pero la prevalencia real de la violencia antes y durante la migración ha sido poco estudiada. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar la prevalencia de violencia reportada entre los solicitantes de asilo en Río de Janeiro y los factores asociados a esta. Recolectamos datos secundarios de personas que completaron los formularios de solicitud de asilo del Comité Nacional para Refugiados desde 2010 hasta 2017 y de entrevistas adicionales en Cáritas RJ. Incluimos a 1546 solicitantes de asilo con una edad media de 30 (15-72) años, de los cuales 65 % eran hombres. Un tercio informó haber experimentado violencia antes de llegar a Brasil, con posibilidades de violencia de entre 20 a 40 veces mayores para entre migrantes oriundos de Pakistán, Congo, Colombia, República Democrática del Congo y Guinea. Violencia/tortura física, amenazas y violencia psicológica son las formas más frecuentes (10 %, 7 % y 6 % respectivamente) relatadas. Entre las mujeres, la más frecuente fue la violencia sexual (9 % de los relatos). Concluimos que la historia de violencia entre los solicitantes de asilo en Brasil es frecuente, sobre todo en algunos grupos nacionales en particular, aspecto que se debe considerar al prestarle servicios a esta población extremadamente vulnerada.

Humanos , Refugiados , Violência , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Delitos Sexuais , Grupos de Risco , Populações Vulneráveis , Migração Humana
Curr Biol ; 33(1): 41-57.e15, 2023 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36493775


We present a spatiotemporal picture of human genetic diversity in Anatolia, Iran, Levant, South Caucasus, and the Aegean, a broad region that experienced the earliest Neolithic transition and the emergence of complex hierarchical societies. Combining 35 new ancient shotgun genomes with 382 ancient and 23 present-day published genomes, we found that genetic diversity within each region steadily increased through the Holocene. We further observed that the inferred sources of gene flow shifted in time. In the first half of the Holocene, Southwest Asian and the East Mediterranean populations homogenized among themselves. Starting with the Bronze Age, however, regional populations diverged from each other, most likely driven by gene flow from external sources, which we term "the expanding mobility model." Interestingly, this increase in inter-regional divergence can be captured by outgroup-f3-based genetic distances, but not by the commonly used FST statistic, due to the sensitivity of FST, but not outgroup-f3, to within-population diversity. Finally, we report a temporal trend of increasing male bias in admixture events through the Holocene.

Genoma Humano , Grupos Raciais , Humanos , Masculino , História Antiga , Irã (Geográfico) , Fluxo Gênico , Migração Humana , Genética Populacional
Index enferm ; 31(4): 245-249, Oct-Dic. 2022. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-217978


Objetivo principal: Analizar las fortalezas y debilidades identificadas por profesionales de enfermería sobre la incorporación de salud intercultural en la formación. Metodología:Investigación cualitativa con enfoque fenomenológico. Diseño: estudio de caso intrínseco. Participaron en total 28 profesionales de enfermería de la región del Maule, Chile que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión.Resultados principales:Las fortalezas identificadas fueron concordancia con la realidad país, integridad profesional y competencia intercultural en salud, esto permitiría proporcionar atención a cualquier persona que lo necesite. La debilidad principal radica en que la formación en cuidado intercultural está implícita en el itinerario formativo.Conclusión principal:El currículo de Enfermería posee elementos que le permitirían gestionar el cuidado de manera integral y holística; no obstante, las temáticas interculturales se aprecian implícitas o ausentes en la formación. Esto evidencia la necesidad de flexibilizar y transversalizar los contenidos, donde los académicos propicien metodologías de enseñanza dinámicas y los profesionales clínicos fomenten encuentros interculturales de manera reflexiva.(AU)

Objective: To analyse the strengths and weaknesses identified by nursing professionals on the incorporation of intercultural health in nursing training.Methods:Qualitative research with a phenomenological approach. Intrinsic case study design. A total of 28 nursing professionals participated of the Maule region, Chile, who met the inclusion criteria.Results:The strengths identified were consistent with the country's reality, professional integrity, and intercultural competence in health, this would allow providing healthcare to anyone who needs it. The main weakness lies in the fact that training in intercultural care is implicit in the training itinerary.Conclusions:The Nursing curriculum has elements that would allow to manage care in a comprehensive and holistic way; however, intercultural themes are implicit or absent in the training. This evidences the need to make content more flexible and transversal, where academics promote dynamic teaching method-ologies and clinical professionals foster intercultural encounters in a reflective manner.(AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente , Educação em Enfermagem , Cuidados de Enfermagem , Migração Humana , Chile , Pesquisa Qualitativa